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Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers Method for Measuring Performance of Portable Household Electric Cord-Connected Room Air Cleaners
ANSI/AHAM AC-1-2002

PREFACE The A

ssociation of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) develops standards in accordance with AHAM's "Policy and Procedures Governing Technical Standards" which states: "AHAM Standards shall be in the best interest, mutually, of consumers who use appliances, the industries which provide and service appliances, and other interested parties. They shall relate to actual use conditions, be technically and scientifically sound." Use or observance of AHAM standards is voluntary. AHAM standards are presented to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for recognition as American National Standards. This standard was so recognized on April 9, 2002 and bears the American National Standard designation ANSI/AHAM AC-1-2002. This standard contains test procedures which may be applied to any brand or model of portable household electric cord-connected room air cleaners within the stated confines of the standard's limits of measurability for measuring performance. Results of tests in accordance with this standard may be publicly stated. With regard to safety, AHAM recommends that all appliance products - both major and portable - manufactured or marketed in the United States be submitted to an appropriate independent laboratory for inspection and listing in conformance with the safety standards and procedures followed by such laboratories. The relevant standards for portable household electric cord connected room air cleaners are UL 867, "Standard for Electrostatic Air Cleaners" and UL 507, "Standard for Fans." The appendices to this standard are generally for informational purposes except where referenced in the body of the standard. AHAM welcomes comments and suggestions regarding this standard. Any standard may be reviewed and improved as needed. All standards must be updated or reconfirmed at least every five years. Any interested party, at any time, may request a change in an AHAM standard. Such request should be addressed to AHAM's President, and should be accompanied by a statement of reason for the request and a suggested alternate proposal. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of whomever uses this standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of any regulatory limitations prior to use Copyright ? 2002 by the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. PURPOSE .............................................................................................................................................. 1 SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................... 1 DEFINITIONS ...................................................................................................................................... 1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 4. Portable Household Electric Cord-Connected Room Air Cleaner ................................................. 1 Types of Portable Household Electric Cord-Connected Room Air Cleaners ................................ 2 Test Particulate Matter ................................................................................................................... 2 Test Chamber ................................................................................................................................. 2 Air Circulating Equipment ............................................................................................................. 2 Particulate Matter Removal............................................................................................................ 3 High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter .............................................................................. 3 Aerosol Generator .......................................................................................................................... 3 Aerodynamic Particle Size ............................................................................................................. 3 Terminal Velocity .......................................................................................................................... 3 Particle Number Concentration ...................................................................................................... 3 Aerosol Spectrometer ..................................................................................................................... 3 Cigarette Smoke Diluter ................................................................................................................. 3 Natural Decay ................................................................................................................................. 3 Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) .................................................................................................. 4

GENERAL CONDITIONS FOR MEASUREMENT ........................................................................... 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Electrical Supply ............................................................................................................................ 4 Test Chamber Ambient Temperature ............................................................................................. 4 Chamber Air Exchange Rate .......................................................................................................... 4 Chamber Particulate or Ion Concentrations ................................................................................... 4 Chamber Equipment ....................................................................................................................... 5 Test Equipment Preparation ........................................................................................................... 5

5.

TEST PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING PERFORMANCE ON CIGARETTE SMOKE. ........... 5 5.1 5.2 Natural Decay Measurement .......................................................................................................... 5 Particulate Matter Removal Measurement ..................................................................................... 7

6.

TEST PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING PERFORMANCE ON TEST DUST ............................ 8 6.1 6.2 Natural Decay Measurement .......................................................................................................... 8 Particulate Matter Removal Measurement ................................................................................... 10

7.

TEST PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING PERFORMANCE ON PAPER MULBERRY POLLEN ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 7.1 7.2 Natural Decay Measurement ........................................................................................................ 11 Particulate Matter Removal Measurement ................................................................................... 13

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8.

CALCULATION PROCEDURES ...................................................................................................... 14 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Criteria for Elimination of Data Points from an AC-1 Run ......................................................... 14 Calculating the Decay Constant ................................................................................................... 15 Computation of the Standard Deviation Estimate for the Slope of One Regression Line ........... 15 Performance Calculation .............................................................................................................. 16 Calculation of the Standard Deviation Estimate of the CADR for a Single Test ........................ 16

9.

SAFETY .............................................................................................................................................. 17

APPENDIX A ............................................................................................................................................. 18 APPENDIX B ............................................................................................................................................. 23 APPENDIX C ............................................................................................................................................. 24 APPENDIX D ............................................................................................................................................. 28

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1. PURPOSE This standard method establishes uniform, repeatable procedures and standard methods for measuring specified product characteristics of portable household electric cord-connected room air cleaners. The standard methods provide a means to compare and evaluate different brands of portable household electric cord connected room air cleaners regarding characteristics significant to product use. The standard methods of measurement are not intended to inhibit improvement and innovation in product testing, design or performance. 2. SCOPE This standard method applies to portable household electric cord-connected room air cleaners as defined in Section 3. This standard method includes definitions and safety characteristics of portable household electric cord-connected room air cleaners of the types indicated. This standard method measures the relative reduction by the air cleaner of particulate matter suspended in the air in a specified test chamber. This standard method has defined limits of measurability. The statistical validity of test results outside of the stated practical limits is questionable and unevaluated. The practical limits of measurability are: Dust Tobacco smoke Pollen 10 to 400 CADR 10 to 400 CADR 25 to 450 CADR

The precision of the Standard as based on a 0 CADR air cleaner expressed as 2 standard deviation limits (95%) are: Dust Tobacco smoke Pollen + 10 CADR + 10 CADR + 25 CADR

3. DEFINITIONS 3.1 Portable Household Electric Cord-Connected Room Air Cleaner An electric cord-connected appliance with the function of removing particulate matter from the air and which can be moved from room to room.

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3.2

Types of Portable Household Electric Cord-Connected Room Air Cleaners 3.2.1 Fan with Filter Air cleaners which operate with an electrical source of power and contain a motor and fan for drawing air through a filter(s). 3.2.2 Fan with Filter and Electrostatic Plates Air cleaners which operate with a fan and filter(s) that incorporate electrically charged plates or wires to electrostatically collect particulate matter. 3.2.3 Fan Filter with Ion Generator Air Cleaners that incorporate an ion generator in addition to a fan and filter. 3.2.4 Ion Generator Air cleaners which incorporate an ion generator only. 3.2.5 Other Types A device which has the stated capability to reduce the concentration of particulate matter in a room.

3.3

Test Particulate Matter 3.3.1 Cigarette Smoke Smoke produced by burning cigarette tobacco with air forced through the cigarette's filter having particle sizes ranging from 0.09 ?m to 1.0 ?m diameter. 3.3.2 Air Cleaner Fine Fraction Test Dust (Arizona Road Dust) Commercially available test dust with particle sizes ranging from 0.5 ?m to 3.0 ?m. 3.3.3 Pollen Particulate matter naturally occurring from plants. The pollen to be used is Paper Mulberry Pollen (non-defatted) with a particle size range of 5 ?m to 11 ?m, including fragments.

3.4 Test Chamber The room size chamber for determining performance in removing particulate matter from the air. (The specifications for AHAM's chamber are in Appendix A.) 3.5 Air Circulating Equipment 3.5.1 Mixing Fan A high volume ceiling fan used to mix the chamber during contaminant aerosol generation. 3.5.2 Recirculation Fan A fan capable of producing 300-400 cfm for the purpose of maintaining a homogeneous environment within the chamber.
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3.6 Particulate Matter Removal The reduction of particle number concentration in air due to the operation of the air cleaner. 3.7 High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter An air filter with greater than or equal to 99.97% removal of dioctyl phthalate at 0.3 ?m diameter. 3.8 Aerosol Generator A device which produces and disseminates small particles into air. 3.8.1 Smoke Generator An aerosol generator which disseminates test tobacco smoke with particle sizes specified in Section 3.3.1 into the air. 3.8.2 Dust Generator An aerosol generator which disseminates test dust with particle sizes specified in Section 3.3.2 into the air. 3.8.3 Pollen Generator An aerosol generator which disseminates test pollen with particle sizes specified in Section 3.3.3 into the air. 3.9 Aerodynamic Particle Size A classification of particle sizes as spheres of unit density based on terminal velocities. 3.10 Terminal Velocity The maximum velocity achieved by a particle under given conditions. 3.11 Particle Number Concentration Number of particles per cubic centimeter of room air. 3.12 Aerosol Spectrometer Device for measuring particle size distribution in room air. 3.13 Cigarette Smoke Diluter Device for reducing the concentration of smoke by a known factor to a level suitable for measurement. 3.14 Natural Decay The reduction of particulate matter due to the natural phenomena in the test chamber, principally sedimentation, agglomeration and surface deposition.

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3.15 Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) The measure of air cleaner performance by this test procedure. See Section 8.5. Within the scope of ANSI/AHAM AC-1, Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) is defined as the measure of the delivery of contaminant free air by a portable household electric cord-connected room air cleaner, expressed in cubic feet per minute. More technically, Clean Air Delivery Rates are the rates of contaminant reduction in the test chamber when the unit is turned on, minus the rate of natural decay when the unit is not running, times the volume of the test chamber as measured in cubic feet. (See Section 8.5.) CADRs are always the measurement of a unit’s performance as a complete system, and they have no linear relationship to air movement per se or to the characteristics of any particular filter media. 4. GENERAL CONDITIONS FOR MEASUREMENT Conduct measurements under the following conditions: 4.1 Electrical Supply 4.1.1 Frequency. (60+1) Hertz 4.1.2 Voltage. Operate air cleaner at (120 + 1) Volts. 4.2 Test Chamber Ambient Temperature Chamber ambient temperature is to be (70 + 5)oF [(21 + 1.5)oC] with a relative humidity (RH) of (40 + 5)%. 4.3 Chamber Air Exchange Rate The chamber air exchange rate is to be less than 0.03 air changes per hour as determined by tracer gas study decay of sulfur hexafluoride, by electron capture or ion trap gas chromatography. 4.4 Chamber Particulate or Ion Concentrations 4.4.1 Measurability The acceptable range of particle concentrations for the initial test condition (t=0) are: Tobacco Smoke 24,000 to 35,000 particles/cc (diluter required) Sampling period, (20 sec. @ 0.06 liter/min) Dust 200 to 400 particles/cc Sampling period, (20 sec. @ 1 liter/min) Pollen 4 to 9 particles/cc Sampling period, (20 sec. @ 1 liter/min)
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The lower limit of instrument measurability is based on a minimum of 10 particle counts and is defined by the practical counting limits of particle measuring instrumentation. These are: Dust Tobacco smoke Pollen 0.03 particles/cc 20 particles/cc 0.03 particles/cc

4.4.2 Test Chamber Background Level The allowable level of particulate matter in the test chamber prior to the introduction of the test material. This level is not to be greater than the lower limit of instrument measurability. (If the instrument's measurability lower limit cannot readily be achieved, further chamber cleaning procedures should be performed.) 4.5 Chamber Equipment The recirculation fan is to be operated throughout all tests in Sections 5, 6, and 7. See Appendix A for proper positioning of the recirculation fan. 4.6 Test Equipment Preparation 4.6.1 Check contaminant generating, measuring and recording instruments, and data processing equipment for readiness per manufacturer's instructions (see Appendix C). 4.6.2 Test unit is installed per manufacturer's instructions, positioned with its air discharge as close as possible to the room center; unit operation is verified. For test units which discharge air in a specific direction, the air discharge shall not be pointed toward the particle monitors. If manufacturer's instructions do not specify (and unit is not a floor model), place the air cleaner on the table for test. Room air cleaners with multi-level fans are set at the highest setting (see Appendix C). 5. TEST PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING PERFORMANCE ON CIGARETTE SMOKE. To determine the performance on cigarette smoke, perform the test procedures prescribed in Sections 5.1 and 5.2 sequentially during the same day (Appendix C, III.A). An appropriate smoke sample diluter (see Appendix A) is to be used with the cigarette smoke monitor. 5.1 Natural Decay Measurement 5.1.1 Place the air cleaner to be tested in the center of the chamber in accordance with Section 4.6.2 and set the air cleaner controls to the conditions for test. Test for proper operation, then shut off with switch external to test chamber.
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5.1.2 Operate the mixing fan and identify a log sheet file for the run. 5.1.3 Using the chamber HEPA filter, allow the test chamber air to clean until the background particulate matter for particles in the size range of 0.09 ?m to 1.0 ?m reaches a level of less than 20 particles/cc. Simultaneously operate the environmental control devices until the room conditions (temperature and RH) are as specified. 5.1.4 Procedure

5.1.4.1 When an acceptable test chamber background level is achieved (as indicated in Section 5.1.3) record the background concentration, turn off the chamber HEPA filter and environmental control devices. 5.1.4.2 Immediately light, then place one standard cigarette in the cigarette smoke generator, seal generator, open valve to chamber, and turn on 4-6 scfh (about 45 sec.) air supply to the cigarette generator to provide the required concentration. 5.1.4.3 Turn off air supply and close chamber valve. 5.1.4.4 Mix smoke for one minute, then turn off mixing fan. Wait one minute for fan to stop. 5.1.5 Three minutes after turning off mixing fan, begin to acquire the cigarette smoke particulate concentration. This test point is the initial chamber concentration (t=0). If the cigarette smoke concentration is not within the initial limits (refer to Section 4.4.1), terminate the run. 5.1.6 Acquire particle concentration data at one-minute intervals for 15 minutes beginning at the two-minute point. A minimum of nine data points having particle concentrations greater than the lower limit of instrument measurability are required. 5.1.7 (optional) Acquire particle concentration data at one-minute intervals for 20 minutes beginning at the two-minute point. A minimum of nine data points having particle concentrations greater than the lower limit of instrument measurability are required 5.1.8 Record the average RH and temperature of the chamber during the test period. Values outside the limits in 4.2 and 4.3 invalidate the run.
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5.1.9 Calculate the decay constant for cigarette smoke per Section 8.2. 5.1.10 Determine the acceptability of the run by calculating the standard deviation of the natural decay in accordance with Section 8.3. A standard deviation of less than the 95% confidence limit of 2 cfm or 10%, whichever is greater, determines the acceptability of the run. 5.2 Particulate Matter Removal Measurement 5.2.1 Operate the mixing fan and identify a log sheet file for the run. 5.2.2 Using the chamber HEPA filter, allow the test chamber air to clean until the background particulate matter or particles in size range of 0.09 ?m to 1.0 ?m reaches a level of less than 20 particles/cc and simultaneously operate the environmental control devices until the room conditions (temperature and RH) are as specified. 5.2.3 Procedure

5.2.3.1. When an acceptable test chamber background level is achieved (as indicated in Section 5.2.2), record the background concentration, turn off the chamber HEPA filter and environmental control devices. 5.2.3.2. Immediately light, then place one standard cigarette in the cigarette smoke generator, seal generator, open valve to chamber, and turn on 5-6 scfh (about 45 sec.) air supply to the cigarette generator to provide the required concentration. 5.2.3.3. Turn off air supply and close chamber valve. 5.2.3.4. Mix smoke for one minute, then turn off mixing fan. Wait one minute for fan to stop. Turn on air cleaner. 5.2.4 Three minutes after turning off mixing fan, begin to acquire the cigarette smoke particulate concentration. This test point is the initial chamber concentration (t=0). If the cigarette smoke concentration is not within the initial limits (refer to Section 4.4.1), terminate the run.

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5.2.5 Acquire particle concentration data at one-minute intervals for 15 minutes, beginning at the two minute point. A minimum of nine data points having particle concentrations greater than the lower limit of instrument measurability are required. 5.2.5 (optional) Acquire particle concentration data at one-minute intervals for 20 minutes, beginning at the two minute point. A minimum of nine data points having particle concentrations greater than the lower limit of instrument measurability are required 5.2.6 Turn off the air cleaner. Record the average RH and temperature of the chamber during the test period. 5.2.7 Calculate the decay constant for cigarette smoke per Section 8.2. 5.2.8 Determine the acceptability of the run by calculating the standard deviation of the particulate matter removal in accordance with Section 8.3. A standard deviation of less than the 95% confidence limit of 8 cfm or 10%, whichever is greater, determine the acceptability of the run. 5.2.9 Determine the CADR of the air cleaner in accordance with Section 8.4. 5.2.10 Determine the acceptability of the test by calculating an estimate of the standard deviation for a single test CADR according to Section 8.5. A two standard deviation estimate of less than 9 CADR or 10%, whichever is greater, determine an acceptable test. 6. TEST PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING PERFORMANCE ON TEST DUST To determine the performance on test dust, perform the test procedures prescribed in Sections 6.1 and 6.2 sequentially during the same day (Appendix C, III.B.) 6.1 Natural Decay Measurement 6.1.1 Place the air cleaner to be tested in the center of the chamber in accordance with Section 4.6.2 and set the air cleaner controls to the conditions for test. Test for proper operation, then shut off with switch external to test chamber. 6.1.2 Operate the mixing fan and identify a log sheet file for the run.
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6.1.3 Using the chamber HEPA filter, allow the test chamber air to clean until the background particulate matter for particles in the size range of 0.5 ?m to 3.0 ?m reaches a level of less than 0.03 particle/cc. Simultaneously operate environmental control devices until the room conditions (temperature and RH) are as specified. 6.1.4 Procedure

6.1.4.1 When an acceptable test chamber background level is achieved (as indicated in 6.1.3) record the background concentration. Turn off the chamber HEPA filter and environmental control devices. 6.1.4.2 Immediately turn on the air supply to the aerosol generator and then the aerosol generator. Continue to generate test dust until the particle concentration in the chamber reaches 200 to 400 particles/cc. 6.1.4.3. When the concentration is within initial test limits, turn off the aerosol generator air supply and aerosol generator. CAUTION: A radioactive source is utilized by the dust generator for charge neutralization. 6.1.4.4 Mix dust for one minute, then turn off mixing fan. Wait one minute for fan to stop. 6.1.5 Begin to acquire the particle concentration with the dust monitor. This test point is the initial chamber concentration (t=0). If the test dust concentration is not within initial limits, terminate the run. 6.1.6 Acquire particle concentration data at one-minute intervals for 15 minutes. A minimum of nine data points having particle concentrations greater than the lower limit of instrument measurability are required. 6.1.7 (optional) Acquire particle concentration data at one-minute intervals for 20 minutes. A minimum of nine data points having particle concentrations greater than the lower limit of instrument measurability are required. 6.1.8 Record the average RH and temperature of the chamber during the test period. 6.1.9 Calculate the decay constant for test dust per Section 8.2.
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6.1.10 Determine the acceptability of the run by calculating the standard deviation of the natural decay in accordance with Sections 8.3. A standard deviation of less than the 95% confidence limit of 1 cfm or 10%, whichever is greater, determines the acceptability of the run. 6.2 Particulate Matter Removal Measurement 6.2.1 Operate the mixing fan and identify a log sheet file for the run. 6.2.2 Using the chamber HEPA filter, allow the test chamber air to clean until the background particulate matter for particles is in the size range of 0.5 ?m to 3.0 ?m reaches a level of less than 0.03 particle/cc. Simultaneously operate the environmental control devices until the room conditions (temperature and RH) are as specified. 6.2.3 Procedure

6.2.3.1 When an acceptable test chamber background level is achieved (as indicated in 6.2.2), record the background concentration, turn off the chamber HEPA filter and environmental control devices. 6.2.3.2 Immediately turn on the air supply to the aerosol generator and then the aerosol generator. Continue to generate test dust until the particle concentration in the chamber reaches 200 to 400 particles/cc. 6.2.3.3 When the concentration is within initial test limits, turn off the aerosol generator air supply and aerosol generator. CAUTION: A radioactive source is utilized by the dust generator for neutralization. 6.2.3.4 Mix dust for one minute, then turn off mixing fan. Wait one minute for fan to stop. Turn on air cleaner. 6.2.4 Begin to acquire the particle concentration with the dust monitor. This test point is the initial chamber concentration (t=0). If the test dust concentration is not within the initial limits, terminate the run.

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6.2.5 Acquire particle concentration data at one-minute intervals for 15 minutes. A minimum of nine data points having particle concentrations greater than the lower limit of instrument measurability are required. 6.2.6 (optional) Acquire particle concentration data at one-minute intervals for 20 minutes. A minimum of nine data points having particle concentrations greater than the lower limit of instrument measurability are required. 6.2.7 Turn off the air cleaner. Record the average RH and temperature of the chamber during the test period. 6.2.8 Calculate the decay constant for test dust per Section 8.2 6.2.9 Determine the acceptability of the run by calculating the standard deviation of the particulate matter removal in accordance with Sections 8.3. A standard deviation of less than the 95% confidence limit of 3 cfm or 10%, whichever is greater, determine the acceptability of the run. 6.2.10 Determine the CADR of the air cleaner in accordance with Section 8.4. 6.2.11 Determine the acceptability of the test by calculating an estimate of the standard deviation for a single test CADR according to Section 8.5. A two standard deviation estimate of less than 10 CADR or 10%, whichever is greater, determines an acceptable test. 7. TEST PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING PERFORMANCE ON PAPER MULBERRY POLLEN To determine the performance on paper mulberry pollen, perform the test procedures prescribed in Sections 7.1 and 7.2 sequentially during the same day (see Appendix C, III.C). 7.1 Natural Decay Measurement 7.1.1 Place the air cleaner to be tested in the center of the chamber in accordance with Section 4.6.2 and set the air cleaner controls to the conditions for test. Test for proper operation, then shut off and switch external to test chamber. 7.1.2 Operate the mixing fan and identify a log sheet file for the run.
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7.1.3 Using the chamber HEPA filter, allow the test chamber air to clean until the background particulate matter for particles in the size range of 5 ?m to 11 ?m reaches a level of less than 0.03 particle/cc. Simultaneously operate the environmental control devices until the room conditions (temperature and RH) are as specified. 7.1.4 Procedure

7.1.4.1 When an acceptable test chamber background level is achieved (as indicated in Section 7.1.3), record the background concentration, turn off the chamber HEPA filter and environmental control devices. 7.1.4.2 Attach one of the preweighed paper mulberry pollen sample bottles to the pollen generator (see Appendix C, III.C). 7.1.4.3 Open the chamber valve to the pollen generator and turn on the pollen generator air supply (20 psig) for 10 seconds. Turn off the air supply and close the chamber valve. 7.1.4.4 Mix pollen for one minute then turn off mixing fan. Wait for fan to stop. 7.1.5 Begin to acquire the particle concentration with the dust monitor. This test point is the initial chamber concentration (t=0). If the pollen concentration is not within the initial limits, terminate the run. 7.1.6 Acquire particle concentration data at one-minute intervals for 10 minutes. A minimum of five points having particle concentrations greater than the lower limit of instrument measurability are required. 7.1.7 Record the average RH and temperature of the chamber during the test period. 7.1.8 Calculate the decay constant for pollen per Section 8.2. 7.1.9 Determine the acceptability of the run by calculating the standard deviation of the natural decay in accordance with Sections 8.3. A standard deviation of less than the 95% confidence limit of 9 cfm or 10%, whichever is greater, determine the acceptability of the run.
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7.2

Particulate Matter Removal Measurement 7.2.1 Operate the mixing fan and identify a log sheet file for the run. 7.2.2 Using the chamber HEPA filter allow the test chamber air to clean until the background particulate matter for particles in the size range of 5 ?m to 11?m reaches a level of less than 0.03 particle/cc. Simultaneously operate the environmental control devices until the room conditions (temperature and RH) are as specified. 7.2.3 Procedure

7.2.3.1 When an acceptable test chamber background level is achieved (as indicated in Section 7.2.2) record the background concentration, turn off the chamber HEPA filter and environmental control devices. 7.2.3.2 Attach one of the bottles from Section 7.1.4.2. 7.2.3.3 Open the chamber valve to the pollen generator and turn on the pollen generator air supply (20 psig) for ten seconds. Turn off the air supply and close the chamber valve. 7.2.3.4 Mix pollen for one minute, then turn off the mixing fan. Wait one minute for fan to stop. Turn on air cleaner. 7.2.4 Begin to acquire the particle concentration with the dust monitor. This test point is the initial chamber concentration (t=0). If the test pollen concentration is not within the initial limits, terminate the run. 7.2.5 Acquire particle concentration data at one-minute intervals for 10 minutes. A minimum of five data points having particle concentrations greater than the lower limit of instrument measurability are required. 7.2.6 Turn off the air cleaner. Record the average RH and temperature of the chamber during the test period. 7.2.7 Calculate the decay constant for pollen per Section 8.2.
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7.2.8 Determine the acceptability of the run by calculating the standard deviation of the particulate matter removal in accordance with Sections 8.3. A standard deviation of less than the 95% confidence limit of 22 cfm or 10%, whichever is greater, determine an acceptable run. 7.2.9 Determine the CADR of the air cleaner in accordance with Section 8.4. 7.2.10 Determine the acceptability of the test by calculating the standard deviation for a single test CADR according to Section 8.5. A two standard deviation estimate of less than 23 CADR or 20%, whichever is greater, determines an acceptable test. 8. CALCULATION PROCEDURES 8.1 Criteria for Elimination of Data Points from an AC-1 Run There are four criteria for eliminating a data point from an AC-1 run. The first is operator error. The second is equipment error either in the sensing, recording, or reporting of information. The third is the data point is not within the 95% prediction limit of the regression line. The fourth is decay below the minimum acceptable concentration limits of the instrument. Criterion 1. Any noted operator error results in the elimination of the data point whether or not the data point (corresponding to the time the error is noted) is found within acceptable or anticipated concentration ranges. Criterion 2. Any noted equipment error will result in the elimination of the data point (corresponding to the time the error is noted) whether or not the data point is found within acceptable or anticipated concentration ranges. Criterion 3. Any data points found to be outside the 95% prediction limits of the regression slope line will result in the elimination of the data point. The cause of the outlier data may or may not be due to chamber instrumentation, air cleaner inconsistency, or other chamber effects. Criterion 4. Any data point resulting in a reported concentration below the instrument measurability limit will be eliminated along with all subsequent data points in the run. Subsequent data points are eliminated based on the anticipated theoretical reduction of concentration with time. Any data point taken after one rejected for Criterion 4 would be theoretically expected to also be eliminated by Criterion 4.

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8.2 Calculating the Decay Constant Since the chamber air exchange is negligible (maximum contribution to slope of 0.00051) the air exchange rate is not included in the calculations. 8.2.1 The decay constant, k, for particulate matter is based on the formula:
Cti ? Cie? kti

where:
Cti ? concentrat at time ti (particles/cc) ion k ? decay rate constant(minutes -1) ti ? time (minutes)

8.2.2 The decay constant, k, is obtained using the linear regression on the lnCti and ti using the formula: SXY k ?[ ] Sxx where:
n n 1 n SXY ? ? ti ln Cti ? (? ti )(? ln Cti ) n i ?1 i ?1 i ?1

n 1 n SXX ? ? (ti ) 2 ? (? ti ) 2 n i ?1 i ?1

1 n Syy ? ?1n Cti ? (? ln Cti ) n i ?1 i ?1
2

n

2

When the above calculations are used for natural decay measurements in Sections 5.1, 6.1 and 7.1, the results represent the natural decay rate in the room air. When the above calculations are used for particulate matter removal measurements in Sections 5.2, 6.2, and 7.2, the results represent the natural decay rate plus the particulate matter removal rate. 8.3 Computation of the Standard Deviation Estimate for the Slope of One Regression Line Step 1: Calculation of Standard Deviation of a Regression Line. An estimate of the standard deviation about the regression line is calculated as follows:

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Sreg ?

1 n ? [ln Cti ? b ? mti ]2 n ? 2 i ?1

where:

sreg

=

estimated value of the overall standard deviation

n =

number of pairs of data points used in the regression

the intercept of the regression line (equivalent to an estimated intital b = concentration) in particles/cc

m =
ti =
1nCti =

the slope of the regression line (minutes-1) time at the data point in minutes natural logarithm of the concentration at time ti in particles/cc.

Step 2: Calculation of Standard Deviation Estimate of the Regression Line Slope. The Standard Deviation Estimate of the slope of the regression line is calculated as follows:
Sslope ? S 2 reg Sxx

8.4 Performance Calculation The performance of a portable household room air cleaner is represented by a clean air delivery rate (CADR). A method for calculating the clean air delivery rate is: CADR = V(ke - kn) where: V= volume of test chamber, cu. ft. ke= measured decay rate, min-1 kn = natural decay rate, min 8.5
-1

Calculation of the Standard Deviation Estimate of the CADR for a Single Test The Standard Deviation Estimate as described above for each of the natural and total decay lines can be combined using error propagation analysis on the equation used to compute the CADR in Section 8.4.
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The chamber volume is taken as a constant and the following equation is used to estimate the standard deviation for the CADR computed for the pair of regression lines.

s?CADR? ? 1008 s(slope, ke) 2 ? s?slope, kn ?
where: s(CADR) = the estimated standard deviation for CADR

2

s(slope,ke) = the estimated standard deviation of the total decay rate s(slope,kn) = the estimated standard deviation of the natural decay rate 1008 = the volume of the test chamber, treated as a constant, which is used to put the estimated standard deviation value on a CADR basis 9. SAFETY It is recommended that household room air cleaners meet the safety requirements of Underwriters Laboratories Inc., Standard No. 867, Standard for Electrostatic Air Cleaners, latest edition*, and UL 507, Standard for Fans, latest edition*.

*

Copies are available from Underwriters Laboratories Inc., 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, Illinois 60062; 1285 Walt Whitman Road, Melville, Long Island, New York 11747; and 1655 Scott Boulevard, Santa Clara, California 95050.
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APPENDIX A DETAILS OF TEST CHAMBER CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT Test Chamber Construction
(Equivalent Material and Equipment Substitutes Are Acceptable)

Note: No silicone caulk is to be used in the test chamber.
Chamber size: Inside dimensions, 10 ? ft. x 12 ft. x 8 ft., 1008 ft3

Framework:

Standard 2 inches x 4 inches construction, sealed at floor line, inside and outside with caulking compound ? inch wallboard over 3/8 plywood Seamless, smooth surface linoleum full width vinyl

Walls: Flooring: Filtration:

High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter 99.97% efficient for 0.3 m DOP smoke (1000 cfm). Prefilter 60% ASHRAE efficiency roughing filter 20-30% ASHRAE efficiency White, washable latex semi-gloss 3 blade, 36 inch, ceiling fan 395 RPM Stock No. 4C852 Amps 0.5, Volts 120, Weight 28 lbs or equivalent. Available from W.W. Grainger

Paint: Ceiling Fan:

Motor and Blower for Reconditioning Loop:

750 cfm fan, 4 inch WG, 3/4 HP motor, 208 Volts, 3 phase

18

AHAM AIR CLEANER CERTIFICATION CHAMBER

(O) (N)

(P) (T)

(Q)

(R) (S)

(L)

(M) (K)

(J) (F) (G) (H) (I) (E)

(D)

(C) (B) (A) (A) VOLTAGE REGULATOR (B) DATA ACQUISITION AND CONTROL INTERFACE (C) AIR SUPPLY (FILTER/DRIER) (D) COMPUTER TERMINAL (E) SMOKE POT (F) POLLEN GENERATOR (G) DUST AND POLLEN MONITOR (H) SMOKE MONITOR ( I ) SMOKE DILUTER (J) (K) (L) (M) (N) (O) (P) (Q) (R) (S) (T) DUST GENERATOR TEST UNIT CEILING FAN RETURN AIR DAMPER (2) INDUCTION FAN HENIDIFIER PREFILTER BLOWER SECTION HEPA FILTER ELECTRIC HEATER SUPPLY AIR DAMPER

19

TEST CHAMBER EQUIPMENT (Equivalent Substitutes are Acceptable) Recirculation Fan
Available from: W.W. Grainger, Inc. 6285 E. Molloy Rd. Syracuse NY 13057 800/323-0620 Model No. 4C448 Shaded Pole Blower

Relative Humidity - Temperature Sensor
Available from: Vaisala, Inc. 100 Commerce Way Woburn, MA 01801 Model HMW 3OYB

Temperature - Relative Humidity Reconditioning Loop Equipment Humidifier
Available from: Skuttle Mfg., Co. Route 1 Box 16A Marietta OH 45750 Model No. 35-2 Flow-Thru Power Humidifier ( D.F. Brandt, Inc.) (8152 Kirkville Road) ( Kirkville, N.Y. 13082) ( RESDELUX) (Steam Humidifier )

Cooling/Dehumidifying Equipment
Available from: Trane Co. LaCrosse, WI 54601 Model No. XE900 1 ton condensing unit Model EAS Evaporator Coil

Reheater
Available from: INDEECO 425 Hanley Industrial Court St. Louis MO 63144 10kw duct heater

20

Voltage Regulator
Available from: Newark Electronics 4801 N. Ravenswood Ave. Chicago, IL 60640 312/784-5100 Sola Type 63-23-220-8 2 kVA 60 Hz Single phase minicomputer regulator

Watt Transducer
Available from: Scientific Columbus, Inc. 1900 Arlingate Lane Columbus, OH 43228 Model XL5C5A2 150V, 5A watt transducer (Ohio Semitronics Inc.) (4242 Reynolds Drive) ( Hilliard, OH 43026) (800-537-6732) AGH-002B 300V, 5A watt transducer

Particulate Matter Generation and Measurement Dust Generator
TSI Inc P.O. Box 43394 St. Paul MN 55164 612/483-0900 Model 3400 Fluidized Bed Aerosol Generator

Dust Neutralizer
TSI Inc. P.O. Box 43394 St. Paul MN 55164 612/483-0900 Model 3012 Aerosol Neutralizer

Dust Monitor
TSI Inc. P.O. Box 43394 St. Paul MN 55164 612/483-0900 Model APS-3310 Aerodynamic Particle Sizer

21

Cigarette Smoke Monitor
Particle Measuring Systems, Inc. 1855 South 57th Court Boulder CO 80301 303/445/7100 Active Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer System PMS Model LAS-X CRT High Sensitivity Laser Aerosol Spectrometer Probe PMS Model HS-LAS 32 Ch 0.0654-1.00

Pollen Generator
2 oz. screw-top glass laboratory sample jars sealed air tight with nominal 1/4 inch brass fittings for air entry, and pollen discharge.

Air Supply
TSI Inc. P.O. box 43394 St. Paul MN 55164 612/483-0900 Model 3074 - Air Supply System

Isokinetic Diluter
Stainless Design Corp. Old King Hwy P.O. Box 401 Mt. Marion NY 12456 Custom Aerosol diluter - six to one dilution ratio at 1 cc/sec total flow rate.

22

APPENDIX B SOURCES OF TEST MATERIALS (Equivalent Substitutes are Acceptable) Air Cleaner Test Dust:
PTI Inc. P.O. Box 146 1119 Riverwood Drive Burnsville, MN 55337 612/894-8737 Fine Air Cleaner Test Dust

Cigarettes:
Tobacco and Health Research Institute University of Kentucky Lexington KY 40506 IR4F Research Cigarettes 2R4F Research Cigarettes

Paper Mulberry Pollen: (Non-defatted)
Greer Laboratories Inc. Box 800 Lenoir, NC 28645

23

APPENDIX C STANDARD LABORATORY OPERATION PROCEDURES WHEN TESTING PORTABLE CORD-CONNECTED ROOM AIR CLEANERS I. Receipt of Test Units A. Units received for testing should be inspected upon receipt for shipping damage or other obvious visual defects. The supplier of the units should be notified immediately of defects or damage and provide a disposition. B. II. Units should be logged in and forwarded to the test facility run-in room.

Test Room Preparation Perform Startup and Cleaning Procedures in accordance with Sections VI and VII of this appendix.

III. Contaminant Preparation A. Tobacco Smoke 1. Store an adequate number of cigarettes from a single pack at room temperature and a relative humidity of 70% for 24 to 72 hours prior to a test series. Smoke Generator, including injection tube, should be cleaned. For long term storage (i.e. more than 30 days) of Test Standard Cigarettes (Appendix B), keep at 4oC + 2oC and 40-60% RH.

2. 3.

B.

Air Cleaner Test Dust 1. 2. 3. Special preparations of contaminant are not necessary. Set pressure for dispersing dust (40 to 60 psig) and check dryer. The test dust specified in Section 3.3.2 is to be stored in a desiccating chamber with a maximum RH of 20%.

C. Paper Mulberry Pollen 1. 1.2g of uniformly mixed pollen is divided into 4 approximately equal sections using a razor blade or small fine edged micro-spatula. Load each 1/4 of the pollen into separate generator jars.

2.

24

3. 4. 5.

Store loaded generator jars in desiccator with drying agent for a minimum of 24 hours prior to testing. When ready to test, adjust air pressure of the pollen generator to 20 psig. The pollen specified in Section 3.3.3 is to be stored in a desiccating chamber with a maximum RH of 20%. Pollen is to be divided in an area having no more than 40% RH.

IV. Startup Procedures Note: These procedures are specific to the equipment listed in Appendix A.

A. Turn on main power to computer and reconditioning system. B. Start Reconditioning Loop and turn on Recirculation Fan to get room ambient conditions.

C. Prior to Dust or Pollen tests, turn on APS 3310 as follows: - Power switch on, wait ten seconds. - Pump switch on, wait ten seconds. - Laser switch on. D. Prior to Smoke tests, turn on LAS-X as follows: HS-LAS - Power switch on, wait ten seconds - Adjust sample flow (1 cc/sec); sheath flow (20 cc/sec) - Press reset button, wait ten seconds Delete - Press start button. Delete - Wait 30 seconds - Check laser reference voltage ( must be above 4.5 v. If low, adust per manufactures instructions E. Clean Test Room, according to procedures in Section VI. F. When test room conditions are safely within requirements, start test runs.

V. Shutdown Procedures A. Turn on Reconditioning loop to remove residual particulates. B. Power down APS 3310 in this order: - Laser switch - Pump switch - Power switch HS-LAS

C. Power down LAS-X by turning off power switch. D. Turn off Recirculation Fan.
25

E. F.

Perform full daily cleaning procedures (Section VI and VII). Turn off Main power switch.

VI. Daily startup Cleaning Procedures A. Wash smoke generator and used pollen jars. B. Use damp lint-free wipe to clean inside lids of smoke generator and pollen generator.

C. Damp sponge countertops and computer external surfaces. D. Damp mop floor and anti-static mat. E. Lift instruments and dust generator (carefully) and wipe bottom surface and table tops.

VII. Test Room Cleaning Procedures (shutdown and as required) Note: These procedures were written for a specific facility and should be regarded as typical. They have been found to be sufficient to achieve required test chamber background concentrations.

A. Prepare Anti-Static cleaning solution. 1. 2. 3. B. Fill bucket ? full with warm water. Add ? cap full of anti-static cleaning liquid and mix. Use only damp sponge and mop (no dripping or sloshing).

Mop Ceiling - Damp mop ceiling, including light fixture lenses. Rinse, wring out mop and change water frequently during mopping.

C. Mop Walls - Starting at wall next to door, damp mop walls in sections, working around the room. Rinse, wring out mop and change water frequently during mopping. D. Wash window - Wash with anti-static solution. Wipe with lint-free wipes. E. Sponge - Start at door, working around the room, using the sponge on all small surfaces. Rinse and wring out sponge frequently. Clean surfaces. Ceiling fan, including braces (perform first) Door, knob, closer and molding Temperature and RH sensor covers Small sections of wall Return air damper, linkage, and motor Recirculation fan and bracket, including fan blades Dust generator and pedestal Second Return air damper, linkage, and motor
26

Instrument and table tops and legs F. Mop Floor - Damp mop room floor, starting at corner farthest from the door and working in sections toward the door. Rinse, wring out mop, and change water frequently during mopping.

VIII. Short Term Maintenance and Calibration Procedures A. Perform tracer gas analysis on test chamber to determine air leakage rate at 6-month intervals. B. Check test chamber interior walls, ceiling and joints for damage and repair as necessary. C. Blow out APS 3310 chassis every two weeks using 20-40 psig filtered compressed air. IX. Long Term Maintenance and Calibration Procedures A. Return APS 3310 and LAS-X particle counters for cleaning and calibration annually. HS-LAS B. Paint interior walls and ceiling of test chamber annually.

27

APPENDIX D STANDARDIZATION OF AC-1 CALCULATIONS Rounding Procedures for Data and Calculations 1. Raw data - round to four (4) significant figures - Dust 111.12 - Smoke 22,222 - Pollen 9.666 2. = 111.1 = 22,220 = 9.667

Slope of decay line - round to five (5) decimal places 0.05674323 = 0.15674 0.01326781 = 0.01327

3.

CADR and estimated value of two sigma round to one (1) decimal place for tabulation and calculation 150.3245 = 150.3 round to nearest whole number for Certification, Verification or other formal reporting. 150.3 = 150 The standard deviation of the slope of the regression line will be rounded to four (4) significant figures prior to computing the two sigma estimate.

28

Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers 1111 19th Street, NW ? Suite 402 ? Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 872-5955 ? Website: www.aham.org


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