定义：在复合句中作状语的从句 功能：状语从句在主从复合句中修饰主句中的动词，形容词或副词，或整个主句 分类：按意义可分为时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、方式、比较、让步等状语从句。 位置：从句的位置放在句首，也可放在句末。放在句首时，从句后面常用一个逗号，放在句 末时，从句前一般不用逗号。
1、各种从属连词的含义及用法比较； 2、no matter wh- 与 wh-ever 引导的从句的区别； 3、状语从句的时态问题；4、状语从句倒装及省略； 5、状语从句与其它从句的区别。
三：九种常见状语从句用法 1. 时间状语从句
引导时间状语从句的从属连词 1）.基本类：before、after、when、while、as、since、till、until、once, as soon as, etc. 2）. 名词类 the moment ,the minute, the second, the instant,etc. (一?就?); every time, each time, the last time, the first time, the day, the year, the morning etc. 3）. 副词类：immediately, directly, instantly, etc. (一...就...) 4）.句型类：no sooner?than?, hardly/scarcely? when?, etc. (一?就?) 注意：1. when, as, while When ①when 表示时间点时，从句中用短暂性动词；表示时间段时，用持续性动词。 Eg:. When they were still talking and laughing, the teacher came in. （when 表示段时间） 2). He waved a hello when he saw her.（when 表示点时间） ②. 可用作并列连词，其意义为“这时 ,突然” ，相当于 and then suddenly。常用于下列句式： be doing / be about to do sth/ be on the point of doing / have/had done + when Eg.1). I was about to go out when the door bell rang. 2). One evening I was having my dinner when an unexpected friend knocked my door. ③. 还可以表示原因,意思是 “既然” ，相当于 since; considering that Eg. 1). It was foolish of you to take a taxi when you could easily walk there in five minutes . 2). How can he get good grades when he won't study? While ①while 通常表示一段时间，从句中常用持续性动词作谓语。 Eg: Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁。 ②while 有时可以作并列连词，表示对比，可译成“然而??” 。 Eg: 1). I am fond of English while he likes maths. ③while 有时可引导让步状语从句，意思是“虽然” 。 Eg. While they love the children, they are strict with them. As ①表示 一边??一边??，强调从句和主句中两个动作交替进行或同步进行。 eg: She is singing a song as she took a bath. ② as 表示随着 eg: As time goes on, it's getting warmer and warmer. 2. till, until 和 not?until 1）until /till 用于肯定句时，表示直到 ? 为止，主句必须为持续性动词。
eg: We shall wait until / till he comes back. 2） Not??until/till 表示直到??才 ，主句通常要用短暂性动词。 eg: People do not know the value of their health till/ until they lose it. 3) 当 not until 位于句首时，主句中的主语、谓语要使用倒装语序。 eg: 直到那时，我才知道我错了。 Not until then did I know I was wrong. 3. before：1． We had sailed four days and four nights before we saw land. “??才 2． We hadn’t run a mile before he felt tired. “不到??就” 3． Please write it down before you forget it. “趁??” 4．Before I could remember a word, he had checked me. “还没来得及” 5. 句型 It will be/was＋段时间＋before?“还要过多久才??” 如：还有 2 年他才离国。 It will be two years before he leaves the country. 6. 句型 It will be/was not＋一段时间＋before?“没过多久就??” 。 如：没过 2 年他就离国了 It wasn’t two years before he left the country. 4．since, ever since 1．Since：自??以来。表示动作从过去某一点时间一直延续到说话时间为止。主句中通常 为现在完成时，从句中一般用一般过去时。 Eg: 1). 自从我上次见你，你到哪里去了 Where have you been since I last saw you。 2．ever since 从那时起直至现在，此后一直。 Eg: He has been sad ever since the death of his wife. 2). 从她小时候起，她就一直在集邮。Since she was young, she has been collecting stamps. 句型 It is/has been＋段时间＋since? Eg: 1). It’s two years since he was a college student. 他大学毕业已有两年了 2). It has been just a week since we arrived here. 我们 到那里有一个星期了。 5. “一??就??”表达法： 1) as soon as... Eg.一下课我就去厕所 I went to the toilet as soon as the class was over. 2) Immediately， instantly ， directly Eg:他一到家马上就给她打了电话。They phoned her immediately they reached home. 3) the moment, the minute, the instant, the second Eg: 1).他说他一回家就开电视。He said he‘d turn on TV the moment he got home. 2). 告诉他他一回来我就要见他。Tell him I need to see him the minute he arrives. 4).hardly / scarcely……when? , no sooner……? than? 主句通常用过去完成时，从句用一般过去时。 当 hardly, scarcely, no sooner 位于句子的开头时，主句须用倒装语序。 Eg: 他刚出发就想起家来。He had no sooner started out than he felt homesick. No sooner had he started out than he felt homesick. 6..next time, the first time, the last time, every time 等 eg: 1). 下次你进城一定来看我们。Be sure to call on us next time you come to town. 2). 我第一次见他时，他给我留下了好印象 He left me a good impression the first time I met him. 3). 我每次见到他，他都是一付痛苦的表情 Every time I see him he looks miserable. 4).上一次我见到他时，他看上去很开心。The last time I spoke to Bob, he seemed very happy. 7.by the time by the tine 也可以引导时间状语从句，意为”到?? 时为止“，主句一般要用完成时态。
Eg: 1). By the time he was fourteen, Einstein had learned advanced mathematics all by himself. 爱因斯坦到十四岁时就自学完了高等数学。 (从句为一般过去时，主句要用过去完成时) 2). 在你回来之前我将会做完我的活儿。I shall have finished my work by the time you return. 反馈训练一：翻译下列句子 1. 趁着还没忘记的时候就记录下来 2. 我坚持不断地努力直到获得成功。 3. 随着时间一年一年过去，中国变得越来越富强了。 4. 我们刚开始就被叫停。 5. 下次你来的时候，就会见到他。 二、条件状语从句 条件状语从句是表示主句动作发生的前提或条件的从句。 条件状语从句分为真实条件状语从 句和非真实条件状语从句。引导条件状语从句的有 if, unless, so/ as long as, as so far as, on condition that, in case, suppose, supposing(that), provided(that), providing(that)等。 条件状语从句 中的谓语动词一般要用现在时或过去时代替一般将来时或过去将来时。 1.if: 如果。 注意：if only 和 only if 的对比。 if only : 但愿，要是??就好了，表示一个不可能实现愿望，要用虚拟语气。 only if : 只有，等于 only on condition that，从句用陈述语气。 Eg: 如果我们不怕困难，困难就算不了什么了。 Difficulties are nothing if we are not afraid of them. 只有当你给冰加热，它才会变成水。Only if you heat ice, it turns to water. 要是我知道该多好。If only I knew! 2.unless 如果不、除非。等于 if not Eg: I won't let you in unless you show me your pass. 如果你不出示通行证，我就不让你进来。 3.so long as, as long as, on condition that 这几个短语意思差不多， 都表示只要， 条件是??。 Eg: .只要我们不灰心，我们就能找到克服困难的方法 As/So long as we don‘t lose heart, we’ll find a way to overcome the difficulty. 4.in case 万一，如果 ，等于 if it happens that。 Eg: . In case I forget, please remind me of my promise. 如果我忘了，请提醒我所做的承诺 5.providing, provided that, supposing, suppose that, given that 如果，只要，假如 Eg: 1). Given that they are inexperienced, they‘ve done a good job. 考虑到他们缺乏经验，他们的工作已做得很好了。(that 可以省略) 2).假设我们弄不到足够的食物，那我们怎幺办？ Suppose thst /Supposing we can’t get enough food, what shall we do 反馈训练二：翻译下列句子 1. 哪里有水，哪里就有生命。 2. 你可以随意到你喜欢的任何地方去。 3. 无论你去哪都要遵守法律。 三.原因状语从句 1. 引导原因状语从句最常用的连词是 because, since, 和 as， because—直接原因,必不可少的原因，非推断，是整个句子的重点，语气最强．回答 why since – 通常放句首．译为“既然，鉴于”主从句的时态一般相同。 as– 不谈自明的原因，语气最弱，多放于句首． 注意：1. 在强调句中强调原因状语从句，只能用 because 引导，不可用 as 或 since.
2. because 可以引导表语从句,而 as, since 不可以，这时主语一般都是 it, this, that 3. since 往往表示的是已知的客观事实，或分析后的推理，引导的从句大多置于句首，主从 句的时态一般相同。 for 可做并列连词，不可用于句首，要放句中，引导后半句表原因，强调推理解释。 反馈训练三：用 because, as, since 填空 It was ________ he was ill that he didn’t go with us. It’s_________ he is too lazy. _______you are here, you must do it. 2． 复合连词也可以引导原因状语从句， 这些连词有： now that, seeing (that), considering (that), for the reason that, by reason that, for fear that, in that 等， Eg: 1). Now (that) (= Since) you mention it, I do remember. 2). 考虑到他们是初学者，他们已经做得不错了 Considering that they are just beginners, they are doing quite a good job. 四.结果状语从句 引导状语从句的连接词有 so that/ so…that…/such…that… 1. so +adj./adv. +that so +adj. +a/an +可数名词单数+ that so +many/much/few/little+名词+that e.g. 1). It is so hot that we can’t sleep. 2). It is so interesting a book that she has read it twice. 2. such +a/an+adj.+单数可数名词+that such +adj. +复数名词/不可数名词+that such +a lot of/lots of +名词+that eg:It is such a useful book that she has read it twice. There was such delicious food that he had too much. 3. so that 引导结果状语从句表示实现的一件事或一个事实，从句谓语动词一般不和情态动 词连用，且从句前多有逗号与主句分开。例如： She hurried, so that she caught the bus.(结果） She hurried so that she might catch the bus. （目的） 反馈训练四: 用 so that/ so…that…/such…that… 填空： 1.He studied hard ________ he passed the exam. 2.He was _____ angry ______ he couldn’t speak. 3. There was _____a lot of rain ______ we couldn’t go out. 4. It’s______ an interesting film _____ we all want to see it. 5. He had _____many falls _____ he was black and blue all over. 6. I am going to the lecture early ______ I’ll get a good seat. 五.让步状语从句 让步状语从句表示在某种相反的条件下，主句中的情况依然会出现。让步状语从句由 although, though, however, whatever, whoever, whomever, whichever, whenever, wherever, whether（是否）, no matter (who, wha, etc), even if, even though 等词 注意：1. Although 和 though 均意为“虽然，尽管”但是 although 较 though 正式，更多用 于句首， though 可用于句首、 句中或句末。 二者均不可以与 but 边用， 但可以与副词 yet, still, nevertheless 等连用。 Eg: Although (though) he was ill, (sill/yet) he went on working. 2．as 引导的让步状语从句的常见的几种倒装方式 (1)如果从句的谓语部分为“不及物动词＋副词”时，常将从句中的副词提到从句的句首。
Hard as you may try，you will not succeed. 尽管你努力了，你可能不会成功。 (2)如果从句的谓语部分为 “情态动词＋不及物动词” ， 常将这个不及物动词提到从句的句首。 Wait as you may，he will not see you. 尽管你等了，他可能不会见你。 (3)如果从句的谓语部分是“系动词＋单数名词” ，则常将这个作表语的名词提前，但这个名 词前面的不定冠词要省略。 Child as he is，he can tell right from wrong. 尽管他还是个孩子，他能明辨是非。 3.whether...or (not) ...不管??还是??。 Eg: 不管你相信与否，这是真的。 Whether you believe it or not, it's true. 反馈训练五： 1. No matter ________ much I have to pay, I will take it. 2. No matter ________ you think, you must apologize to her. 3. No matter ________ method you have been using, today you must do as I tell you. 4.There was never any time for Kate to feel lonely,_____ she was an only child. A.ever since B.now that C.even though D.even as 5.____ you like it or not, you will have to give up smoking. A.If B.Whether C.How D.Why 6.You should try to get a good night’s sleep ____ much work you have to do. A.however B.no matter C.although D.whatever 7.You can eat food free in my restaurant ____ you like. A.Whenever B.wherever C.whatever D.however 六、地点状语从句 地点状语从句通常由 where, wherever 和 everywhere，anywhere 等引导， Eg. 1). Wuhan lies where the Yangtze and the Han River meet. 2). 你最好在有问题的地方做上符号 You'd better make a mark where you have any questions. 3). I’ll go wherever he goes. 4). 他们每到一处都受到了友好的接待。 Everywhere they went, they were kindly received. 注意：在地点状语从句之前，不要使用介词。 Eg: 1). 你应该把书放在原来的地方。 You should put the book at where it was.(no) You should put the book where it was.(yes) 2). 我们应该到最需要我们的地方去。 We should go to where we are needed most.(no) We should go where we are needed most.(yes) 反馈训练六：地点状语从句与定语从句的区别 1.---Where do you plan to work? ---I’ve made up my mind to go _____I’m most needed. A.to the place B.to which C.that D.where 2.I will go to a country for a holiday ____ there are a lot of flowers and trees.
A.in the place B.where C.which D.wherever 七.目的状语从句 引导词：so，so that，in order that，in case，for fear that，lest(唯恐，以免，为不使）等。其 谓语动词常与情态动词 can，could，may，might，should，would 连用。 Eg: 1). 带上雨衣，以防下雨 Take your raincoat in case it rains. 2).他很早就离开了，生怕错过最后一班火车。 He left early in case he should miss the last train. 反馈训练七： 1.I‘d like to arrive 20 minutes early_____ I can have time for a cup of tea. A.as soon as B.as a result C.in case D.so that 2.John may phone tonight. I don’t want to go out ____he phones. A.as long as B.in order that C.in case D.so that 3. The Shanghaiese are making great efforts to beautify the city____ more overseas companies will come. A. in order that B.so as to C.so long as D.on condition that 八.方式状语从句 引导词 1：as，(象?.一样,正如, 按照),as if/as though(好象,宛如) eg: 1). 请按照人家告诉你做的去做。 Please do as you are told。 2). Leave it as it is. 事实上,按现在的样子 3）他的行动就好象什么也没有发生 He acted as if (though) nothing had happened. 2．在非正式文体或口语中，也可用 the way (that) (= as = in the way in which), Eg:. 她不用我做的方法来做这件事。She doesn’t do it the way I do. 反馈训练八：
1. 他们对待这黑孩子仿佛他是一头牲口。 2. 按照我教你的画一只猫。
3. 让一切顺其自然。 4. 她用我喜欢的那种方式来做她的工作。 九.比较状语从句 引导词:as?.as(和?一样), the same …as…,not as/so?as(不如),than(比),the more?the more? (越?越?).这种从句常采用省略句的句型，如： Eg: 1). 他和我一样大。He is as old as I (am). 2). 他工作的和一个有技术的工人一样快。He worked as fast as a skilled worker. 3). 这个项目完成的比预期中快。The project was completed earlier than we had expected. 4). 他来的越早越好。The sooner he comes, the better (it will be). 区别：We know you better than he (knows you). We know you better than (we know) him. 反馈训练九： 1. 她今年比去年进步更大。 2. 你卖的票越多，你的收入也越多。 3. 你工作越努力，你取得的进步就越大。 4. 他不如杰克跑得那样快 四：状语从句的省略： 在条件，时间，让步，方式状语从句中，如果从句的主语和主句的主语一致或者从句的主语 是 it,而且谓语包含有 be 动词，那么可以把主语或 it,跟 be 动词同时省略。 Eg: 1). While I was in Beijing , I paid a visit to the Summer Palace. = While in Beijing , I paid a visit … 2). Come tomorrow, if it is possible.= Come tomorrow, if possible 3). 他站在门口好像在等谁。
She stood at the gate as if (she was ) waiting for someone. 4). 尽管很冷，他仍然穿一件 T 恤。Though(it was) cold, he still wore a shirt. 反馈训练十： Once ______（see）, the film can never be forgotten. If ________（invite）, I will go to the party. She stood at the school gate as if ________（wait） for someone. 对比练习 1. ____ he heard this, he got very angry. I met Lucy____ I was walking along the river. ____ a child, he lived in the countryside. A. when B. while C. as 2. We were about to leave____ it began to rain. . She thought I was talking about her son, ____, in fact, I was talking about my son. . Hardly had I finished my composition ____ the bell rang. A. when B. while C. as D. during 3. Child ____ she is, she know a lot. He did the experiment ____ he was told. The pianos in the other shop will be cheaper, but not ____ good. A. during B. as C. so D. thoughE. both B and C 4. He would have a look at the bookstores____ he went to town. We decide to finish the work on time, ____happens. If we work with a strong will, we overcomeany difficulty, ____ great it is. I’ll give the book to ____ likes English. A. whenever B. whoever C. whatever D. however 5. It will be years ____ we meet again. It is ten years ____ I came to this town. It is ten years ago ____ I came to this town. A. when B. that C. before D. since 6. ____ it rains, the game will be played on time. ____ I was twenty, I had never been away from my hometown. ____ he were there, he couldn’t help us. A. Even if B. Untill C. Till D. Unless 7. Go and get your coat. It is ____ you left it. You are free to go ____ you like. A. there B. where C. wherever D. when 8. The article is written in such easy English____ all of us can read it. The article is written in such easy English____ all of us can read. A. that B. which C. as D. so that 9. If we work hard, we can overcome any difficulty, no matter ____ great it is. If we work hard, we can overcome any difficulty, ____ great it is. If we work hard, we can overcome any difficulty, ____ difficulty it is. If we work hard, we can overcome any difficulty, no matter ____ difficulty it is. A. what B. how C. however D. whatever 2012 年状语从句高考题 1.（全国高考 I，25）I don’t believe we’ve met before, _____ I must say you do look familiar. A. therefore B. although C. since D. unless 2.（重庆高考，30）─Coach, can I continue with the training? ─Sorry, you can’t _____ you haven’t recovered from the knee injury. A. until B. before C. as D. unless 3.（湖南高考，28）_____ I always felt I would pass the exam, I never thought I would get an A. A. While B. Once C. If D. Until 4.（湖南高考，32）_____ hard you try, it is difficult to lose weight without cutting down the amount you eat. A. However B. Whatever C. Whichever D. Whenever 5. （福建高考， 30） It is hard for the Greek government to get over the present difficulties _____ it gets more financial support from the European Union. A. if B. unless C. because D. since 6.（北京高考，21）─Look at those clouds! ─Don’t worry. _____ it rains, we’ll still have a great time. A. Even if B. As though C. In case D. If only
7.（江西高考，31）You can borrow my car _____ you promise not to drive too fast. A. unless B. even if C. in case D. as long as 8. （陕西高考， 18） Hot _____ the night air was, we slept deeply because we were so tired after the long journey. A. although B. as C. while D. however 9.（陕西高考，25）All the photographs in this book, _____ stated otherwise, date from the 1950s. A. unless B. until C. once D. if 10.（四川高考，4）At school, some students are active _____ some are shy, yet they can be good friends with one another. A. while B. although C. so D. as 11. （四川高考， 10） If you happen to get lost in the wild, you’d better stay _____ you are and wait for help. A. why B. where C. who D. what 12. （天津高考， 14） Everything was placed exactly _____ he wanted it for the graduation ceremony. A. while B. when C. where D. though 13.（辽宁高考，30）Leave your key with your neighbor _____ you lock yourself out one day. A. as long as B. even though C. in case D. as if 14.（山东高考，27）He smiled politely _____ Mary apologized for her drunken friends. A. as B. if C. unless D. though 15.（山东高考，32）A number of high buildings have arisen _____ there was nothing a year ago but ruins. A. when B. where C. before D. until 16.（江苏高考，30）One’s life has value _____ one brings value to the life of others. A. so that B. no matter how C. as long as D. except that 17.（上海高考，32）I have a tight budget for the trip, so I'm not going to fly _ the airlines lower ticket prices. A. once B. if C. after D. unless 2013 年状语从句高考题 1.【2013 北京】30. I took my driving license with me on holiday,______ I wanted to hire a car. A. in case B. even if C. ever since D. if only 2.【2013 福建】32. Anyone, once _______ positive for H7N9 flu virus, will receive free medical treatment from our government. A. to be tested B. being tested C. tested D. to test 3.【2013 湖南】23. You must learn to consult your feelings and your reason ________ you reach any decision. A. although B. Before C. Because D. unless 4.【2013 江苏】28. In the global economy, a new drug for cancer, ______ it is discovered, will create many economic possibilities around the world. A. whatever B. whoever C. wherever D. whichever 5.【2013 江西】28.She says that she’ll have to close the shop ________ business improves. A. if B. Unlesss C. After D. when 6.【2013 江西】34.If _____ to look after luggage for someone else, inform the police at once. A. askedB. to askC. askingD. having asked 7.【2013 辽宁】24. One can always manage to do more things, no matter _______ full one’s schedule is in life. A. how B. what C. when D. where 8.【2013 山东】26. Mark needs to learn Chinese _______ his company is opening a branch in Beijing. A. unless B. until C. although D. since 9.【2013 山东】28. _________I have to give a speech, I get extremely nervous before I start. A. WhateverB. WheneverC. Whoever D. However 10.【2013 陕西】18. I have heard a lot of good things about you I came back from abroad. A. since B. until C. before D. when 11.【2013 四川】7.He was so busy. He cannot afford enough time with his son _____ he wants to. A. even if B. as if C. because D. before 12.【2013 天津】5. _______ small, the company has about 1,000 buyers in over 30 countries. A. As B. If C. Although D. Once 13. 【2013 浙江】 19. There are some health problems that, when ______ in time, can become bigger ones later on. A. not treated B. not being treated C. not to be treated D. not have been treated 14.【2013 重庆】25. ______ we have enough evidence, we can't win the case. A. Once B As long as C. Unless D. Since
15.【2013 安徽】23.It’s much easier to make friends______ you have similar interests. A. unless B. when C. even though D. so that 16.【2013 北京】22. Don’t turn off the computer before closing all programs you could have problems A. or B. and C. but D. so 17.【2013 四川】4. Read this story, ________ you will realize that not everything can be bought with money. A. or B. and C. but D. so 18. 【2013 新课标 II 卷】 3. I was glad to meet Jenny again, _____I didn't want to spend all day with her. A. but B. and C. so D. or 19. 【2013 新课标 I 卷】 32.There’ s no way of knowing why one man makes an important discovery ______another man, also intelligent, fails. A. since B: if C. as D. while 20.【2013 重庆】23. It's not easy to change habits, with awareness and self-control, it is possible. A. for B. or C. but D. so 答案： 反馈训练一：翻译下列句子 1. Take it down before you forget it. 2. I kept on doing my best until I succeeded. 3. As years go by，China is getting stronger and richer． 4. Hardly had we begun when we were told to stop. 5. Next time you come ,you’ll see him. 反馈训练二：翻译下列句子 1. Where there is water there is life. 2. You are free to go wherever you like. 3. Wherever you go, you must obey the law. 反馈训练三：用 because, as, since 填空 Because，because，since 反馈训练四: 用 so that/ so…that…/such…that… 填空： 1.so that 2.so…that 3. such…that 4.such…that 5.so…that 6. so that 反馈训练五： 1. how2. what 3. what 4. C 5. B 6. A 7. A 反馈训练六： 地点状语从句与定语从句的区别 1.D 2.B 反馈训练七： 1D. 2.C 3. A 反馈训练八：
1. They treat the black boy as if (though) he were an animal. 2. Draw a cat as I taught you .
3. Leave things as they are. 4. She is doing her work the way I like it done. 反馈训练九： 1. She has made greater progress this year than she did last year. 2. The more tickets you sell, the more money you will get. 3. The harder you work, the greater progress you will make. 4. He doesn’t run so (as) fast as Jack (does). 反馈训练十： 1.seen 2. invited 3. waiting 对比练习 1.ABC 2. ABA 3. BBE 4. ACDB 5. CDB 6. DBA 7. BC 8. AC 9. BCDA
BDAAB ADBAA BCCAB CD
【答案】C【答案】D【答案】A【答案】B【答案】A 【答案】B【答案】C【答案】A【答案】C【答案】A 【答案】A【答案】B【答案】D【答案】A【答案】A 【答案】B【答案】C【答案】B【答案】C【答案】A