一、概念： “独立主格结构”是由名词或代词作为逻辑主语，加上分词、形容词、副词、动词不定式或介 词短语作为逻辑谓语构成。 二、独立主格结构的功能 “独立主格结构”在句子中作用相当于非限定状语从句。但是此结构有自己的主语，并起到 多种作用。如：表原因、表条件、表方式、表伴随状况、表时间等，在句中一般作状语。有 时也可作定语。 1.作时
间状语 Spring coming on, the trees turn green. The meeting over, everyone talked about its positive result. 2.作条件状语 Weather permitting，they will go on a picnic tomorrow． 如果天气允许的话，他们将在明天组织一次海滨郊游。 Everything taken into consideration，this plan seems to be workable． 如果从各方面考虑，该方案似乎可行。 3.作原因状语 The earthquake having destroyed their home, they had to live in a tent. 因为地震把他们的家摧毁了，他们只能住在帐篷里。 There being no further business to discuss, we all went home. 没有别的事可讨论，我们都回家了。 4.作伴随状语或补充说明 He was lying on the grass,his hands crossed under his head(=and his hands were crossed under his head). 他躺在草地上，两手交叉枕在脑后。 We doubled our efforts, each man working like two. 我们加倍努力，一个人干两个人的。 5.作定语 He is the person with a lot of questions to be settled. (with 的复合结构作定语,修饰 the person 他就是有许多问题要解决的那个人。 三、独立主格结构基本构成形式： 独立主格结构在形式上有两部分组成：第一部分有名词或代词担任，第二部分由分词、动 词不定式、形容词、副词、或介词短语担任。按其结构形式分为：—ing 分词独立主格结构； —ed 分词独立主格结构；无动词独立主格结构等。 名词(代词)+现在分词（过去分词；形容词；副词；不定式；名词；介词短语） 1. 名词(代词)+现在分词—ing Time permitting, I will go to see you。 如果时间允许，我就去看你。 There being no bus, we had to walk home. 由于没有公共汽车，我们只好走回家。
2. 名词(代词)+过去分词—ed The experiment done, the students went on to take notes in the experiment report. 实验做完后，同学们继续在实验报告上做记录。 He was listening attentively in class, his eyes fixed on the blackboard. 他上课专心听讲，眼睛紧盯着黑板。 3. 名词(代词)+不定式 在“名词/代词+动词不定式”结构中，动词不定式和它前面的名词或代词如果存在着逻辑上 的主谓关系，动词不定式则用主动的形式；如果是动宾关系，则用被动形式。 The last guest to arrive, our party will start. 最后一名客人到后，我们的晚会就开始。 Many trees, flowers, and grass to be planted, our newly-built school will look even more beautiful. 种上许多的树、花和草后，我们新建的学校看上去将更美。 4. 名词(代词)+形容词 The closes dirty, you must wash it soon。 Computers very small, we can use them widely. 电脑虽小，我们却能广泛地利用它们。 5. 名词(代词)+副词 The meeting over, our headmaster soon left the meeting room. 散会了，校长很快就离开了会议室。 The lights off, we could not go on with the work. 灯熄了，我们不能继续工作了。 6. 名词(代词)+名词 His first shot failure，he fired again． 他第一枪没击中，又打了一枪。 Two hundred people died in the accident, many of them children. 两百人死于事故，其中有许多儿童。 7. 名词(代词) +介词短语 The English teacher walked in to the classroom, papers in hand. 英语老师走进教室，手里拿着作业。 There is a river in the valley, flowers on the bank. 山谷中有一条小河，两岸长满了鲜花。 8. with、without 引导的独立主格结构 介词 with/without +宾语+宾语的补足语可以构成独立主格结构，宾语通常由名词或代词充 当，但代词一定要用宾格。上面讨论过的独立主格结构的几种情况在此结构中都能体现。 A．with+名词代词+形容词 He doesn’t like to sleep with the windows open. 他不喜欢开着窗子睡觉。 = He doesn’t like to sleep when the windows are open. He stood in the rain, with his clothes wet. 他站在雨中，衣服湿透了。 = He stood in the rain, and his clothes were wet. 注意： 在“with+名词代词+形容词”构成的独立主格结构中，也可用已形容词化的-ing 形式或-ed 形
式。 With his son so disappointing，the old man felt unhappy. 由于儿子如此令人失望,老人感到很不快乐。 With his father well-known, the boy didn’t want to study. 父亲如此出名，儿子不想读书。 B．with+名词代词+副词 Our school looks even more beautiful with all the lights on. 所有的灯都打开时，我们的学校看上去更美。 = Our school looks even more beautiful if when all the lights are on. The boy was walking, with his father ahead. 父亲在前，小孩在后走着。 = The boy was walking and his father was ahead. C．with+名词代词+介词短语 He stood at the door, with a computer in his hand. 或 He stood at the door, computer in hand. 他站在门口，手里拿着一部电脑。 = He stood at the door, and a computer was in his hand. Vincent sat at the desk, with a pen in his mouth. 或 Vincent sat at the desk, pen in mouth. 文森特坐在课桌前，嘴里衔着一支笔。 = Vincent sat at the desk, and he had a pen in his mouth. D．with+名词代词+动词的-ed 形式 With his homework done, Peter went out to play. 作业做好了，彼得出去玩了。 = When his homework was done, Peter went out to play. With the signal given, the train started. 信号发出了，火车开始起动了。 = After the signal was given, the train started. I wouldn’t dare go home without the job finished. 工作还没完成，我不敢回家。 = I wouldn’t dare go home because the job was not finished. E．with+名词代词+动词的-ing 形式 The man felt very happy with so many children sitting around him. 有这么多的孩子坐在他周围，那男子感到很高兴。 = The man felt very happy when he found so many children sitting around him. The girl hid her box without anyone knowing where it was. 小女孩把盒子藏了起来，没有人知道它在哪里。 = The girl hid her box and no one knew where it was. Without anyone noticing, he slipped through the window. 他趁没人注意的时候， 从窗口溜走了。 = When no one was noticing, he slipped through the window. F．with+名词代词+动词不定式 The little boy looks sad, with so much homework to do. 有这么多的家庭作业要做，小男孩看上去很不开心。 = The little boy looks sad because he has so much homework to do.
The kid feels excited with so many places of interest to visit. 有这么多的名胜可参观，小孩很激动。 The kid feels excited as there are so many places of interest to visit. 提示： 在 with/without 的复合结构中，多数情况下 with 能省略，但 without 不能省略。 Without a word more spoken, she left the meeting room. 她没再说什么话就离开了会议室。 （without 不能省略） 四、举例： 1、There being nothing else to do, they gone away. 由于无事可做，他们离开了。 （代词＋－ing; 表原因） 2、Miss Wang come into the classroom, books in hand. 王老师走进教室，手里拿着书。 （无动词结构；表伴随） 3、The old man sat in his chair, his eyes closed. 老人坐在椅子上，闭着眼睛。 （名词＋－ed; 表状态） 4、Class over, we began to play basketball. 放学了，我们开始玩篮球。 （名词＋副词；表时间） 5、Without a word more spoken, he picked up the paper. 没再多说一个字，他拾起那张纸。 （借此结构；表伴随） 6、The last guest to arrive, our party was started. 最后一位客人到了，我们的晚会开始了。 （名词＋不定式；表时间） 7、You can use a large plastic bottle with its top cut off. (with 的复合结构作定语,修饰 bottle) 你可以使用一个颈被砍掉的大塑料瓶。 （with+名词+过去分词） 五、应用注意事项 1. 动词不定式表示动作没有发生或即将发生，动词-ed 形式表示动作已经结束，动词-ing 形 式往往表示动作正在进行。 The manager looks worried，many things to settle. 经理看上去很着急, 有这么多的事情要处理。 （事情还没有处理，而且是由经理本人来处理， 用不定式 to settle，表示将来的时间） The manager looks relaxed, many things settled. 许多事情已经处理好了，经理看上去很轻松。 （事情已经处理好了，用过去分词 settled 表示 动作已经结束） The food being cooked, the boy was watching TV. 小孩一边做饭，一边看电视。 （两个动作同时进行） 2．有些固定短语是带 to 的不定式，表明说话人的立场或态度，在句中作独立成分。这些 短语有：to be honest（老实说） be sure （确实） tell you the truth （说实话） cut a ，to ，to ，to long story short （长话短说） ，to be frank （坦率地说） ，to make matters / things worse （更 糟糕的是） ，等等。 To tell you the truth, I made a mistake in the word spelling. 说实话，我犯了一个拼写错误。 To make things worse, many of the men have gone off to cities in search of higher pay, leaving women from nearby villages to carry on with the work. 情况更糟的是， 许多男人都去城市找工资较高的工作， 而留下附近村庄的妇女来继续承担修
复工作。 3. 不能省略 being (having been)的情形 在下列两种情况下，独立主格结构中的 being（或 having been）不能省略： (1) 独立主格结构的逻辑主语是代词时。如： It being Sunday, we went to church.因为是星期天，我们去了做礼拜。 (2) 在 There being＋名词的结构中。如： There being no bus, we had to go home on foot.因为没有公共汽车，所以我们不得不步行回家。 4. 独立主格的时态问题 独立主格结构作时间或原因状语时，可用完成时，表示该动作发生在谓语之前。如： The listeners having taken their seats, the concert began.听众坐好后，音乐会开始了。 Tom having been late over and over, his boss was very disappointed.由于汤姆一再迟到，他的老 板非常失望。
【典例精析】 1. （08 北京）____ that she was going off to sleep, I asked if she'd like that little doll on her bed. A. Seeing B. To see C. See D. Seen 【解析】 非谓语动词 see 构成的短语与句子的主语 I 即其逻辑主语之间是主动关系,用在句 A 首,中间与句子用逗号分开,表示伴随情况,用作伴随状语,因此用现在分词。 2.(08 全国卷 I)I like getting up very early in summer. The morning air is so good ____. A. to be breathed B. to breathe C. breathing D. being breathed 【解析】 在主系表结构中,当表语形容词为 good, light, heavy, difficult 等时,其后常用不定式 B 作状语,表示时间,原因,结果等,且常用主动形式表示被动意义,因此选 B。此处为特殊情况。 3.(08 北京)----Did the book give the information you needed? ----Yes. But ____ it, I had to read the entire book. A. to find B. find C.to be finding D. finding 【解析】 A 非谓语动词短语与主句之间用逗号隔开,作状语。根据句意:为了找到需要的信 息,我不得不看完整本书的内容,表示目的。不定式常在句首作目的状语,且此处不表示动作正 在进行,因此用一般式,选 A。 4.（09 湖南）Nowadays people sometimes separate their waste to make it easier for it ____ . A. reusing B. reused C. reuses D. to be reused 【解析】D 考查动词不定时的用法。句意为：现在人们有时把他们的废物分开，以便很容 易被重复利用。重新再利用是指将来发生的动作，而且是被动的。故选 D。 5. 09 江西） （ _________ the right kind of training , these teenage soccer players may one day grew the international stars. A. Giving B. Having given C. To give D. Given 【解析】 考查非谓语动词。 D 如果把句子补充完整就不难看出： they are given the right kind If of training , 可知主语 they 即 these teenager soccer players 与 give 之间是被动的关系，所以 用过去分词。 根据主、 从句主语一致可省略从句主语的原则， 连词 if 也可省， 所以得出 given the right kind of training , these teenager soccer players……
6. 09 江西） government plans to bring in new laws _____ parents to take more responsibility （ The for the education of their children. A. forced B. forcing C. to be forced D. having forced 【解析】 考查非谓语动词的用法。 现在分词短语作后置定语， B 修饰 new laws ,相当于 which forces ……... 7.（09 海南）The children all turned_____the famous actress as she entered the classroom. A. looked at B. to look at C. to looking at D. look at 【解析】B。 句意为：当那位著名的女演员走进了教室，所有的孩子都转过头去看她。 turn to 表示“转向，求助”的意思。 8.(09 海南) Now that we’ve discussed out problem, are people happy with the decisions ? A. taking B. take C. taken D. to take 【解析】C。 考查 with +宾语+宾语补足语的用法。句意为：现在,我们已经讨论了问题,是 人们最满意的决定？ take 与 the decisions 之间存在的关系是动宾关系，故用过去分词表示 被动 9.（09 山东）We are invited to a party _________in our club next Friday. A. to be held B. held C. being held D. holding 【解析】A 考查非谓语动词的用法，由 next month 可知时间是在将来，party 是被举行，故 选 A。 10（09 陕西）I still remember _________ to the Famen Temple and what I saw there. A. to take B. to be taken C. taking D. being taken 【解析】D 考查非谓语动词。此处非谓语动词做 remember 的宾语，而 remember 后用非谓 语动词做宾语时，可以用 v-ing 形式，v-ing 表示的动作已经完成，也可用动词不定式，表示 的动作还未发生，根据后文的 saw 可知此处非谓语动词动作已经完成，且与逻辑主语是被 动关系，用 v-ing 的被动式，选 D。 11.（09 福建） not to miss the flight at 15:20, the manager set out for the airport in a hurry. A. Reminding B. Reminded C. To remind D. Having reminded 【解析】B 考查非谓语动词。非谓语动词做状语，逻辑主语是句子的主语 the manager，非 谓语动词与句子主语是被动关系，且其表示的动作在谓语动词 set out 之前已经发生，非谓 语动词用过去分词，选 B。 12.（09 福建）In April, 2009, President Hu inspected the warships in Qingdao, the 60th anniversary of the founding of the PLA Navy. A. marking B. marked C. having marked D. being marked 【解析】A 考查非谓语动词。非谓语动词做状语，其后有宾语，故与逻辑主语是主动关系， 且表示的动作与谓语动词的动作同时进行，用现在分词，选 A。 13.（09 湖南）When he the door, he found his keys were nowhere. A. would open B. opened C. had opened D. was to open 【解析】D 考查非谓语动词。动词不定时的用法。句意为：当他要打开门的时候,他发现他 的钥匙不见了。动词不定时表示将要发生的动作。 14.（09 湖南）9．At the age of 29, Dave was a worker, in a small apartment near Boston and ______ what to do about his future. A. living; wondering B. lived; wondering C. lived; wondered D. living; wondered 【解析】A 考查分词的用法。句意为：29 岁的大卫,是一个工人,住在一间小公寓在波士顿附
近,不知怎么办关于他的未来。现在分词作定语修饰 a worker，and 为并列连词，连接相同的 成份。 15. （07 山东） country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent _______ The at the end of last March. A. has been launched B. having been launched C. being launched D. to be launched 【解析】B 考查独立主格结构的用法。由于句子中没有连词，所以不能选 A。又因为动作 于去年的三月底就已经发生，所以不能选表示未来动作的 D 和表示进行动作的 C。 【考题小练】 1. I have a lot of books, half of ________ novels. A. which B. that C. whom D. them 2. ________ more and more forests destroyed, many animals are facing the danger of dying out. A. because B. as C. With D. Since 3. The bus was crowded with passengers going home from market, most of ________ carrying heavy bags and baskets full of fruit and vegetables they had bought there. A. them B. who C. whom D. which 4. The largest collection ever found in England was one of about 200,000 silver pennies, all of ________ over 600 years old. A. which B. that C. them D. it 5. The cave ________ very dark, he lit some candles ________ light. A. was; given B. was; to give C. being; given D. being; to give 6. The soldier rushed into the cave, his right hand ________ a gun and his face ________ with sweat. A held; covered B. holding; covering C. holding; covered D. held; covering 7. The girl in the snapshot was smiling sweetly, her long hair _________. A. flowed in the breeze B. was flowing in the breeze C. were flowing in the breeze D. flowing in the breeze 8. The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons _________ for the day. A. finishing B. finished C. had finished D. were finished 9. On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents seated together joking. A. their B. whose C. which D. that 10. The Smiths are rich and they have three cars, one a Toyota, ________ Land Rover of the latest. A. another B. other C. the other D. the others 【答案与解析】 1. D。half of them novels 为独立主格结构，相当于 and half of them are novels。 2. C。考查“with + 名词 + 过去分词”结构。 3. A。most of them carrying...为独立主格结构，相当于 and most of them were carrying...，也 可改为：most of whom were carrying。注意改动后连词 and 的使用和动词 were 的使用。 4. C。 of them over 600 years old 为独立主格结构， all 相当于 and all of them are over 600 years old。 5. D。第一空填 being，构成独立主格结构；第二空填不定式表目的。 6. C。独立主格结构，his right hand 与 hold 有主谓关系，故用 holding,而 his face 与 cover 是动宾关系，故用 covered.
7. D。her long hair 与 flowing 是主动关系，这是“独立主格结构”作状语。 8. B。因 lessons 与动词 finish 之间为被动关系，故要用过去分词。其实，their lessons finished for the day 为独立主格结构。 9. A。 此题容易误选 B， 认为这是非限制性定语从句。 其实， 句中的 their parents seated together joking 不是非限制性定语从句，而是一个独立主格结构，因为空格后的动词 seated 不是谓 语，而是一个过去分词，因为 seat 作动词用时，是及物动词。 10. D。易误选 C。后面部分实际上是独立主格结构形式，省略了 being。补充完整就是：The Smiths are rich and they have three cars, one being a Toyota, the others being Land Rover of the latest. (两个独立主格结构均表伴随状语)