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非谓语动词 --动词ing 形式






非谓语动词使用条件
一个句子当中,已经存在一个主句(谓语动 词),又没有连词的情况下, 还有别的动词 出现时,这些动词就充当了非谓语动词。
他过马路的时候被一辆自行车撞到了。(knock down)

When he was crossing the road, he was knocke

d down by a bike. Crossing the road, he was knocked down by a bike.

v.-ing 形式的时态和语态
主动 被动

一般时
完成时
否定形式

doing having done

being done having been done

not doing

动名词做主语
1.动词-ing形式做主语,谓语动词用单数。
Learning new words is very important for me. 学习新单词对我来说非常重要。 Talking is easier than doing. 说比做容易。 Going to bed early and getting up early is considered to be a good habit.

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2.it做形式主语,而动名词或动名词短语是真正主语后置,名词

或形容词在句中做表语。
常见的做表语的有:no use, no good, fun, a waste of

time,worthwhile 等。
e.g. Is it worthwhile quarrelling with her? It was no use sending him to a hospital. 送他到医院没有用。 It's a waste of time arguing with him about it. 和他争论这件事是浪费时间。
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3.句型“There be no+动词-ing形式”中做主语。

There is no knowing when this might happen again. 没法预料这样的事情什么时候 会再发生。 There isn't any telling about what they will do. 他们打算干什么无人知晓。 There is no joking about such matter. 这种事开不得玩笑. 注意:There is/was no use/good doing... 做...无用/没有好处 There is/was no point doing...做...没有意义 做...没有必要 There is no need to do...
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动名词做宾语
1.只能接动名词做宾语的动词常见的有: suggest,finish,avoid,escape, can't help(禁不住), mind(介意),enjoy,consider,insist, allow, risk, practise, miss,excuse,advise,keep,give up等。

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You can't help wondering how the Egyptian were able to build pyramids. 你禁不住想知道埃及人怎么能建造这些金字塔。 The boy practised speaking English every day. 这个男孩每天练习说英语。 I suggest going for a walk. 我建议去散步。

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2.动名词做介词的宾语

常用的这类介词短语有:instead of,look forward to,object to,think of,dream of,hear of,feel like,succeed in,be good at,spend...in..., devote...to... , pay attention to, insist on, stick to, be

used to, have difficulty/trouble(+in)+doing, be
busy(in)+doing,等。

e.g. We are looking forward to coming to China.
我们期待着来中国。
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3.want,need和require这三个词后接动名词的主动形式,具 有被动含义。

His clothes needed mending(to be mended). 他的衣服需要缝补。 These young trees will require looking after. 这些幼苗需要细心照料。

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4.既可接动名词又可接不定式作宾语的动词

A.在like,love,hate,prefer,begin,start等动词 之后,用-ing或不定式意义上没有什么不同,只是侧 重点有些不同,动名词表示泛指的动作,不定式表 示具体的一次性动作。

e.g. We hate working with persons of this kind.
我们不喜欢和这种人共事。

We hate to work with that person.
我们不喜欢和那个人共事。
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B.有些动词如remember, forget, regret,try , stop, go on ,mean, 等后既可接动词不定式又 可接动名词,但意义不同。

remember/forget/regret+ to do 表该动作未曾发生
remember/forget/regret+ doing表该动作已发生

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stop to do 停止一件事去做另一件事 stop doing停止做同一件事 go on to do 继续做另一件事 go on doing继续做同一件事 mean to do 打算做某事 mean doing意味着 try to do 努力做某事 try doing 试一试

can't help doing 禁不住做某事 can't help to do 不能帮助做某事 be used to doing 习惯于做某事 be used to do 被用来做某事 used to do 过去常常做某事

拓展

? 1.动词-ing形式的复合结构:在其前加上逻辑 主语来强调动作的执行者,该逻辑主语是形容 词性物主代词或名词所有格;当逻辑主语不出 现在句首时,可用人称代词宾格或名词普通格。 ? Do you mind my opening the window? ? I really can't understand you treatig her like that. ? My coming late made my teacher angry.

? 2.动词-ing形式的否定形式是在其前面加not ? Not cleaning her teech made her breath smell bad.
? Your schoolmate's not coming home on time made her parents worried. ? John apologized for his not being able to inform me of the change in the plan.

v.-ing形式作定语 v.-ing形式作宾语补足语

v.-ing形式作表语

Revision
-ing形式作主语和宾语的用法 Translate the following sentences into Chinese. 1. Talking to him is talking to a wall.
对他说话等于对牛弹琴。

2. Smoking may cause cancer.
吸烟会致癌。

3. Walking is my sole exercise.
散步是我唯一的运动。

4. Talking mends no holes.
(谚)空谈无济于事。

5. I suggest bringing the meeting to an end.
我建议结束会议。

6. He admitted taking the money.
他承认钱是他拿的。

7. I couldn’t help laughing.
我禁不住笑了起来。

8. Your coat needs brushing.
你的大衣需要刷一下。

一、-ing形式作定语
1. 单个动词的-ing形式作定语位于被修饰名词 的前面,既可以表示被修饰者的作用或功能, 也可以表示被修饰者的动作或状态。如:

drinking water = water for drinking a walking stick = a stick for walking a reading room = a room for reading

表作用或功能

boiling water =water that is boiling a developing country = a country that is developing a surprising result = a result that is surprising 一个惊人的结果
表正在进行的动作或状态

2. -ing形式短语作定语时, 放在所修饰的 名词之后, 并且在意思上相当于一个定 语从句。 They lived in a room facing the street. = They lived in a room that faces the street. The man standing there is Peter’s father. = The man who is standing there is Peter’s father.

3、如果一个及物动词作定语,既要表达进行 意味,又要表达被动意味时,可用现在分词 的被动语态。例如: The meeting being held is very important.

正召开的会议很重要。
The skyscraper being built is still higher than that built the year before last. 正在建的那幢摩天大楼比前年建的那幢还高。

二、-ing形式作宾语补足语 1. 1) 动词-ing形式作宾语补足语常放 在宾语后面,强调动作的主动,正在 进行或表示一种状态。如: When we returned to the school, we found a stranger standing at the entrance. 当我们回到学校时, 发现一个陌生 人站在大门口。

We found the snake eating the eggs.
我们发现蛇正在吃鸡蛋。

I found a bag lying on the ground.
我发现地板上放着一个包。

The boss kept the workers working the

whole night.
那老板让工人整夜地工作。

2)当主句转换为被动结构时, 原来作宾语
补足语的动词-ing形式便转换为主语补足语。

如:

They found the result very satisfying.

= The result is found very satisfying.
这个结果很令人满意。

They heard him singing in the next room. = He was heard singing in the next room.
有人听到他在隔壁房间唱歌。

We mustn’t keep them waiting. = They mustn’t be kept waiting.
千万不能让他们等。

2. 能用-ing形式作宾语补足语的几类动词: 1) 表示感觉和心理状态的动词,常见的 有see, hear, feel, smell, find, notice, observe, watch,look at, listen to等。如:

e.g.We saw a light burning in the window. I felt somebody patting me on the shoulder. Can you smell anything burning? Listen to the birds singing.

2) 表示指使意义的动词,常见的有have, set, keep, get, catch, leave等。如: I won’t have you doing that. This set me thinking.

I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.
I can’t get the clock going again.

You won’t catch me doing that again.
你看吧,我决不会做那种事了。

3.介词with后也可接动词-ing形式作宾补, 此时with后的宾语是动词-ing形式动作的 发出者。

? With the boy leading the road, we could get the place easily.

4. see, hear, feel, watch等动词之后用-ing形
式和动词不定式作宾语补足语的区别:
① 前者表示动作正在进行,而后者表示

(或强调)动作从开始到结束的全过程。如: We passed by the classmates and saw the teacher making the experiment. 我们走过教室,看见老师在做实验。 We sat an hour and watched the teacher make the experiment. 我们坐了一个小时,看老师做实验。

三、-ing形式作表语 1. -ing形式作表语时,放在系动词be, become, get(变得), look(看起来), seem, appear(似乎), sound (听起来), feel (摸起来), keep等之后。 e.g. Her hobby is painting. My job is looking after the children. It sounds interesting. The book seems boring.

2.动词ing形式做主语和表语应遵循对 称原则,即主语用动词ing形式时,表 语也用动词ing形式。 Seeing is believing.

眼见为实。

Exercises
Point out the usage of the –ing form. 1. Do you find it funny to see someone sliding on a banana skin, bumping into someone else round a corner, or falling down a hole in the road? sliding, bumping, falling
作宾语补足语

2. He became famous for using a particular form of acting, including mime and farce. using 作介词for的宾语 including作状语

3. …But he was lived by all who

watched the films for his determination
in overcoming difficulties and being

kind even when people were unkind to
him.

overcoming作介词宾语

4. That was the problem facing Charlie
Chaplin in one of his most famous films.

facing 作定语
5. He loved it by using nonverbal

humor.
using 作介词宾语

6. Their job is “panning for gold”. panning 作表语 7. Finally he tries cutting and eating the bottom of the shoe. cutting, eating 作宾语

?

Not that Charlie's own life was easy! He was born in a poor family in 1889. His parents were both poor music hall performers. You may find it astonishing that Charlie was taught to sing as soon as he could speak and dance as soon as he could walk. Such training was common in acting families at this time, especially when the family income was often uncertain.

? Unfortunately his father died, leaving the family even worse off, so Charlie spent his childhood looking after his sick mother and his brother. By his teens, Charlie had, through his humour, become one of the most popular child actors in England. He could mime and act the fool doing ordinary everyday tasks. No one was ever bored watching him -his subtle acting made everything entertaining.

Please read the sentences carefully,
trying to pick out the errors and then correct them. 1. I am looking forward to visit Charlie Chaplin Museum in Switzerland next week. visiting

2. Many people still enjoy seeing Charlie Chaplin’s silent films.√

4. Charlie’s nonverbal humor often makes people bursting with laughter. burst

5. We are all fond of Charlie’s early films, which we think are more interested. interesting 6. I missed to see the beginning of the film City Lights the other day. seeing 7. I wouldn’t mind to see The Gold Rush again with you tonight. seeing

8. Charlie’s job was entertain people, wasn’t he?entertaining

从 A、B、C、D 四个选项中,选出可以

填入空白处的最佳选项。

1. Don’t leave the water _______ while you brush your teeth. A. run B. running C. being run D. to run

2. Tell Mary that there’s someone ____ for her at the door. A. waiting B. waited C. waits D. to wait 3. The _______ waiter came up to us and said, “You are welcome.” A. smiling B. smiled C. smile D. to smile

4. A phone call sent him _______ to the hospital. A. hurry B. hurrying C. to hurry D. hurried

5. Do you know the boy _______ under the big tree? A. lay B. lain C. laying D. lying

6. I can hardly imagine Peter _______

across the Atlantic Ocean in five days.
A. sail B. to sail

C. sailing

D. to have sailed

7. There are lots of places of interest
_______ in our city.

A. needs repairing
B. needing repaired

C. needed repairing
D. needing to be repaired

8. The drunken husband knocked against the table and sent the bowls _______ in all directions before he was sent _______ by his wife. A. flying; to sleep B. flying; sleeping C. to fly; to sleeping D. to fly; to sleep

9. When we got back from the cinema, we found the lamp _______ but the door _______. A. being on; shut B. burning; shutting

C. burning; shut
D. on; shutting

10. As is known to us all, traveling is _____, but we often feel _____ when we are back from travels. A. interesting; tired B. interested; tiring C. interesting; tiring D. interested; tired

11. The woman found it no good _____ her daughter too much money. A. giving B. being given C. given D. gave 12. As the stone was too heavy to move, I left it _____on the ground. A. laying B. lay C. lying D. lain

13. John’s bad habit is _____ without thorough understanding. A. read C. to be read B. being read D. reading

Unit 4

2.动词-ing形式的作用: 观察下列例句,思考划线部分作用。
(1) This is an interesting book. ( 定语 ) (2) The man sitting by the window is our maths teacher. ( ) 定语 (3) Seeing the teacher entering the room, the students stood up. ( 状语 ) (4) I saw the boy walking on the stree yesterday. ( 宾补 ) (5) Playing football is his favotire sport. (主语 ) (6) I didn’t stop working last night. ( 宾语 ) (7) My work is teaching English. ( 表语 )

归纳总结:
动词非谓语形式 ◆动词-ing是____________________中的一种 谓语 ,单独使用时,能在句中做除______之外的 任何其他句子成分。如:主语、宾语、表语、 定语、状语、宾补等。 主动 ◆在语态上,动词-ing表示_____(主动/被动的 正在进行 动作。在时间上,动词-ing一般表示_______ (正在进行/已经完成)的动作。

动词-ing做状语
动词-ing在语法功能上相当于动词、形容词 和副词。现在分词通常和逻辑主语之间存在 主动关系。但要注意它地各种形式变化: 主动形式 一般式 doing 完成式 having done 被动形式 being done having been done

否定式 not doing

现在分词作状语
现在分词作状语往往和逻辑主语之间存在主 动关系。现在分词作状语,常常用来表示原 因、时间、方式、结果、条件、伴随状况等。 现在分词一般不用作表目的状语(通常用不

定式表目的地状语)。

1)表时间状语
When I was walking in the street, I came across an old friend of mine. = Walking in the street, I came across an old friend of mine. While he was waiting for the bus, he read a copy of China Daily.

= Waiting for the bus, he read a copy of China Daily.

2) 表原因状语
Because he was ill, he didn’t go to school. = Being ill, he didn’t go to school. Since you are a student, you should study hard. = Being a student, you should study hard. As I thought he might be at home, I called him. = Thinking he might be at home, I called him.

3)表方式、伴随情况的状语 :
作伴随状语的分词表示的动作,必须是主语的

一个 动作,或是与谓语所表示的动作(或状态)
同时发生,或是对谓语表示的动词(或状态)

作进一步的补充说明。
He sat on the sofa, and watched TV.

= He sat on the sofa, watching TV.

他们笑着谈着走进了教室。
Laughing and talking they went into the ____________________, classroom. 他斜靠(lean)着墙站着。 He stood ___________________the wall.(=He leaning against stood and leaned against the wall.)

4) 表结果 (顺其自然的结果)
Her mother died in 1990, and left her with her younger brother. = Her mother died in 1990, leaving her with her younger brother. 全国到处在传唱这首歌曲,使它成了一首最受 欢迎地歌曲。 The song is sung all over the making it the most popular song country,_____________________________.

5)表条件
If you use your head, you will find a way. = Using your head, you will find a way. 一直往前走,你就会看到一座白色地房子。 Walking ahead you will see a white house. ______________,

观察下列2个句子, 体会having done与 doing的不同的用法
(1) Having written the letter, John went to the post office. (2) Seeing the beautiful sight, the

children felt excited. ? 总结: ① 完成式 having done 表动作有先有后
V-ing

② 一般式

doing

表动作同时发生

Exercise1: 1). __ the child to bed, she began to correct the students’ homework. A. Sending B. Being sent C. Sent D. Having sent
crossing 2). Be careful when / while ________ (cross)the street. 3). Hearing the news ( 听到这个消息) , _____________ we got excited.

主动 被动 举一反三 : ①一般式 doing being done V-ing ② 完成式having done having been done Exercise2: 1).她被蛇咬了三次后,她看见蛇后就害怕。 Having been bitten by the snake ________________________, for three times she feels frightened when seeing the snake. 2).正在进行的那个会议非常重要。 The meeting being held now is of great importance. ____________________________________

Exercise3: 用having been told \ having told填空:

? 1)______________him the answer several Having told timeS, I did’t know whether he could understand.

Having been told ? 2)_______________the answer several times , he still couldn’t sovle the question.
having done
主句主语为动作的发出者。

归纳

having been done 主句主语为动作的承受者。

总结: doing ( 正在发生的主动的动作) being done ( 正在发生的被动的动作)
having done ( 已经发生的主动的动作) having been done ( 已经发生的被动的动作)

前后主语是否一致是解题的关键:
-ing形式作状语时, 它的逻辑主语必须与主 句的主语是一致的。

When we stand on the hill, we can see our school.

(When) Standing on the hill ,we can see
…..

根据A句完成B句,使两句意思不变。 1. A: Having done their homework, the children played football. B: After they had done their homework the _______________________________, children played football. 2. A: If you work hard, you will do well in the exam. B: _______________, you will do well in the Working hard exam.

3. A: She sat there and stared at the tree. B: She sat there, ___________________. staring at the tree 4. A: Although he is not rich, he helped the poor generously. B: Not being rich he helped the poor ____________, generously.

Choose the best answer.
B 1. They set out ____ for the ____ boy. A. searching; losing C. to search; lost B. searching; lost D. searched; losing

D 2. The student sat there, ____ what to do.

A. doesn’t knowing
C. not know

B. didn’t knowing
D. not knowing

3. He sat there _____ , with his head on his B hand.
A. and think C. thought B. thinking D. being thought

4. The ____ Prime Minister expressed his C satisfaction with his talks, ___ that he had enjoyed his stay here.

A. visiting; add
C. visiting; adding

B. visited; adding
D. visited; added

5. The stranger said something in _______ voice and the little girl was very much ________ A A. frightening, frightened B. frightened, frightening C. frightening, frightening D. frightened, frightened

B 6. ________the piano, someone suddenly

knocked at the door. A. Playing B. When I was playing C. Repairing D. Examining

7. Mother caught the boy ______ in the D
corner.

A. smoke
C. being smoked

B. to smoke
D. smoking

9. ______ the programme, they have C

to stay there for another 2 weeks.
A. Not completing

B. Not completed
C. Not having completed

D. Having not completed

10. “We can’t go out in this weather”, said Bob, ____ out of the window. A A. looking B. to look C. looked D. having looked

Correct the sentences. 1. Having not seen the film, I can’t tell you Not having what I think of it. 2. The men worked for extra hours got an extra pay. working 3. Seen from the top of the hill, we find the city more beautiful. Seeing 4. Generally speak, facial expressions are helpful communications, too. speaking

5. “ Can’t you read?” the man said,
angrily pointed to the notice on the wall. pointing 6. Knocking at the door before entering,

Knock 7. European football is played in 80 countries, made it the most popular
sport in the world. making

please.


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非谓语动词ing | 非谓语动词的三种形式 | 非谓语动词形式 | 非谓语动词的否定形式 | 非谓语动词的形式 | 非谓语动词三种形式 | 动词ing形式 | 动词ing形式的用法 |