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EN 13855 - Safety Distances


EN 13855 Safety Distances
DIV02 Industrial Safety Systems Author: BU09 Release date: March 2011

EN 13855: Safety of machinery
The positioning of protective equipment in

respect of approach Speeds of Parts of the human body

Choice and positioning of
Active Optic Protective Devices

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Safety distance
:
Safety effectiveness of Active Optic Protective Devices: - Detecting the intrusion into the danger zone by an individual at risk - Release of a stop command decisive factors for the safety distance are: - Approach speed - Sensitivity of the optoelectronic safety device - Type and setup of the AOPD

:

S=KxT+C

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Stop time
:
Total time T comprises: Detection of intrusion into the monitored zone [t1] to the removal of the hazardous condition (switching off of the machine, stopping of the machine, etc.) [t2]

T t1

t2

?

?

?

? Actuating of protective equipment ? Operation of protective equipment ? Elimination of risk

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Approach speed
: : :
Rate of approach speed: - Speed at which the anatomical part of the intruder approaches the danger zone. Distance of the danger zone to the safety device if < 0.5 m - Approach speed 2.0 m/s Distance of the danger zone to the safety device if > 0.5 m - Approach speed 1.6 m/s In the case of moving safety systems, it is, under certain circumstances, essential to include the geometric addition of speed in respect of the intruder and the speed effected by the machine.

:

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Detection capability
: : :
Detection capability is the sensing function parameter limit specified by the supplier that will cause actuation of the ESPE In the case of transmitter / receiver systems sensitivity is determined by d: d=a+? with a = beam distance and ? = beam diameter Depending upon the detection capability, the possible undetected degree of intrusion by extremities of the human body must be regarded as the extra safety distance C

0
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Application
: : :
The application of the AOPD to the area of the danger can demand considerable thought regarding size and detection characteristics of the AOPD. The design and possibility of intrusions are influenced by the application of the safety device. Detection zones of AOPD’s can be arranged vertically, horizontally or diagonally. As a result, various methods of protection are effected. - Point of operation guarding - Access guarding - Area guarding

:

Depending upon the association between the hazard and the safeguarding location, there can be: - Stationary or movable means of safeguarding.

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Safeguarding methodology

Point of operation guarding

Area guarding Access guarding
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Safeguarding methodology
Point of operation guarding Advantage: Disadvantage: Short distances, high productivity, ergonomics Expensive safety devices

Area guarding Advantage: Disadvantage: Detection in the entire hazardous area (stopping of persons) Expensive safety devices

Access guarding Advantage: Disadvantage: Low cost solution Long distances, lower productivity, no detection in the hazardous area

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Safeguarding methodology

Point of operation guarding

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Safeguarding methodology
Point of operation guarding

Calculation of safety distances

S

Hand and finger protection The AOPD can be fitted close to the machine / tool. As a result, this provides short distances for the operator to move for manual insertion of workpieces.
Direction of approach normally at right angles to the safety zone Ground
H

Danger zone

S = (K x T) + C valid up to 40mm detection capability

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Safeguarding methodology
Formula for calculation up to 31.12.94
Point of operation guarding

S= KxT

S Safety distance K1 Approach speed T stopping time (for entire system)

[mm] [1600mm/sec] [sec]

hazard area

mechanical protection

S= KxT

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Safeguarding methodology
Point of operation guarding

S= KxT+C

S Safety distance K1 Approach speed (S >500mm) K2 Approach speed (S< 500mm) T stopping time (for entire system) C Extra safety distance [C = 8 x (d -14)] d Resolution
hazard area mechanical protection

[mm] [1600mm/sec] [2000mm/sec] [sec] [mm]

[mm]

S = K x T + 8 x (d -14)

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Safeguarding methodology - Examples
Point of operation guarding

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Safeguarding methodology – safeguarding against standing behind protection field
Point of operation guarding : With a greater safety distance S: - undetected occupation possible.

:
:

Use any possible re-start inhibit system or protection against standing behind
protection field. Protection against standing behind protection field e.g. by using a second AOPD or by angling the setting of the AOPD

S

S
90

H
H
> 30

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Safeguarding methodology – Angled approach
Point of operation guarding

S
90

H
> 30

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Safeguarding methodology – ascertaining the height needed
Determination of the Supplement C by use of Table 1

1: Height of the danger area, a

2 : Select c = S (calculated by S = K x T + C)

b a c
3. Result = Height of the light curtain
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Safeguarding methodology
Access guarding

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Safeguarding methodology
Access guarding

Calculation of safety distances
AOPD

Safeguarding against access to dangerous areas
Direction of approach People present in the danger areas normally at right angles are not detected by this safety device to the safety field (large safety distance). Ground

S Danger zone H

Reset inhibit essential Economic solution.

S = (1600 mm/s x T) + 850 mm

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Safeguarding methodology
Access guarding

S= KxT+C

S Safety distance K Approach speed T stopping time (for entire system) C Extra safety distance C = > 850mm (Arm length)

[mm] [1600mm/sec] [sec] [mm]

S = K x T + (1200 - 0,4xH)

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Safeguarding methodology - Examples
Access guarding

Hazardous point Mechanical protection

Access protection with M4000 Entrance direction to dangerous area

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Safeguarding methodology
Access guarding : Resolution between 40 mm and 70 mm

: : :

Select height and number of beams that no bypass is possible. reference of EN 13855: Reset inhibit essential
Heights above refence floor 1200, 900, 600, 300 1100, 700, 300 900, 400

Number of beams 4 3 2*

S

: :

2*: 400mm for the lowest Beam can only be used on basis of a risk analysis . For the use of Single Beam Systems see EN 13855, Chapter 6.2.6.

H2 H1

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Safeguarding methodology
Area guarding

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Safeguarding methodology
Area guarding

Calculation of safety distances
Protection field limit x

Area guarding
People present in the danger Direction of approach normally parallel areas are detected by this to the safety field H safety device.
Floor

S Danger zone AOPD

The necessary resolution depends on the height of the protection field.

S = 1600 * T + (1200 - 0,4 * H) and (1200 - 0,4 x H)? 850 mm x = d, detection capability d = H/15 + 50

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Safeguarding methodology
Area guarding S K T C

S= KxT+C
Safety distance Approach speed stopping time (for entire system) Extra safety distance [mm] [1600mm/sec] [sec] [mm]

C = 1200 - 0,4 x H with C ? 850 mm H = highest beam above platform

S = K x T + (1200 - 0,4 x H)
d Resolution
[mm] H Height of detection zone (lowest beam) [mm] C = 1200mm - 0,4 x H C > 850 mm ! H = 15 (d - 50) ? d = (H / 15) + 50

H = 15 (d - 50) & d = (H / 15) + 50
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Safeguarding methodology
Area guarding

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Safeguarding methodology
Area guarding

: : : :

Resolution typically > 50 mm Height H of detection zone < 1000 mm

lowest allowable height of detection zone: H = 15 (d - 50 mm)
Detection capability d for given height: d= H/15 + 50mm

S

S

H
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Safeguarding methodology - PLS
Area guarding

: : : :

H1 = 0 to 1000mm. ? max = 30° d = Detection capability of AOPDDR in mm. Zs= Scanner given detection add on S = 1600mm/s * T + 1200mm - (0,4 * H1) + Zs

Only valid for:
[H1 <= 1000 mm] and [1200mm-(0,4*H1) > 850mm] and [d< (H2/15) + 50mm]

S

S

H1
H
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Safeguarding methodology – Angled approach
Area guarding

S

H1

? H2

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Safeguarding methodology
Point of operation guarding Advantage: Disadvantage: Small distances, high Productivity, Ergonomics Expensive protective devices

Area guarding Advantage: Disadvantage: Detection in the whole hazardous area Expensive protective devices

Access guarding Advantage: Disadvantage: Economic solution long distances, low productivity, no detection in the danger zone

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Safeguarding methodology – Additional Information
Two-Hand control devices

The minimum distance from the nearest actuator to the hazard zone shall be calculated using the Standard Formula: S = (K × T ) + C K = 1 600 mm/s; C = 250 mm. Formula for Two-Hand control devices: S = (1 600× T ) + 250

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Safeguarding methodology – Additional Information
Interlocking guards without guard locking
i1002 LOCK

The minimum distance from the nearest edge of the opening of the interlocking guard without guard locking to the hazard zone shall be calculated by using this Formula: S = (K × T ) + C

K = 1 600 mm/s;
C = is a safety distance taken from Table 4 or 5 of ISO 13857, if it is possible to push fingers or hand through the opening towards the hazard before a stop signal is generated.

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Safeguarding methodology - Comparison
How big is the Safety distance for T = 0,3 s? Name also the correct Safeguarding methodology

S=?

Resolution 14mm S= ?

Resolution 30mm S= ? S=?
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Safeguarding methodology - Comparison
for T = 0,3 s

S = 1,6 x 0,3 + 1,2 S = 1,68m

Resolution 14mm S = 2 x 0,3 S = 0,60m ... S >0,5m Recalculation: S = 1,6 x 0,3 S = 0,48m ...as<0,5m S = 0,50m Resolution 30mm S = 1,6 x 0,3 + 8x(d-14) S = 0,61m

S = 1,6 x 0,3 + 0,85 S = 1,33m
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Exercise 1-1
Calculate the Safety distance for the following hazardous area:

: :

Measured stoptime according to Manufacturer T = 90 ms An ESPE shall be used as a point of operation guarding with a resolution of 14mm

S = K x T + 8 x (d -14)

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Exercise 1-2
Calculate the Safety distance for the following hazardous area:

:

To save costs, an ESPE with a Resolution of 30mm shall be used. What consequence arises for the safety distance? Measured stoptime according to Manufacturer T = 90 ms

:

S = K x T + 8 x (d -14)

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Overall Summary
: :
Machinery directive 2006/42/EC and directive 2009/104/EC (”Provision and Use of Machinery Regulations 1992” (PUWER) are obligatory and must be strictly adhered to A, B and C Standards assists the machine manufacturer and user in complying with the directives, but are not obligatory.

:
:

EN ISO 13855 is a B1 Standard
3 different types of safety methodology exists: - Point of operation guarding - Area guarding - Access guarding

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Monitoring of learning objectives
1.) List the Formulas for the different safeguarding methodologies. (Time: 5 minutes)
_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

-

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

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Monitoring of learning objectives
4.) Describe following terms by using the training documentation. (time: 30 minutes) ? Point of operation guarding ? Area guarding ? Access guarding ? Directives ? National regulations ? EC-marking ? harmonised European Standards ? standards on particular safety aspects

? machine safety standards
? fundamental safety standards ? stop time ? parallel approach ? Normal (perpendicular) approach ? angled approach

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Thank you very much for your attention.


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