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外研版高一英语必修 3 Module 2 知识点总结及练习
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. make efforts to do 努力做 be connected with 和。 。 。有关系 close to 接近、靠近 die of hunger 饿死 go hungry 挨饿 with the development of…随着。 。 。的发展 t

ake measures to do 采取措施做。 。 。 developing countries 发展中国家 developed countries 发达国家 9. for a long period of time 很长一段时间 10. have/receive an education 接受教育 11. up to 高达。 。 。 12. improve the environment 改善环境 13. drinking water 饮用水 14. encourage...to do 鼓励。 。做。 。 。 15. give more help to 给予更多帮助 16. give examples 举例 17. in the past ten years 在过去的十年 18. move out of poverty 摆脱贫困 19. go to primary school 上小学 20. get medical care 享受医疗保健 21. in particular 尤其是。 。 。 22. collect money 筹款,募捐 23. for oneself 为某人自己 24. be willing to do 自愿做。 。 。 25. in recent years 最近几年 26. be useful for 对。 。 。有用 27. run through the town 流经小城 28. increase …by 增加了。 。 。 29. make some progress 取得进步 30. cities of similar size and age 大小差不多的城市 31. How do you find it? =What do you think of it? =What is your opinion about it?你认为。 。 。怎么样 重点单词: 1.disease[C]&[U] 疾病,弊病。例如: He is suffering from heart disease.他患有心脏病。 He has a family disease.他患有遗传病。 搭配:prevent a disease 预防疾病 a disease of the mind 心病

disease of

society 社会弊端 拓展:disease 指特定的具体的疾病、病名。illness 和 sickness 可以通用,很少指 具体的疾病,指的是抽象的疾病或生病的状态。 2.education [C]&[U] 教育,教育学。 例如:Education is given to children by the government.政府提供对儿童的教育。 She has had a good education.她受过良好教育。 How do they get an education?他们怎么样才能受到教育呢? 拓展:all-round education 全面教育 advanced education 高等教育 adult education 成人教育 basic 基础教育 3.hunger [U] 饥饿。 例如:There is hunger in all the places where the crop was spoilt by the flood.庄稼遭 受水灾毁坏的地方都在闹饥荒。 He satisfied his hunger with everything in the refrigerator.他把冰箱内的所有 东西拿来充饥。 拓展:Hunger breaks stone walls.饥饿使人造反。 Hunger is the best sauce.[谚]饥不择食。 4.poverty [U] 贫穷,贫困。 例如:She has lived in poverty all her life.她一生都过着贫困的生活。 Poverty prevented the boy from continuing his education.贫穷使那个男孩无 法继续读书。 思维拓展:poverty [U] 缺乏,不足。 例如:Japan is poverty in natural resources.日本缺乏天然资源。 5. both 1) 做主语,谓语动词用复数。 I hope that both of you will do what you can to help your mother. Both of them were men of the highest position in England. 2)作宾语或构成复合宾语 I don’t know which book is better; I shall read both. Of course, I wish both of you well. 3)作定语 Both children are good at maths. That was the trouble with both his children. 4)作同位语(作主语的同位语时要在实义动词之前,助动词、情态动词和 be 动 词之后)。 They both refuse to give in. How cleverly you have both kept your secret.你们二人太聪明了,都保住了秘密。 You must both come over this evening. Tom’s mother and father were both dead. 5) both---and Both the mother and father were very pleased with the girl.

She is well known both for her kindness and for her understanding.她以心地善良和 善解人意而闻名。 6)both--- not 表示半否定。 Both of them are not interested in maths./They both are not interested in maths./They are not interested in maths both. 他们二人并不都对数学感兴趣。 Neither of them is interested in maths. (全部否定)

1. China increased life expectancy by 13 years.中国的人均寿命增长了 13 年。 by 表示谓语动词增长的数量 The number of the students in Class 16 increased by 5% and increased to 72 this term. I’m taller than him by 5cm. 2. This is because living with a foreign family for one or two weeks means that you have to speak their language, and as a result you improve fast.跟一家外国人在一起生活一两个星期意味着你得 讲他们的语言,所以你就会进步的很快。 1)mean doing something 意味着 Missing the train means waiting for an hour. Talking with him means wasting time. 2)mean to do something 打算做 What do you mean to do with it? 你打算把它怎样处理? I meant to call on you. But I’m so busy. 3)as a result As a result, the meeting was put off. He fell off the bike and broke his leg. As a result, he will have to be away from school. 4)as result of = because of He was late for class this morning because of the heavy traffic. As a result of his mother’s death, he was in deep sorrow through the winter. He is unable to go to school as a result of the fall off his bike. without result 毫无结果 result from 由……造成 result in 引起,导致 3. make sure 1) 核实,弄清楚 I know that I asked you before, but I just wanted to make sure. She came to make sure that everything was OK. First of all, we have to make sure of all facts and then make our decision. 2) 确保 Father has made sure that we have enough money to travel abroad. 4.From the agreement came the Human Development Report.在这样一个协议的 基础上,形成了人类发展报告。 本句是一个倒装句。介词短语放于句首,句子完全倒装。正常语序应该是:

The Human Development Report came from this agreement. 例如:From the window came sound of music.从窗户里传来了音乐声。 On the ground lay an old sick goat,which had gone into the cave to die.地上躺着一 只有病的老山羊,它是到洞里去等死的。 思维拓展 完全倒装种种: 表示方式或者是方位的副词或介词短语放于句首, 句子完全倒装。 如: here, there, now,then,up,down,in,away,off,out,in the room,on the wall 等等。 such 置于句首时,句子也是完全倒装。 5.The index measures a country’s achievement in three ways: life expectancy, (how long people usually live) education and income.这一指数是从“人的平均 寿命,教育和收入”等三方面来衡量一个国家的发展程度的。 income[C]&[U] 收入,收益,进款,所得。 例如:What is your income from your job? 你工作的收入是多少? I have an income of 200 dollars a week.我每月有 200 美元的收入。 My income isn’t enough to support my family.我的收入不够养家。 拓展: income 指收入、收益、进款等的统称。 pay 指薪水、 工资最普通的用语。 特指海陆军人及其他在政府部门工作者的薪水。 wages 工资;指劳动者的工资,或工人的工资,通常指给予短期工作者的报酬。 6.The report describes eight Development Goals.这个报告描绘了八个方面的发 展目标。 goal [C]目的,目标。例如:one’s goal in life 生活的目的(标) a common goal 一个共同的目标 例如:His goal is a place at University.他的目标是在大学任教。 The company has achieved all its goals this year.公司本年度目标全部达到了。 思维拓展 goal n. 球门, (球赛等的)得分 make a goal 得一分,踢进一个球 例如:He kicked the ball into the goal.他把球踢进球门。 We beat them by three goals to two.我们以 3∶ 2 击败了他们。 7.Reduce poverty and hunger.减少贫穷和饥饿。 reduce vt. 减少,缩小。 例如:They’ve reduced the prices in the shop,so it’s a good time to buy. 商店已经降低了商品的价格,看来现在是买东西的好时候。 The fire reduced the forest to a few trees.大火把森林烧得仅剩下几棵树。 They persuaded him to reduce his price to 21 000 dollars.他们说服他把价格降 到了 21 000 美元。 思维拓展 be reduced to a shadow 骨瘦如柴 be reduced to despair 陷入绝望 reduce to order 恢复秩序,使归顺

8.Explain to Student B why he or she should give money. 向 B 同学解释一下为什 么他(她)应该捐钱。 explain to sb. 向某人解释。 例如 Can you explain to me how to bake a cake?你能不能说明蛋糕的做法呢? Please explain to me why you come late this morning.请向我解释你今晨迟到 的原因。 思维拓展 如果将 sb. 放在 sth. 之前,sb. 前的 to 不可以省略。类似用法有: suggest,announce,introduce 等。 9.I think everyone should give some money to this charity.我认为每个人都应该 为这一次慈善活动捐款。 give sth. to sb. 把某物捐赠给某人。 例如:She often gives to the charity.她常向慈善机构捐赠。 I will give my books to the library.我要把我的书捐给图书馆。 思维拓展 用 to 表示后置的间接宾语的动词归纳: bring,give,leave,lend,offer,pay,pass,read,refuse,return,promise,send, show 等。 10.They get very ill because of this.由于这一原因,他们常得重病。 because of 因为,由于。 例如:I was late because of the rain.我迟到是因为下雨的缘故。 I have chosen them because of the colour.我挑选了它们是因为喜欢它们的 颜色。 Because of these,he failed.由于这些事情,他失败了。 思维拓展 because of 因为,由于,通常作状语,位于句首或句尾。due to 由于,因为,通 常作表语。thanks to 幸亏,多亏,多用于句首。 11.Though I need money for myself,I am still willing to help.尽管我自己也需要 钱,我仍然乐意去帮助别人。 be willing to do sth. 乐意去做某事。 例如:Are you willing to help?你乐意帮忙吗? He is willing to help me with my English.他很乐意帮我学英语。 思维拓展 “乐意做某事”译法种种: be ready to do sth. be glad to do sth. be delighted to do sth. be happy to do sth. 12.construction [U]&[C] 建筑,建筑物。 例如:The new airport is still under construction.新机场仍在修建中。 The construction of the dam took several years.修建这座水坝花了许多年时 间。 It is a house of good construction.这是一所结构良好的房子。

思维拓展 construct vt. 建造 They are planning to construct a bridge over the river.他们正计划在这条河上造桥。 13.huge adj. 巨大的,极大的,无限的。 例如:The bank will lend your company quite a huge sum of money on very favourable terms. 银行将以非常优惠的条件给贵公司一笔相当可观的贷款。 The TV play was a huge success.这部电视剧取得了巨大的成功。 He lived by himself in a huge house.他自己住在一所大房子里。 思维拓展:huge/big/large 辨析 huge 强调体积庞大,容量和数量巨大。 big 强调比正常程度、范围及规模的标准大,用于修饰人、物或数量。 large 强调远远超过标准的大,可指数量、容积、体积或面积大。

14.There are fewer tourists in Beijing than in Sydney.北京游客要比悉尼的少。 few 几乎没有,很少的。否定的用法,通常置于可数名词之前,反义词为 many。 特指一定物体的时候,用 the,his,her 等来代替 a。 例如:There are few differences between the two.这两者之间几乎没有差异。 Few people live to be 100.活到 100 岁的人很少。 This is one of the few pictures I have.这是我拥有的少数几张画之一。 思维拓展 few 短语归纳 no fewer than 多达 not a few 不少的,相当多的 only a few 仅少数,只有几 个 quite a few 相当多的 few and far between 极其稀少的,极少的 15.Is Hong Kong less/fewer crowded than Beijing?香港不比北京拥挤吗? less adv. 不像,不如,更少地。 例如:Jane is less beautiful than Susan.简不如苏珊漂亮。 The movie was less funny than the book.这部电影没有原书那么有趣。 little adj. 几乎没有,很少的。置于不可数名词前。 例如:There is little hope.几乎没有什么希望。 He knows little German.他几乎不懂德语。 思维拓展:由 little 构成的短语: a little bit 稍许;有些 little or no 几乎没有 not a little 不少的,相当多的 little better than little less than little more than... 几乎与……一样 16.Beijing doesn’t have as many high-rise buildings as Hong Kong.北京不像香港 一样,有那么多的高楼大厦。 as many as 和……一样多。 例如: I have as many as you have.我有的跟你一样多。 Take as many as you want.你要多少就拿多少。

many 连接可数名词的复数形式,表示数量多。在否定句中, many 主要用 于否定句、疑问句和 if 从句中。在肯定句中,置于作主语的名词前面时,多与 so,as,how,too 等连用。many 很少单独用作表语。 思维拓展:由 many 构成的短语: a good many 很多的 a great many 非常多的 be one too many for 非……所能对付,为……所应付不了 So many men,so many kinds.人各有志。 17.Beijing doesn’t have as much tourism as Hong Kong.北京不像香港那样, 旅游 业那么繁盛。 much 与不可数名词连用。口语中多用于疑问句和否定句。 as much as 和……一样。 例如: You can eat as much as you like.你爱吃多少就吃多少。 I spent as much as 100 dollars today.今天,我花了 100 美元。 思维拓展:由 much 构成的短语: be too much 太过分,令人无法忍受 be not much of a...不是了不起的 much as 虽然极 so much for 到此为止 think much of 给予……高评价 18.Think of two regions,cities,towns or villages you know well.想出两个你熟悉 的地区,城市,城镇和村庄来。 region 区域,地方。 例如:forest regions 森林地带 the region of the heart 心脏部位 思维拓展 backward region 落后地区,不发达地区 economic region 经济区 entrance region 入口区 forbidden region 禁区 19.Harbin is a cold industrial center in the north.It has over three million inhabitants. 哈尔滨是一个寒冷的工业中心。它有三百万居民。 industrial adj. 工业的,产业的 the industrial areas 工业区 Many European countries are developed industrial nations.许多欧洲国家是发达 的工业国。 思维拓展 industrial areas 工业区 industrial workers 产业工人 an industrial country 工 业国 20.How do you find it?你觉得怎样? —I saw a film last week.我上星期看了一场电影。 —How do you find it?你觉得怎样? 思维拓展 相当于 How do you like it? What do you think of it? What is your opinion about it? 21.It’s totally fascinating.简直太迷人了!

(1)totally adv. 完全地,整个地。 例如:I totally agree.我完全同意。 Bob is totally different from me.鲍伯和我完全不同。 She has totally changed her character.她的性格已经完全改变了。 (2)fascinating adj. 迷人的,醉人的。例如: a fascinating love story 迷人的爱情故事 a fascinating shopwindow display 吸引人的商店橱窗陈列 22I didn’t get that.我没听清楚。 相当于:I didn’t hear what you said. 或者是:I didn’t quite catch it. 23.Let’s find some of the action.让我们采取行动吧。 action[U]&[C] 动作,行动。 例如:The time has come for action.行动的时间到了。 Actions are more important than words.做比说更重要。 She had a fine action.她姿态优美。 思维拓展 in action 活动 out of action 不活动 take action 采取行动 put...in/into action 使……活动,实行,把……付诸实施 24.Well,they are both medium-sized towns of between 100 000 and 200 000 inhabitants. 他们都是拥有十到二十万人口的中等城市。 Medium-sized adj. 中型的,普通型的 a man of medium height 中等身高的人 medium size 中号 large size 大号 small size 小号 思维拓展 kind-hearted 好心的 middle-aged 中年的 cold-blooded 冷血的 short-sighted 近视的,目光短浅的 25.Tourism is important to both of them,and they are both close to some of the most beautiful countryside in the region.旅游业对它们两个城市都很重要,它们 都临近本地区的一些美丽的乡村。 (1)be close to 离……很近。 例如:Our house is close to a bus stop.我们家紧邻公共汽车站。 Go further away!You are too close to me.再远离一点,你靠我太近了。 (2)be important to 对……很重要。 例如:Walking is important to the health.散步对于健康很重要。 思维拓展:与 to 搭配的形容词 next,good,polite,kind,cruel,rude,known,married,close,similar,due, etc. 26.Visitors from the foreign town usually stay in the private homes of the town

they are visiting. 来自国外的游客通常呆在他们参观访问的这个城镇的私人家庭里。 private adj. 私人的,私有的。 例如:A private car gives a much greater degree of comfort and mobility.私人小汽车 能给人很大的舒服和机动性。 This is private land,you can’t walk across it.这是私人土地,你不能通过。 思维拓展 privately adv. 私下地,秘密地 in private 秘密地;私下地。 例如:Let us solve the problem in private.让我们私下里解决这个问题吧。 重点语法: 一、让步状语从句 练习: 1.He is very young, _____ he knows a lot about computer. A. and B. however C. but D. while 2. Excuse me for breaking in, _____ I have some news for you. A. so B. and C. but D. Yet 3. Some people waste a lot of food _____ others haven’t enough to eat. A. however B. when C. as D. while 4. _____ he had to write a history paper._____ he couldn’t find time to do it. A. Although; but B. Although; / C. Even thought; / D. Even if; / (1) but 和 however 两者都可以翻译为“但是、 然而”, 但是两者的用法不同。 However 既可以放在句首也可以放在句中,并且后面一般要有逗号,but 常用于句中,不 加逗号。 (2) while 与 but 两者都有“然而、而”的意思。While 强调两着的对比,而 but 强调 转折。 (3) while 与 although 都用来表示两者对比,但 while 是并列连词,引导并列句。 although 为从属连词,引导让步状语从句。 But: 1. 连接两个并列分句 Honey is sweet, but the bee stings. I ought to have helped her, but I ever could. 2. 连接两个并列成分 They see the trees but not the forest. He no longer felt disappointed, but happy and hopeful. 3.后接状语 He tried to save it, but in vain. He glanced about, but seeing only the empty room. whatever, whoever, however, whenever, wherever He does whatever she asks him to do. 她要他做什么,他就做什么。

Come whenever you like. 你爱什么时候来就什么时候来。 However: 例句: 1. People like this are usually harmless. They can, however, be a nuisance.(令人讨 厌的人) 2. This method has been widely adopted. However, it is not yet clear that it is the best method. 3. People like this are usually harmless. They can be a nuisance, however. 4. You should report any incident, however serious or minor it is. 5. We’ll have to finish the job, however long it may take. 6. I really want to buy the car, however much it costs. 用法: 1. 多插在句子中间 (1) His first response was to say no. Later, however, he changed his mind. (2) The production is low this month. However,there will be an increase next month. 2.有时也放在句首或句 I’ll offer it to Tom. However, he may not want it. You know all this as well as I do, however. 3) "no matter +疑问词" 或"疑问词+后缀 ever" No matter what happened, he would not mind. Whatever happened, he would not mind. 替换:no matter what = whatever no matter who = whoever no matter when = whenever no matter where = wherever no matter which = whichever no matter how = however 注意:no matter 不能引导主语从句和宾语从句。 (错)No matter what you say is of no use now. (对)Whatever you say is of no use now. 你现在说什么也没用了。(Whatever you say 是主语从句) (错)Prisoners have to eat no matter what they're given, (对)Prisoners have to eat whatever they're given. 囚犯们只能给什么吃什么。 whatever, however 等-ever 词用法说明 这些词的用法应注意以下几点: (1) 注意 however 以下两类句型结构: ①however+主语+谓语: However you travel, it’ll take you at least three days. 不管你怎么走,至少要三天。 However you come, be sure to come early. 不管你怎么来,一定要早来。 ②however+形容词或副词+主语+谓语: However much he eats, he never gets fat. 无论他吃多少, 他都不发胖。 However cold it is, she always goes swimming. 不管天多冷,她都会去游泳。 有时该结构中的主语和谓语可以有所省略: He was of some help, however small. 他总能帮些忙,不管多小的忙。

I refuse, however favorable the condition. 不管条件多好,我都不接受。 (2) 有时从句谓语可用情态动词: I’ll find him, wherever he is [may be]. 无论他在哪里,我都要找到他。 Keep calm, whatever happens [may happen]. 无论发生什么事都要保持冷静。 (3) whenever 有时可引导时间状语从句,wherever 有时可引导地点状语从句: Whenever we see him we speak to him. 每次见到他,我们都和他说话。 They teach wherever their pupils are working. 学生在哪里工作, 教师们就在哪里上 课。 whether…or… I’ll do it whether you like it or not. 不管你是否喜欢,我都要做。 Whether we help him or not, he will fail. 不论我们帮助他与否, 他都将失败。 though, although 注意: 当有 though, although 时,后面的从句不能有 but,但是 though 和 yet 可连用 Although it's raining, they are still working in the field. 虽然在下雨, 但他们仍在 地里干活。 He is very old, but he still works very hard. 虽然他很老,但仍然努力地工作。 Though the sore be healed, yet a scar may remain.伤口虽愈合,但伤疤留下了。 (谚语) 典型例题 1) ___she is young, she knows quite a lot. A. When B. However C. Although D. Unless 2) as, though 引导的倒装句 as / though 引导的让步从句必须表语或状语提前(形容词、副词、分词、实 义动词提前)。 Child as /though he was, he knew what was the right thing to do. = Though he was a small child, he knew what was the right thing to do. 注意: a. 句首名词不能带任何冠词。 b. 句首是实义动词,其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随 实义动词一起放在主语之前。 Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily. = Though he tries hard, he never seems…虽然他尽了努力,但他的工作总做的 不尽人意。 when ,while 不要认为 when 和 while 只引导时间状语从句, 其实它们也可引导让步状语从句, 意思是“尽管”或“虽然”: (1)while 当……的时候,引导时间状语从句。 例如:While in London he studied art.他在伦敦时学习艺术。 (2)while 虽然,尽管,引导让步状语从句。

例如:While he was respected,he was not liked.她虽然受到尊敬,但没有受到喜 爱。 She stopped when she ought to have continued. 尽管她应该继续下去, 她却停住了。 While I understand what you say, I can’t agree with you. 虽然我理解你的意思,但 我还是不同意。 (3)while 只要,引导条件状语从句。 There will be life while there is water and air.只要有空气和水,就会有生命。 (4)然而 Some countries are rich, while others are extremely poor. 三、让步状语从句与倒装 引导倒装的让步状语从句通常用 as 和 though,但不是能用 although: Poor though I am, I can afford it. 我虽穷,但这东西还是买得起的。 Much as I like Paris, I couldn’t live there. 尽管我喜欢巴黎,但我不能住在那里。 【注】as 可以在以上这样的倒装结构中引出让步状语,但若不倒装,则不能用 as,而与之相反,although 在不倒装的结构中可引导让步状语,但在倒装的结构 中却不可以用。 二、倒装句 一.概念: 英语句子通常有两种语序:一种主语在前,谓语在后,称为自然语序,另一种谓语在 前,主语在后,称为倒装语序。 二.相关知识点精讲 按“主语+ 谓语” 这种顺序排列的句子是陈述语序。 如果排列顺序变为“谓语 ( 或 谓语一部分)+主语”,就是倒装。倒装句分为: 完全倒装: 整个谓语移至主语前面叫完全倒装。 部分倒装: 只把助动词、系动词或情态动词放在主语之前叫部分倒装。 1. 当以 there, here, out , in , up , down, away 等副词开头的句子, 为了起到强调的 作用,可构成倒装句,只把副词放在句首,主语和谓语位置调换,不加助动词。 Our teacher came in. In came our teacher. 这种倒装要求:主语必须是名词。主语是人称代词时,主语和谓语语序不变。 Here it is. Away he went. 这类倒装句式一般只用一般现在时和一般过去时。 Here comes the bus. Out rushed the boys. 2. how, then, just, often 表示时间的副词放在句首,可构成倒装句,只把副词放在 句首,主语和谓语位置调换,不加助动词。 Then came 8 years of the Anti Japanese War. 3. 表地点状语的介词短语放在句首,要用倒装句式,以示强调。 这种倒装句也是主谓直接调换位置,不加助动词 did, does 或 do. Under a big tree ________, half asleep. A. did sat a fat man B. a fat man sat C. did a fat man sat D. sat a fat man

4. there 放在句首时,要用倒装句式。 在“there + be”结构中的谓语动词有时不用 be , 而用表示类似“存在”观念的其他 不及物动词。如:live, stand, come, lie, flow, enter, rise 和 appear 等。 但是主语 为代词时不用倒装。 There came shouts for help from the river. There lies a large wheat field in front of the house. Many years ago there lived an old man in the wooden house. In front of the tower flews a stream. There he is. 5. so + 动词+主语 neither/ nor + 动词+主语 表示两人的同样一个情况时,只能表示一件事,即上、下句所使用的动词、时态 要一致。 否则要用 so it is with… You can ride a bike. So can I . He has been to Beijing. So have I . The first one isn’t good, neither is the second. His uncle is a worker and has been working in the factory for more than ten years. So it is with his aunt. 6. so+ 形容词/副词 that 的结构状语从句可以用正常语序表示,也可以把 so+形 容词/副词放于句首构成倒装。句型如下: so +形容词/副词+be/助动词/情态动词 that +从句。 Light travels so fast that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed. = So fast does light travel that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed. So easy was the work that they finished it in a few days. 7. done 做形容词在句中做表语时,常把表语放在句首,要用倒装句式。 Gone forever are the days when the Chinese people had to use foreign oil. 8. 否定副词 not , never, seldom, nowhere, little , rarely 放于句首时要用倒装句式。 We seldom get up at four in the morning. = Seldom do we get up at four in the morning. Not a single word from him could the enemy drag. Rarely have I heard of such a silly thing. 9. hardly…when; scarcely…when…; no sooner…than… 可以用正常语序 had hardly done when… did 或用倒装句式 Hardly had + 主语+ done when… did 句 式。hardly 所在的句子用过去完成时。 The bell hardly had rung when the class began.= Hardly had the bell rung when the class began. No sooner had he arrived in Beijing than he began to work. 10. not only… but also 如连接两个成分时,不用倒装;连接句子时, 前面的句 子要用倒装。 Not only was everything that he had taken away from him, but also his German citizenship. Not only is he busy, but also I have a lot of work to do. Not only does he speak English very well, but also he speaks French well. 11. only 及所修饰的副词、介词短语或状语从句放在句首时,要用:

only+ 状语+ be /助动词/情态动词+主语及其他 Only when he told me the news did I know what had happened. Only in this way can you make progress in your English. 12. 虚拟语气中的倒装句 If I were you, I would take the job. = Were I you, I would take the job.

三、With 复合结构与独立主格结构 with 复合结构与独立主格结构是英语中常见的两种结构形式。从某种意义上说, 它们可以算作是非谓语动词用法的延伸。它们都可以在句中作原因状语、伴随状 况状语、条件状语、时间状语或结果状语用,一般也可以相互转换。虽然它们的 语法功能和意义相同,但其结构形式和名称却不相同。抓住这一点,就可以把二 者融会贯通,从而在阅读中减少不必要的理解障碍。 with 复合结构的模式是:with+名词/代词(作逻辑主语)+分词/形容词/副词/不定 式/介词短语(作逻辑谓语) 独立主格结构的模式是:主格名词/代词(作逻辑主语)+分词/形容词/副词/不定 式/介词短语(作逻辑谓语) 请看下例: 一. with 复合结构的构成 1. with+宾语+名词 He died with his daughter yet a school girl.他死的时候,他的女儿还是个学生。 2. with+宾语+形容词 He used to sleep with all the windows open.他过去常常开着窗子睡觉。 She lay in bed with her face pale.她躺在床上,脸色苍白 3. with+宾语+副词 The girl fell asleep with the light on.那位女孩睡着了,灯还亮着。 Her mother sat in an armchair with her head down.她母亲坐在椅子上,头低着。 4. with+宾语+不定式 I can’t go out with these clothes to wash.因为这些衣服要洗,我不能出去。 I had to go to bed with nothing to do.我没有事可做,只好睡觉。 5. with+宾语+介词短语 He sat near the fire with his back to the door.他坐在炉子旁,背朝着房门。 The teacher came in with a book in his hand.老师进来了,手里拿着本书。 6. with+宾语+现在分词 With the machine helping us, we could finish the work on time.由于有机器的帮助, 我们能按时完成任务。 She lives in the room with the light burning.她住在亮着灯的那个房间里。 7. with+宾语+过去分词 With everything done, she went home.做完一切事情以后,她回家了。 He lay on his back, with his teeth set and his eyes closed.他仰卧着, 咬着牙、 闭着眼。 二. with 复合结构作定语 She saw a brook with red flowers and green grass on both sides. 她看到一条两岸长着红花、绿草的小溪。 The woman with a baby in her arms is Tom”s aunt.

抱着小孩的那位妇女是汤姆的姑姑。 The city lies in a valley with high mountains around it. 这位城市位于一个由高山环抱的山谷中。 Any man with eyes in his head can see that he”s exactly like a rope. 任何头上长了眼睛的人都会看出他十足像一条绳子 三、with 复合结构作状语 (一)、作时间状语 1、With winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south. =Winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south. 2、With our work having been finished well, we went out for a holiday. =Our work having been finished well, we went out for a holiday. 3、With the traffic light green, the bus got moving. =The traffic light green, the bus got moving. 4、With the wedding dinner party(being) over, we left the hotel. =The wedding dinner party(being) over, we left the hotel. (二)、作原因状语 5、With it being Sunday, the library was closed. =It being Sunday, the library was closed. 6、With the weather terribly cold, we entered the room to warm ourselves. =The weather terribly cold, we entered the room to warm ourselves. 7、With us to care for the children you are able to be carefree away from home. =We to care for the children, you are able to be carefree away from home.(注意 此处的 we 不得改成 us,用了 us 便不是独立主格结构了。) 8、With the key having been lost, she could not enter the room. =The key having been lost, she could not enter the room. (三)、作条件状语 1、With time permitting(许可),we’ll visit the Summer Palace. =Time permitting, we’ll visit the Summer Palace. 2、With the car going wrong, we’ll have to stop at the foot of the mountain. =The car going wrong, we’ll have to stop at the foot of the mountain. (四). 表示结果 The battle ended with the enemy defeated.战斗结束了,敌人被打败了。 They have finished the peace talks with the agreements reached. 他们结束了和谈,达成了协议。 (五)、作伴随状况状语 1、The mother was cleaning the house with her baby playing on the bed. =The mother was cleaning the house, her baby playing on the bed. 2、He wore a shirt with the neck open. =He wore a shirt, the neck open. 3、Last night I followed him, and climbed in, with a sword in my hand. =Last night I followed him and climbed in, sword in hand. 4、He sat there thinking, with his head on his hand. =He sat there thinking, head on hand. 注意:

(1)若 with 复合结构在句中作伴随状况状语,且结构模式又是“with+名词+介 词短语”,那么 with 复合结构转换成独立主格结构时,介词前后的两个名词就应 该用单数形式且不带包括冠词在内的任何限定词。上述句 3、句 4 便是例证。 (2)无论 with 复合结构还是独立主格结构,都不可有动词的谓语形式充当其中 的逻辑谓语。 如下例中的 was 就必须去掉:He sat at the desk reading with a pen was in his right hand. (3)这两种结构在句中作时间、条件或原因状语时,分别与表示时间、条件或 原因的状语从句同义。例如: Time permitting; we will visit the Yellow Mountain.=If time permits we will visit the Yellow Mountain. It being Sunday, people got up late that day.=As it was Sunday people got up late that day. The meeting over, we all went home.=When the meeting was over we all went home. (4)with 复合结构可以作后置定语修饰名词,而独立主格结构则不可作后置定 语修饰名词。例如: Soon she arrived at a park with grass green and flowers in blossom. =Soon she arrived at a park whose grass was green and whose flowers were in blossom. 独立主格结构 什么是独立主格结构? 它是指与主语之间无任何语法关系的名词或代词加上一个分词 /形容词/副词/不 定式/介词短语构成的结构。它不修饰单个的词,而修饰整个句子。独立主格结 构可位于句子的任何部位。它构成一个单独实体,在句中作状语,并具有如下两 种功能:(1) 解释原因或情景 (2) 提供主句中重点部分的相关细节。 非谓语动词作状语时, 它的逻辑主语应该是句子的主语。但有时非谓语动词带有 自己的主语, 从而在结构上与主语不发生关系, 我们称之为独立主格结构。 其实, 所谓“独立主格结构”也并非真正独立,它还是一种从属的结构。 一)非谓语动词独立主格结构 在独立主格结构中, 非谓语动词和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻辑上的主谓关系 或动宾关系。 1.不定式“独立主格结构” 在“逻辑主语+动词不定式”结构中,动词不定式和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻 辑上的主谓关系。这种结构也可用一个从句或并列分句来表达。例如: 1)I send you 100 dollars today, the rest ____ in a year. (2005湖南) A. follows B. followed C. to follow D. being followed 2.-ing 形式“独立主格结构” 1)表示时间的-ing 形式作“独立主格结构” Everyone being ready, the teacher began his class. 每个人都准备好后,老师开始上 课。 (相当于一个时间状语从句 When everyone was ready.) The chairman began the meeting, everyone being seated. 每个人坐好后,主席开始开会。 (相当于一个时间状语从句 after everyone was seated)

2)表示原因的-ing 形式作“独立主格结构” The boy leading the way, we had no trouble finding the strange cave. 由那个男孩带 路,我们没有困难就找到了那奇怪的洞。 (相当于一个原因状语从句 Because the boy led the way) Many eyes watching him, he felt a bit nervous. 许多眼睛看着他,他感到有点儿紧 张。 (相当于一个原因状语从句 As many eyes were watching him) 3)含有 being 的独立主格结构。 It being National Day today,the streets are very crowded. 今天是国庆节,街上很拥 挤。 = As it is National Day today, the streets are very crowded. There being no further business to discuss, we all went home. 没有别的事可讨论, 我们都回家了。 = As there was no further business to discuss, we all went home. 4)表示条件的-ing 形式作“独立主格结构” Time permitting, we will have a picnic next week.时间允许的话, 我们下星期将进行 一次野炊。 (相当于一个条件状语从句 If time permits) My health allowing, I will work far into the night.我的健康许可的话, 我愿工作到深 夜。 (相当于一个条件状语从句 If my health allows) 5)表示方式的-ing 形式作“独立主格结构” The students are walking in the school happily, each wearing a card in front of his chest.学生们快乐地在学校里走着,每个人胸前都带着一张卡。 (相当于一个并列 分句 and each wears a card in front of his chest) The boy lay on the grass, his eyes looking at the sky.男孩躺在草地上,眼睛看着天 空。 (相当于一个并列分句 and his eyes were looking at the sky) 3. 不用“独立主格结构”的情况 动词的-ing 形式作状语时,其逻辑主语与句子的主语保持一致时,逻辑主语通常 省去。例如: 1) _____ in the queue for half an hour, Tom suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at home. (2004北京) A. To wait B. Have waited C. Having waited D. To have waited 2) _____the programme, they have to stay there for another two weeks.(2004广东) A. Not completing B. Not completed C. Not having completed D. Having not completed 4.-ed 形式“独立主格结构” 与逻辑主语+动词的-ing 形式一样, 如果-ed 形式的逻辑主语和句子的主语不一致 的话,就需要用-ed 形式的独立主格结构。 ① The book written in simple English, English beginners were able to read it. (独立 主格结构在句中作原因状语) = As the book was written in simple English,English beginners were able to read it. 该书是用简单英语写的,英语初学者也能看懂。 ) ② He was listening attentively in class, his eyes fixed on the blackboard. (独立主格 结构在句中作方式状语 = He was listening attentively in class, and his eyes were fixed on the blackboard.他 上课专心听讲,眼睛紧盯着黑板。

③ The task completed,he had two months`` leave. (独立主格结构在句中作时间状 语) =When the task had been completed,he had two months`` leave.任务完成以后,他休 了两个月的假。 5. 不用-ed 形式“独立主格结构”的情况 动词的-ed 形式作状语时,其逻辑主语与句子的主语保持一致时,逻辑主语通常 省去。例如: 1._____in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. (NMET 1996) A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lose 2. ______ the general state of his health, it may take him a while to recover from the operation. (2000spring) A. Given B. To give C. Giving D . Having given 3. _______ time, he``ll make a first-class tennis player. (2003北京) A. Having given B. To give C. Giving D. Given 4. After his journey from abroad, Richard Jones returned home, _____ (2004 上海春 季) A. exhausting B. exhausted C. being exhausted D. having exhausted 5.______ and happy, Tony stood up and accepted the prize. ( 2006全国(1、2)) A. Surprising B. Surprised C. Being surprised D. To be surprising 比较: 动词不定式表示动作没有发生或即将发生,动词-ed 形式表示动作已经结束,动 词-ing 形式往往表示动作正在进行。 The manager looks worried, many things to settle. 经理看上去很着急, 有这么多的 事情要处理。 (事情还没有处理,而且是由经理本人来处理,用不定式 to settle) The manager looks relaxed, many things settled. 许多事情已经处理好了, 经理看上 去很轻松。 (事情已经处理好了,用动词-ed 形式 settled 表示动作已经结束) The food being cooked, the boy was watching TV. 小孩一边做饭, 一边看电视。 (两 个动作同时进行) The food cooked, the boy went to bed. 饭做好了,小孩去睡了。 (两个动作有先后, 饭已做好,小孩才去睡觉的) 五、动词独立主格结构 一) “逻辑主语+being+其他”是独立主格结构中的“逻辑主语+动词-ing 形式”的一 种形式。在这种结构中,being 往往可以被省去,这种省去 being 的结构,称之 为无动词“独立主格结构”。 1.逻辑主语+名词 Ten students entered for the competition, the youngest a boy of 12.十个学生报名参 加了这次竞赛,年纪最小的是个12岁的男孩。 (the youngest 和 a boy of 12之间省 去了 being) 注意: 独立主格结构中的 being 在下列两种情况下一般不能省略,一是在“There being + 名词”结构中,二是在逻辑主语是代词的情况下。 There being no bus, we had to walk home. 由于没有公共汽车,我们只好走回家。 It being Sunday, all the offices are closed. 因为是星期日,所有办公室都关门。 2.逻辑主语+形容词

He turned to me, his eyes sleepy.他睡眼惺忪地转向我。 (his eyes 和 sleepy 之间省 去了 being)= He turned to me, and his eyes were sleepy. `````` He stood there, his mouth wide open.他站在那里,嘴张得大大的。 (his mouth 和 wide open 之间省去了 being)= He stood there, and his mouth was wide open. 3.逻辑主语+副词 School over, we all went home.放学了,我们都回家了。 (school 和 over 之间省去 了 being)= School was over, and we all went home. He sat at his desk, his shoes off.他坐在课桌旁,没穿鞋子。 (his shoes 和 off 之间省 去了 being)= He sat at his desk and his shoes were off. 4.逻辑主语+介词短语 He is standing in front of the blackboard, his back towards us.他站在黑板面前,背对 着我们。= He was standing in front of the blackboard, and his back was towards us. The new teacher came in, a smile on her face.新老师面带微笑走了进来。= The new teacher came in and she had a smile on her face. The teacher came into the classroom,a rule in his hand.老师走进教室,手里拿着一 把直尺。= The teacher came in and a ruler was in his hand. 提示: 在“逻辑主语+介词短语”构成的独立主格结构里,如果名词用单数,可以不用冠 词,同时介词短语里的限定词也可省略。 The music teacher stood at the door, violin in hand.音乐老师站在门口,手里拿着一 把小提琴。 (= The music teacher stood at the door, a violin in his hand.) 课堂练习: 1.The style of painting ________ by the artist is hard ________. A.being adopted;to imitate B.adopted;imitate C.being adopted;imitate D.adopted;to imitate 2.The waste can be recycled into new products ,which________will save natural resources. .A.in turn B.above all C.by chance D.at least 3.I can't________the loud music.Can you________the radio a little? A.stand;turn up B.stand;turn down C.bear;turn to D.put up with;turn off 4.I love their music,but I’ve never seen them perform________. A.alive B.living C.live D.lively 5 .My husband and I are________Song Zuying’s songs,which are in the classical Chinese________. A.crazy about;style B.fond of;expression C.satisfied to;type D.good at;group 6.With the popularity of network, email has largely _______ the traditional letter. A.exchanged B.removed C.expanded D.replaced 7.It's reported that a plane with five people________crashed into the mountain several days ago. A.on board B.on the board C.in board D.in the board 8.Many friends sent me emails to________me on the birth of my son. A.celebrate B.reward C.express D.congratulate

9. I had just got up and was about to cook my breakfast, ________the telephone rang loudly,but it hung up________I could answer it. A.while;when B.when;as C.as;after D.when;before 10.Parents should take seriously their children's requests for sunglass ________ eye protection is necessary in sunny weather. A.unless B.though C.because if 11.The airliner doesn’t go________to America.It goes by way of Japan. A.directly B.direct C.direction D.immediately 12. What an interesting role she________in the film! No wonder she has won the best actress. A.took B.made C.had D.played 13.—Do you often hear from your sister who is studying in Oxford University? —No,only________.She is very busy now. A.now and then B.sooner or later C.for the time being D.more or less 14.—______ did she go to the countryside for? —She went there in order to ______ her mother. A.Why;take care of B.Why;care for C.What;take care D.What;care for 15.The three people are being followed by the police because they are considered to________a terrorist organization. A.belong to B.come to C.turn up D.give up 课后作业 1._____ you call me to say you’re not coming,I’ll see you at the theatre. A.Though B. Whether C. Until D. Unless 2. I do every single bit of housework____ myhusband Bob just does the dishes now and then. A. since B. while C. when D. as 3. Paul had to write a history paper, _____ he couldn’t find time to do it. A. but B. so C. because D. if 4.You should try to get a good night’s sleep____ much work you have to do. A.however B. no matter C. although D. Whatever 5. John saves his money, _______ George spends all he gets. A.whether B. As C. though D. while 6. I’d love to come ______ I can’t make it till 8 o’clock. A.so B. but C. however D. while 7. ____ I’m writing this, you can be doingsomething else. A.Before B. After C. Until D. While 8. ______times changed, Bursley was stillBursley. A. Whether B. Though C. Whenever D. However 9. The south of the country grows corn,______the north grows rice. A. While B. Neither C. If D. although 10. ____he is very old, he is healthy. A. As B. However C. Though D. Whereas 11. Britain is not mountainous, _____Italy is. A. however B. While C. although D. unless

12. He was feeling bad. He went to work, ______,and tries to concentrate. A. however B. so C. although D. While 13. He promised to help me. ____, he is busy and hasn’t come. A. While B. Although C. However D. Whether 14. She’s been learning Italian for six years,______ she doesn’t speak it very well. A. for B. so C. but D. As 15. They wanted to charge $5000 for the car, ____ we managed to bring the price down. A. but B. so C. when D. since 16. — Somebody wants you on the telephone. —_____no one knows I’m here. A. For B. And C. But D. So 17. I do very single bit of housework _____ my husband Bob just does the dishes now and then. A. since B. while C. when D. as 18. My advisor encouraged _____ a summercourse to improve my writing skills. A. for me taking B. me taking C. for me to take D. me to take 19. Mr. Hall understands that _____ maths has always been easy for him, it is not easy for the students. A. unless B. since C. although D. when 20. _______she is young, she knows quite a lot. A. When B. However C. Although D. Unless 21. He is very young, _____ he knows a lot about computer. A. and B. however C. but D. while 22. Excuse me for breaking in, _____ I have some news for you. A. so B. and C. but D. Yet 23. Some people waste a lot of food _____ others haven’t enough to eat. A. however B. when C. as D. while 24. _____ he had to write a history paper._____ he couldn’t find time to do it. Although; but B. Although; / C. Even thought; / D. Even if; / 25. I don’t mind picking up your things from the store. _____ the walk will do me good. A. Sooner or later B. Still C. In time D. Besides 1._____ I accept that he is not perfect, I doactually like the person. A. While B. Since C. Before D. Unless 2. (2010 全国 2) Tom was about to close the windows_____his attention was caught by a bird. A. when B. if C. and D. till 3. (09 全国 2) All the dishes in this menu, ______ otherwise stated, will serve two to three people. A.as B. if C. though D. unless 4. (北京) John plays basketball well, _______ his favorite sport is badminton.

A. so B.or C. yet D. for 5. (北京)You may use the room as you like ______ you clean it up afterwards. A.so far as B. so long as C. in case D. even if 6. (09 湖南) ______ the police thought he was the most likely one, since they had no exact proof about it, they could not arrest him. A. Although B. As long as C. If only D. As soon as 7. (09 湖南) My parents don’t mind what job I do _______I am happy. A.even though B. as soon as C. as long as D. as though 8. (09 重庆) Peter was so excited ______he received an invitation from his friend to visit Chongqing. A. where B. that C. why D. when 9. (09 山东) The little girl who got lost decided to remain ___ she was and wait for her mother. A.where B. what C. how D. who 10. (09 山东)----Shall we have our picnic tomorrow? ----_____ it doesn’t rain. A. Until B. While C. Once D. If 11. (09 福建) She had just finished her homework ____ her mother asked her to practise playing the piano yesterday. A. when B. while C. after D. since 12. (09 安徽)---I wonder how much you charge for your services. ----The first two are free ____the third costs $30. A. while B. until C. when D. Before 13. (09 天津) I travel to the Binhai New Area by light railway every day, ______ do many businessmen who live in downtown Tianjin. as B. which C. when D. though 14. 14. (09 辽宁) It just isn’t fair____I was working as a waiter last month, my friends were lying on the beach. A. whenever B. though C. for D. While 15. (09 江苏) ______unemployment and crime are high, it can be assumed that the latter is due to the former. A. Before B. where C. Unless D. Until 16. (09 浙江) The medicine works more effectively_____ you drink some hot water after taking it. A.as B. until C. although D. if 17. (09 四川) Owen wouldn’t eat anything _____he cooked it himself. A. until B. since C. unless D. while 倒装句练习题 1. Not until I began to work ____ how much time I had wasted. A. didn't I realize B. did I realize C. I didn't realize D. I realized 2. Only by practising a few hours every day ____ be able to master the language. A. you can B. can you C. you will D. will you 3. If you don't go, neither ____. A. shall I B. do I C. I do D. I shall 4. No sooner ____ to the station ____ the train left.

A. had I got, when B. I had got, than C. had I got, than D. did I get, when 5. —— Your father is very strict with you. ____. He never lets off a single mistake of ours. A. So he is B. So is he C. He is so D. So does he 6. ____ today, he would get there by Sunday. A. Would he leave B. Was he leaving C. Were he to leave D. If he leave 7. Never in my life ____ such a thing. A. I have heard or have seen B. have I heard or seen C. I have heard or seen D. did I hear or see 8. —— Here ____! Where is Xiao Liu? There ____. A. comes the bus, is he B. comes the bus, he is C. the bus comes, is he D. the bus comes, he is 9. ____ , I will not buy it. A. Much as do I like it B. As much I like it C. Much as I like it D. As I like it much 10. —— I like football. I don't like volleyball. ____. A. So do I B. Neither do I C. So it is with me D. So is it with me 11. _____ the expense, I _____ to Italy. A. If it were not, go B. Were it not for, would go C. Weren't it for, will go D. If it hadn't been, would have gone 12. So _____ in the darkness that he didn't dare to move an inch. A. he was frightened B. was he frightened C. frightened he was D. frightened was he 13. —— In modem times, girls like beautiful clothes. Yes, _____ and . After all, our life has greatly improved. A. so do they, so do you B. so they do, so you do C. so do they, so you do D. so they do, so do you 14. —— You have an English class every day except Sunday. _____. A. So we have B. So we do C. So have we D. So do we 15. I wonder if your wife will go to the ball. If your wife _____, so _____ mine. A. does, will B. will, does C. will, would D. does, do 16. Only after I read the text over again _____ its main idea. A. that I knew B. did I knew C. 1 could know D. I did know 17. —— You seem to have learned all the English words by heart. _____ . A. So l do B. So do l C. So I have D. So have I 18. —— I seldom watch TV, but listen to the radio a lot. _____ . A. So do I B. Neither do I C. I m the same D. So it is with me 19. So excited _____ that he couldn't say a word. A. he seemed B. did he seem C. was he seeming D. he did look 20. Jimmy was so nervous not a single word _____ down in the dictation. A. he wrote B. he was written C. did he write D. was he written

21. Little ______ when 1 took the trip where it would lead me. A. have I known B. had I known C. do 1 know D. did I know 22. —— Have you ever seen anything like that before? ---- ____. A. No, I never have seen anything like that before B. No, never I have seen anything like that before C. No, never have 1 seen anything like that before D. No, I have seen anything like that before never 23. _____ , 1 would accept the invitation and go to the party. A. Were I you B. Was I you C. Had I been you D. Would 1 be you 24. You should work less _____. A. and neither should I B. and so should I C. and nor should I D. and so I should 25. _____ and caught the mouse. A. Up the cat jumped B. The cat up jumped C. Up jumped the cat D. Jumped up the cat With 复合结构及独立主格结构练习题 1.Ford tried dividing the labor,each worker _________ a separate task. A.assigning B.assigned C.was assigned D.would be assigned 2.The lecture_________,he left his seat so quietly that no one complained that his leaving disturbed the speaker. A.began B.beginning C.having begun D.being beginning 3.Such _________ the case ,there are no grounds to justify your complaints. A.being A.set B.is C.was D.to be D.was set 4.Darkness _________ in,the young people lingered on merrymaking. B.setting C.has set 5.With all factors_________,we think this program may excel all the others in achieving the goal. A.being considered B.considering C.considered D.are considered 6.A new technique_________,the yields as a whole increased by 20 percent. A. to have been worked out been worked out B. having worked out C. working out D. having

7. On the top was the clear outline of a great wolf sitting still, ears_________,alert, listening. A.pointed B.pointing C.are pointed D.are pointing 8. Walter offered us a lift when he was leaving the office , but our work _________, we declined the offer. A. not being finished B. not having finished not finished A.has B.had C.to have D.having C. had not been finished D. was

9.There are various kinds of metals ,each _________ its own properties. 10.The article opens and closes with descriptions of two news reports,each

_________ one major point in contrast with the other. A.makes A. in B.made B. for C.is to make C. with D.making D. as 11. BBC English broadcasts programmes for China _______ explanation in Chinese. 12. The young woman _______ a baby sleeping in her arms was wandering in the street. A. with A. as B. because B. with C. on C. for D. like D. on 13. Everyone should go to sleep with the light turned off. 14. _______ so many homework to do, Mary won’t have time to play with her friends this morning. A. Without A. Because A. As A. Like A. By A. leaving A. fixing A. facing A. burn B. With B. As B. For B. With B. On B. left B. fixed B. faces B. burnt C. By C. With C. Because C. On C. With C. leave C. to be fixing C. faced C. burning D. Because D. Because of D. With D. Without D. As D. Toleave D. to be fixed D.being faced D. to burn 15. _______ the door open, the noise of the machines is almost deafening. 16. _______ his mother out, he had to stay at home alone. 17. _______ all things considered, her proposal is of greater than his 18. _______ time permitting, we will visit the Summer Palace. 19. With nothing_______to burn,the fire became weak and finally died out. 20. The girl sat there quite silent and still with her eyes_______on the wall. 21. I live in the house with its door_________to the south.(这里 with 结构作定语) 22. They pretended to be working hard all night with their lights____.

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