必修三 Module 1 ⒈ be located/ situated ( on/ in / to…) = lie/ stand (on/ in/ to) 位于…的；坐落于…的；处于…地位（状态的） ⑴ 我们学校坐落于一个美丽的地方，周围有青山绿水环绕。 Our school is situated in the beautiful place, with green mount
ains and clear rivers around. ◆situation n. 立场；局势；形势 in a …situation 处于….状况中；在…形势下 1). In the present situation, I wouldn?t advise you to sell your house. 在目前的形势 下，… 2). You?re putting me in a very embarrassing situation. 你使我处于非常尴尬的境地。 3). With no rain for three months and food supplies running out, the situation here is getting worse. 三个月无雨，食品供应也将消耗殆尽，这里情况越来越糟糕了。 ⒉ face 1). face up to 勇敢面对（接受并处理） (be) faced with 面对；面临 face (to the) south/north/east/west 面朝南/北/东/西 2). face to face 面对面(地) in (the) face of 面对；在…面前 make a face at 向…做鬼脸 save/lose face 保全/丢面子 to one?s face 当着某人的面 stare sb. in the face 盯着某人 turn red in the face 涨红了脸 be+过去分词+介词（这些词作状语或定语时用 ed 形式,be 去掉） be faced with； be compared with be seated； be hidden； be lost / absorbed/occupied in be abandoned/ addicted to（沉溺于） ； be born； be dressed ； be tired of （厌烦）等 ⒊ 表示 “某物在哪个方向”可用 south/north/east/west 等，构成以下几种表达方式。 (1). …is in the south of 在…的南部（在内部） …is on the south of 在…的南边（接壤） …is to the south of 在…以南（在外部） …is south of 在…的南部（不指明在内部还是外部） (2). 把表示方位、地点的介词或副词短语放在句首，句子用完全倒装语序。 ① .Jiangsu is on the south of Shandong. South of Shandong is Jiangsu. ② .East of our school lies a railway. ⒋ 倍数表示法： as…as ◎ A is …↓ … (more than) times -er than B 倍数 the N. of size, length, height, weight…
⒌ 主谓一致 ⑴ 三原则： ① 语法一致的原则： 语法一致的原则是指主语为单、复数与谓语动词要相呼应。但要注意一些特殊情况； 1）以 along with, together with, with, as well as, accompanied by, rather than, but, except 连接的两个主语，其谓语的单复数以第一个主语为主。例如： Several passengers, together with the driver, were hurt. 2）表示时间，重量，长度，价格等的复数名词，作主语从整体来看时，谓语动词用单数。 例如：Fifty years is not a long time. 3） 非谓语动词，从句或其他短语作主语，谓语动词用单数形式。 例如：Early to bed and early to rise is healthful. 4）如果主语是由 and 连接的两个单数名词，但前面有 each, every, no 等词修饰时，谓语 用单数。例如： Every boy and girl in this region is taught to read and write. ② 意义一致的原则： 意义一致的原则指谓语动词的单复数取决于主语所表达的概念， 而不取决于表面的语法标 志，主要表现为某些集体名词后可跟动词单数或复数。如果这些集体名词指整体概念时，谓 语动词用单数； 指具体成员时用复数。 例如： The population of the earth is increasing very fast. 类似这样的集体名词有： family, class, audience, committee （委员会）, crowd, crew, group, party, population, team, public, council （理事会）, village 等。 ③ 就近原则： 所谓就近原则是指谓语动词单复数取决于离它最近的词语，而无须考虑其他的词。 1） 以 either…or, or, neither…nor 和 not only…but also 连接的两个主语，其谓语的单复 数形式应与离谓语最近的主语保持一致。例如：Either you or he has to go there with me. 2） 由 there 或 here 引起的主语，而又不止是一个时，采取就近原则。例如： Here is a pen, a few envelopes and some paper for you. 谓语动词用单数的情况： many a … more than one… Every… and every…/ no…and no…/each…and each… one and a half a…or two nobody, everything, no one, something… a/the (…and…) 指同一人、事物或概念 钱、时间、长度等 the number of… Many a student was deeply moved by the film. Each boy and each girl has seen the film. One and a half bananas was eaten by that monkey. Everything was prepared. The League secretary and monitor has come. $300 is not enough for us to travel. The number of the books is 37.
a great deal of / a large amount of to do/ doing 作主语 谓语动词用复数的情况： a great number of … (a great) many…/ a few… large quantities of … people, police, cattle(牛)… 谓语动词用单/复数的情况： the rest (of )…/ some…
A large amount of money was spent. When and where to build the factory is not decided. A great number of trees have been planted . Large quantities of land were destroyed. The police say they have caught the thieves.
Give you a glass of Some students are water, and the rest is left cleaning the floor and for me. the rest are washing the windows.
the family, the class, the The class consists of 20 The class are doing group, team, public, means, boys and 20 girls. experiments. sheep, deer, the population The population increasing fast. All worksout well. is Two thirds of the population here are farmers. All are eager to reach an agreement. we need are
all What …从句/ 倒装句
What we need is water. What books.
He is the only one of the He is one of the students who has been to students who have been Shanghai. to Shanghai. He, rather than you, is to blame. The mother tiger, together with her baby tigers is playing on the grass. Nobody but we knows the matter. Either you or he is to be sent abroad. Are either you or he to be sent abroad? There is a table and two desks.
as well as, (together) with, like(像), but, rather than, including not only… but also… neither…nor or There be
必修三 Module2 till ：直到 be fit for ：胜任 be busy in doing sth ：忙着做… be up to sb=be left to sb to decide ：由…决定/ 负责 1）I can take up to four people in my car. 我的汽车最多能做四个人 2）I have never heard from her up to now. 我至今也没有她的音讯。 3）What?s he up to ? 他在忙什么？ 4) It?s up to you to decide where we go for a picnic. 由你决定我们应去哪儿野餐。 1. up to sth 5）李平不能胜任他的工作。Li Ping is not up to his job. 6)这个帐篷至多能睡十人。Up to ten people can sleep in this tent. 2. measure measure sth in/by sth 用· · · 来衡量，用· · · 来计算 take measures to do 采取措施做某事 1）People in Los Angels measure distance in time, not miles.翻译 洛杉矶人用时间来计算（两地）距离而不是用英里数。 2）The Chinese government is taking effective measuresto develop the economy. 中国政府正在采取强有力的措施来发展经济。 3. sure 1) make sure 表示“务必”，“确信”，“弄明白”，后面常接 of/about sth.或 that 引导的宾 语从句。 Make sure(that) you will arrive there on time. 你务必准时到这。 I know there?s a train this afternoon, but I must make sure of the time. 我知道今天下午有列火车，但我必须弄清楚(发车)时间。 2）be sure of, be sure that 对· · · 有把握，对· · · 确定，确信 Can we be sure of his honesty. /Can we be sure that he is honest? 我们能相信他是 诚实的？ I?m sure of winning the game. 我有把握能赢得比赛。 3) be sure to do 说话人推测主语“一定；必然会”或 (常用于祈使句)务必做某事 He is sure to be back soon. 他一定会很快回来。 Be sure not to forget it. 千万别忘了。 注意：be sure of 与 be sure to do 的区别： ① .He is sure of his success. =He is sure that he will succeed. 他确信他会成功。 ② .He is sure to succeed. 他一定会成功。(说话人的看法) ③ . Be sure to write and tell me all your news. 务必来信把你所有情况都告诉我。 另外，常见的与 sure 相关的短语还有：be sure of oneself 有自信心，for sure 的确； 确实地， sure enough 果真，果然。 用于口语，此时的 “Sure.” 相当于“Of course.” 与 “Certainly.”。 4. From the agreement came the Human Development Report. 表示方位或方式的副词和介词短语放在句首用完全倒装, 即谓语动词完全臵于主语之前。 At the foot of the mountain lies a small village. 在山脚下有一个小村庄。 Out rushed the children. 孩子们冲了出去。 Here comes the bus. 车来了。 (To the) south of our school stand many shops.
【部分倒装】 ① only 修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句，放于句首 ② 否定副词 never, nor, not, hardly, little, seldom 等放于句首 ③so+adj/adv+(倒装)+ that 1. Only when he returned did we find out the truth (We found out the truth only when he returned.) 2. Never before have I seen such a moving film.(I have never seen such a moving film before) 3. So clearly does he speak English that he can always make himself understood.(He speaks English so clearly that~) 5. figure n./v. 1).He had always looked upon Sarah as a kind of mother figure. 形象 2).How does she manage to keep her figure when she eats so much? 体形 3).He was the outstanding political figure of his time. 人物 v. 4).I figured that he was drunk and shouldn?t be allowed to drive. 认为 5).It took me hours to figure those problems out. 分析；想出 6).Women. I just can?t figure them out. 理解 7).Many economists have been figuring out what makes China develop so fast. 分析 8).指望 figure on 6． S.+ be + adj. + to do easy/ good/ safe/comfortable/ dangerous/hard/ difficult… 1).The water is not pure to drink (drink) 2).He needs a chair comfortable to sit on.(sit ) 3).The young man felt the room cold to live in (live)
必修三 Module 3 1.occur 过去式 occurred 过去分词 occurred 1)发生，出现 Earthquakes occur frequently in this area. 2) sth occur to sb 某人想到，某事浮现脑海 It never occurred to me that he might be in trouble. A brilliant idea occurred to me. 【回忆“发生”】 ①.A big earthquake occurred /happened in the south of China last month. ②.It occurred to me that she didn?t know I had moved into the new house. ③.I happened to see him on my way home. = It happened that I saw him on my way home. ④ . A fire broke out in the hospital in the mid-night. ⑤. After the flood, diseases broke out here and there. ⑥.Great changes have taken place in our hometown during the past ten years. ⑦ .How did it come about that such a short journey took such a long time.
words occur happen break out take place
meanings 偶然发生；突然想起 It occurred to sb. that …. 偶然发生；碰巧 It happened that… / sb. happen to do sth. (战争、火灾、疾病、争吵) 突然爆发 (有计划地)发生; 举行
⒉strike 打击， 撞击， （雷电， 暴风雨等） 袭击， 过去式 struck 过去分词 struck / stricken The clock struck five. 敲打 A powerful earthquake struck the island early this morning. 袭击 I was struck by its beauty. 被…打动 At this point, it suddenly struck me that I was wasting my time. 浮现; 使人想起 【注意区分】strike, hit, beat, knock strike “(钟)敲打，撞击，袭击”， 表示有力的打一下。 beat 连续地打，心脏的跳动，在游戏、竞赛或战争中击败对方，也可表示殴打，体罚。 hit 瞄准某物而击中。也可表示“袭击” knock 用拳头或硬的东西“敲、击、打 必修二 Module 4 ⒈strength n. 【辨析】：strength, force, energy, power ① Union is strength. ②Knowledge is power. ③.I shall do everything in my power to help you. (注：尽力帮助 do everything in one?s power to do…) ④.The law remains in force. （法律仍旧有效。） ⑤.Young people usually have more energy than the old. 【总结】： words strength force energy power meanings 着重指人的力气，物的强度。 自然力量；暴力，势力；法律，道德，感情力量；军事力量等 主要指人的精力；自然界的能量 用途最广，包括能力，功能；事物的力量；职权，权力或政权
⒉so…that…/ such… that…. ① so… that… 引导结果状语从句 so+ adj./ adv. + that 从句 他跑的如此快，没人能赶上他。 He runs so fast that nobody can catch up with him. 他是这么好的一个男孩，我们大家都喜欢他。 He is so good a boy that all of us like him. 他如此博学，所以被大学录取。 He has so much knowledge that he is admitted into the college.
so+ adj.+ a/an+n.+that 从句 so+many/much/little/few+n.+that 从 句 ② such…that…引导结果状语从句
such+a/an +adj.+n. +that 从句 such+ adj. + 复数名词 / 不可数名词 +that 从句
他是这么好的一个男孩，我们大家都喜欢他。 He is such a good boy that all of us like him. 天气如此好，我们都想去公园散步。
It is such fine weather that we want to take a walk in the park. 【特别注意】：so little (少)+n./ such little (小)+n. (用 so 或 such 填空) He earned so little money that he couldn?t support his family. It is not surprising that such little worms eat so little grain. 当 so 或 such 臵于句首时，主句要用倒装语序。 ① 这个男孩如此害怕， 以至于不知该怎么做。 The boy was so frightened that he didn?t know what to do. 改为倒装句：So frightened was the boy that he didn?t know what to do. ⒊appear to…/ It appears that… ① He is only forty , but appears to be (be) quite old. ② It appears to me thatThe girl appears to have known (know) it. 这女孩好像已经知道了这件事。 ③ It appears to me that you are all mistaken. 我觉得你们全错了。 ⒋ make +it + adj. + to do… ① The heavy rain made it impossible for us to get there on time. (这场大雨使我们不可能按时到达那里了)。 ② His explanation made it easy for us to understand the text. (他的解释使我们理解课文容易了) 【拓展】 make + it +n. +to do He made it a rule to read aloud and recite ten English words every morning. ( 他把每天早晨大声朗读，背 10 个英语单词作为一项规定) ⒌to do 不定式 ㈠结构 : to do (否定) not to do ㈡时态与语态 主动语态 一般式 进行式 完成式 完成进行式 ㈢用法 (1). 主 To see is to believe. It?s important to learn . 不定式作主语时,往往放在谓语之后, 用 it 作形式主语. (2). 表 My job is to help the patient. Your task is to clean the classroom. (3) 宾 I want to go home. to do to be doing to have done to have been doing 被动语态 to be done ---------to have been done ----------
The workers demanded to get better pay. I found it necessary to talk to him again. ☆ think/ consider/ find it + adj.+ to do 常用动词不定式作宾语的动词有： hope, refuse, learn, set outchoose, decide, agree, manage, pretend, plan. (4). 宾 warn, tell, allow, help, ask, force The teacher told me to clean the blackboard. I expect you to give me some help. 五看 watch see look at observe notice 三使 let make have 二听 listen to hear 一感觉: feel 不定式用在介词 but, except, besides 后时,如果这些介词前有行为动词 do 的各种形式,那 么介词后的不定式不带 to,相反则带 to. ①She could do nothing but cry. ②I have no choice but to go. ③What do you like to do besides sleep. 注：在 can?t but ，can?t help but ，can?t choose but （意思是不得不，只能，只好） ， 的结构后， 不定式不带 to (5). 定语 I have something to say. He has a lot of homework to do . He is looking for a room to live in . There is nothing to worry about. (如果不定式中的动词是不及物动词,则不定式中要有介词.) 不定式作定语时，应放在被修饰词的后面，而且放在其他后臵定语之后。 ①不定式做定语与所修饰的词之间有三种关系： ?动宾关系 I have a lot of work to do.我有很多工作要做。 ?主谓关系 He is always the first to come.他总是第一个来。 ?同位关系 We all have a chance to go to college. 我们都有上大学的机会。 ②不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的地点工具等， 即使是及物动词， 不定式后面仍 须有相应的介词。 ③不定式所修饰的名词如果是 time, place 或 way，不定式后面的介词习惯上要省去。 He had no money and no place to live. 他没钱没地方住。 ④something, anything, nothing, everything 等复合不定代词常用不定式做后臵定语。 注意比较： ⅠDo you have anything to send?你有什么东西要寄吗？（不定式 to send 的动作执行者是 you）
ⅡDo you have anything to be sent? 你有什么要（我或别人）寄的东西吗？ （不定式 to be sent 的动作执行者是已被省略的 me 或 someone else） (6) 状 I came here to see you. He got up early to catch the train. in order to , so as to ,enough to ,only to , too….to., (7).独立结构 To tell the truth, I don?t agree with you. to be frank, to be honest, to tell the truth 关于小品词 to ①不定式中的动词上文已出现过,下文要省略该动词. eg: Would you like to go with me ? I?d like to . ②不定式是 to be 结构, be 不可省. eg: Would you like to be a teacher? I?d like to be. 不定式与疑问词 who,which, when, how, what 等连用，在句中起名词作用，可充当主语、 表语、宾语等。 He didn?t know what to say.他不知道说什么。(宾语) How to solve the problem is very important. 如 何 解 决 这 个 问 题 很 重 要 。 ( 主 语 ) My question is when to start.我的问题是什么时候开始。(表语) 注意： 在与 why 连用时，只用于 why 或 why not 开头的简短疑问句中，后面紧跟的动词不定式不 带 to。Why not have a rest? 固定句型: ①had better/had best + (not) do sth. 最好（不）做某事 ②Why (not) do sth.? ③…prefer to do/prefer doing ④…prefer n./doing … to n./doing … ⑤…prefer to do … rather than (to) do … ⑥…would rather (not) do sth. ⑦…would rather do … than (do) … ⑧…would rather sb. did （虚拟语气） 要做…… (1).They pretended not to see us. (一般式表示与谓语的动作同时/几乎/发生在它之后.) (2). He pretended to be sleeping. (在谓语动词发生的同时,不定式的动作也正在进行) (3).She pretended to have known it before. (完成式表示动作发生在谓语动作之前) (4).We?re happy to have been working with you. (完成进行式表示谓语动作发生之前,不定式的动作一直在进行而且可能之后也继续) 必修三 Module 5
平等的；等于；比得上 adv. equally n. equality 1) Women demand equal pay for equal work . (翻译) 妇女要求同工同酬。 2) Everyone is born equal in the world. (翻译) 在这个世界上，每个人生来都是平等的。 3) None can equal him in strength. 在力气方面没有人比得上他。 4)He is equal to this task./ He is equal to doing this task 他能胜任这项工作。 2. order n. & v. 秩序，顺序，命令，订购， eg.1)Then they called out our names in order and we answered yes or no . (翻译) 然后他们按顺序点我们的名字，我们回答对错。 phrases out of order 无序的，杂论无章的 in order (of) 以· · · · · 顺序 in order to 为了 in order that 为了 place an order with sb for sth 向某人订购某 put …in order 按顺序排列，整齐摆放 ⒊替代词 one, ones, that, those, those 代替同名异物可数名词 = the ones that 替换单数可数名词(=the one)或不可数名词； one 只替换单数的可数名词。 that/those 一般不带前臵定语，但必须有后臵定语。one/ones 都可。 当替换词的后臵定语用所有格的 of 短语或当替换词被所有格修饰时，不用 one/ones 而用 that of/those of. 必修三 Module 6 ⒈ accommodate sb. with sth. 提供某人某物 accommodate to sth. 适应，顺应…… accommodate oneself to sth. 使自己适应于…… accommodate sb. for (the night) 留某人(过夜) provide accommodations for 为……提供膳宿 ⒉ date from = date back to 起源于，追溯到 常用一般现在时态，且无被动语态，作非谓 语时， 用 doing。 这个城堡建于古罗马时代。 The castle dates from / back to ancient Roman times. 1).过时 out of date 2). 最新 up to date