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初高中英语衔接


初高中英语衔接

语音教学

26个英文字母及发音音标

国际音标教学法图示

20元音
[i:] [i] [u:][u] [?:][?] [?:][?] [ɑ:][?] [e][? ] [ai][ei] [?i][i?]

3

2


3

20辅音

[??] [u?] [au][?u]

[m] [w] [l] [b][p] [ts][dz] [n] [j] [r] [t][d] [?][?] [?] [h] [k][g] [tr][dr] [f][v] [s][z] [?][?] [θ][? ]

Semi-vowels
半元音/w/ /j/ ? / w / 与 / j / 是两个半元音,因为它们的发音位置都与有关元 音的发音位置有关系。/ w / 是个双唇音。 ? we week whether wire wound language persuade / j / 是个舌面音
?

yes

youth use

union Europe

new

Nasal consonants
4. 鼻音 / m /, / n /, / ? / ? / m /, money make mouth firm
harm

?

/ n /, no noun

nail

learn

coin

pain nice

?

/ ? / wing king bring a long string

sing a song

Lateral consonant
5. 舌边音 /l/ (有两种发音) A. 如果在元音字母前面, 发音“clear l ”(“清晰的 l ”)。舌端抵上齿槽, 舌前部向硬颚抬起, 让气流 从舌两旁的空隙处流过, 所以叫舌侧音, 也叫旁流 音或边音。 ? long leave lion lock color follow
B. 如果 / l / 在辅音前面或词尾, 发 (“模糊的 l ”) 音. ? apple girl ball meal bell sail rule

Rules of reading
?

读音规则 (Rules of reading): 字母的名称音和它的发音是两回事。至于某个 字母在某个单词中究竟发什么音,则取决于这 个字母在这个词中前后和什么字母结合,根据 这个字母在词中所处的不同位置而发出不同的 音来。究竟应该如何发音是有一些规律可循的, 将这些规律归纳起来, 就成为读音规则。

Syllables
?

音节 (Syllables): 音节是包含一个元音或一个元音 跟别的辅音结合而成的发音单位。在英语中元音 特别响亮, 一个元音可以构成一个音节, 一般来说, 元音可以构成音节, 辅音不响亮, 不能构成音节。
英语的词有一个音节的,两个音节的,多个音节 的,一个音节叫单音节,两个音节叫双音节,三 个音节以上叫多音节。 确定音节时, 一不能只看字母的数, 二不能只看有 没有元音字母, 而是要看有没有元音。

?

?

Attention !!!
1、重读音节 任何双音节或多音节单词的音标中, 有重读音节和非重读音节 ,哪一个音节重读,该 音节的左上方或该音节的元音上方标有重读符号 “'”。 2、浊化音 以sp__, st___, sk___开头的单词清辅音 /p/ /t/ /k/分别要发浊辅音/b/ /d/ /g/。 3、定冠词the的读音 ? 在以辅音音素开头的单词之前读作/ ??/,如: the day, the key), the house ? 在以元音音素开头的单词前要发/ ?i:/ 的音,如: the end, the hour, the inside

4、不完全爆破(Incomplete explosion)
爆破音[p] [b] [t] [d] [k] [g] 后面紧跟另一个爆破音时,前面 的那个爆破音只在口腔内形成阻碍,而不能完全读出。 ? baske(t)ball a(c)tor, bla(ck)board Si(t) down. I can’(t) come. ? I don’(t) believe he is a ba(d) boy. ? The girl in the re(d) coat was on a bla(ck) bike jus(t) now. ? The bi(g) bus from the fa(c) tory is full of people. ? Wha(t) time does he get up every morning? ? This is an ol(d) pi(c)ture of a bi(g) car. ? The ol(d) do(c)tor has a ca(t), too. ? What would you like, ho(t) tea or bla(ck) coffee?
?

英语词性的分类及用法

词类

英语名称

作用

例词


代 数


词 词

Noun(缩写为n.)
Pronoun (pron.) Numeral (num.)

表示人或事物的名称
用来代替名词、形容词或数词 等 表示数量或顺序

book China
He他 that那 one first

形 容 词 副
冠 动 介 连

Adjective(adj.)
Adverb (adv.) Article (art.) Verb (v.) Preposition (prep.) Conjunction (conj.) Interjection (interj.)

用来修饰名词,表示人或事物 的特性、性质
用来修饰动词、形容词或其他 副词,表示动作或形状的特性 用在名词前,帮助说明名词所 指的人或事物 表示人或事物的动作或状态 用在名词、代词等前面,说明 句子中词与词之间的关系 用来连接词、短语或句子 表示说话时的感情或口气

safe beautiful
hard here an,a,the eat have under in and but Brrr! God! Look out!Ouch!


词 词 词 词

感 叹 词

Exercises
1.He shouted louder to the runners, but he still couldn't make _____ heard. A. him B. himself C. them D. themselves 2.There are flowers and trees on ____ sides of the river. A. every B. both C. either D. all

3.She has three good friends. One is a doctor; ___ are teachers of Chinese. A. another B. the other two C. other D. others

?
? ? ? ? ? ?

You 1.______( 我) am a worker. _______( 你) are a doctor. I She 她) is a teacher. _______( his (他的 )shirt. 2.This is_____ my 3. This is __________( 我的)pen. Their 他们的) trousers are there. 4._________( me 我). 5. I like this picture. Please give ________( 它) to_____( it their 他们的) money 6. People get ________( me from_________( 我). They 他们) are new students. _______( Their 他们的) 7._______( names are Lucy and Lily. our 我们的) shoes. Can ______( we 我们) 8. These are _______( them 它们)? wear ______(

?

you for _______( your 你的) help. 9.Thank _______

根据所给单词的正确形式填空: ideas (idea) 1. Different people may have different _____. 2. I often go to work on foot . (foot) 3. I know one of the boys . (boy) 4. Mr. Brown is wearing a pair of glasses . (glass) 5. Please give them their photos . (photo) 6. Are there any watches in the box? (watch) 7. There are twelve in a year. (month) months tomatoes 8. Would you like some ? (tomato) 9. Look at those people in the boats! (people) 10. Look! The women are singing. (woman) Teachers’ 11. September 10th is Day. (teacher) 12. Jim has some knives. (knife) 13. How much are these vegetables ? (vegetable) minutes’ walk from here. (minute) 14. My school is twenty ________ Lucy’s (Lucy) 15. The girl under the tree is a friend of________.

句子成分及划分

一、介绍与其重要性
? 句子是写作的基本单位,只有写好句子才

有可能写好文章。英语的句子成分有八种:

主语、谓语动词、宾语、表语、 定语、状语、主语补足语和宾语补足语。
●学会判断句子成分对以后学习难句奠定了基础。

英语句子的构成也有其特定的规律,掌握了句子 的基本句型、常见句式和词语的习惯搭配, 就能写出完整、正确的句子。

句子成分详解表
句子成分 主语 意义 表示句子说的是什么人或什么 事 说明主语做什么,是什么或怎 么样 表示动作行为的对象 与联系动词连用,一起构成谓 语,说明主语的性质或特征 用来修饰名词或代词 修饰动词,形容词,副词,表 示动作发生的时间,地点,原 因,目的,方式,结果等 逻辑上与宾语是主谓关系 充当词类 名,代,数,不定 式,动名词,短语或 句子 动词或动词词组 同主语 同主语 形,代,数,名, 副,介词短语或句子 副词,介词短语或句 子 形容词,名词,介词 短语等 例句 We study in No.11 Middle School. She is dancing under the tree. Both of us like English. Her father is a chemist. His words sound reasonable. We have eight lessons every day. He works very hard. They held a party in Hollywood. She always keeps the house clean.

谓语 宾语 表语 定语 状语

宾语 补足语

主语谓语是基础,宾表定状补辅助。宾主来自名代数,动词作谓不可无!

英语的句子成分:
? 一)

物。 Walls have ears. 名词 He will take you to the hospital. 代词 Three plus four equals seven. 数词 To see is to believe. to do不定式 Smoking is not allowed in public places. 动名词 What he needs is a book. 句子

主语(subject):句子说明的人或事

英语的句子成分:
? 二)谓语(predicate)
动词/动词短语 ? 由_____________ 担任。助动词或情态

? 动词加其他动词的适当形式也构成谓

语动词。 Action speaks louder than words.
简单谓语

Mary has been working at the dress shop since 1994. 复合谓语

三)表语(predicative): 它的位置在 系动词 _______________ 之后。是用来说明主 状态 语的_______,______, _______ 的. 特征 性质
1.
2. 3.

4.
5. 6. 7. 8.

My father is a professor. n. Who's that? It's me. pron. Everything here is expensive. adj. seeing is believing. V-ing The picture is on the wall. prep. Three times five is fifteen. num. His plan is to seek work in the city. to do不定式 the truth is that he has never been abroad.
句子

(四)宾语 表示动作的对象,是动作的承受者。 动词/动词短语 介词 词后也 宾语一般放在___________ 之后。_____ 会跟宾语。 1. I like English. n. 2. I don't like it. pron. 3. I enjoy working with you. V-ing 4. Give me four please. num. 5. He wants to dream a nice dream. to do不定式 6. We need know what others are doing.
句子

名 词.单词作定语时通常放 (五)定语 是修饰___ 前 在它所修饰的名词之_____ ;短语和从句作定 后 语时则放在它所修饰的名词之_____ 。

1.
2. 3.

4.
5. 6. 7. 8.

They are woman workers. n. Tom's father is a teacher. 名词所有格 Mary is a beautiful girl. adj The play has three acts. num. This is her first trip to Europe. 序数词 /to do 不定式 China is a developing country. 现在分词 doing to do 不定式 I have nothing to eat. Those who want to go to Tibet are to sign their names here. 从句

六)状语 状语表示地点、时间、原因、 目的、结果、条件、让步、伴随情况等。
1.
2. 3.

4.
5. 6. 7. 8.

The best fish swim near the bottom. 地点状语 I left the village five years ago. 时间状语 I arrived late because of the traffic jam . 原因状语 We'll send a car to fetch you. 目的状语 The fish can eat a person in two minutes , leaving only bones 结果状语 The students came into the classroom, singing and dancing. 伴随状语 If he goes, so will I .条件状语 Though he is a child, he knows a lot. 让步状语

七)宾语补足语。英语有些及物动词,除了要 有宾语之外,还要加上宾语补足语,才能使句 子的意义完整。 1. They elected me captain of the team. 名词 2. We try to make our country strong. 形容词 介词短语 3. We found everything in good order there. 4. I should advise you to get the chance. to do 不定式 5. I saw him going upstairs. 现在分词 doing 6. They found the house broken in. done 过去分词 ? We will soon make our city what your city is now. 从句

八)主语补足语 如果上述结构变成被动语态, 原宾语成为主语,原宾语补足语相应地变为主 语补足语 1. I was elected captain of the team. 2. Our country will be made strong.
与宾语补足语一样

独立成分
句中可以去掉的成分,去掉后不影响句子的完整性。 这种成分和句子的其他词没有语法的关系。
Examples:

Oh!What is that!(惊叹词)
He has,alas,failed again. Come here,John.(呼语) Roll on,Ocean,roll on.

省略成分
句中被省略的成分,虽然未说出来,却在句中表示 一定的意思:

(You) Come here. (I wish you)Good luck!
Some gave him praises,but others(gave him)rotten eggs. He runs as fast as, if ( he does ) not ( run ) faster, than you. ( I ) Hope you like it. John should clean the room today and Peter ( should clean it ) tomorrow.

连接成分
连接成分实际上是一个连词,用来连接两个或几个平行的 词、短语和分句。这种连词叫做并列连词。

另一类连接成分是用来连接两个句子、且一个句子从属于 另一个句子(即从句)的连词。这类连词叫从属连词。从 属连词主要用于引导各种从句。

一个完整的句子(主句或从句)必须包含2个到4个基本成 分,此外,如果意思上有需要,还可包含一个或更多其他 的句子成分。

记忆口诀
主谓宾表定状补,解释说明同位语。 句子主干主谓宾(表),枝叶成分定状补。 定语修饰名词代,状修动词还有副。 主谓人称数一致,宾语之后常有补。

Exercises:

划分下列句子成分

1. The machine doesn’t work. 句子成分 常用词性

2. He is anan honest student. honest
3. The silk feels soft.





主 系





主语 谓语 宾语 状 表语 定语

主 系 表 4. I have a lot of friends here. 主谓 宾
5. Tom lent me 200 dollars.

n/pron. V n./pron.

主 谓 间 宾 直宾 6. I saw him writing a letter. 主谓 宾 宾补
7. I find maths difficult.

n./adj.
Adj. Adv. n./adj./ to do /doing

主谓 宾 宾补 8. We call her Lily. 主 谓 宾 宾补 主 谓 宾

状语
宾补 宾补

9. Father asked me to turn off the TV.

Correct mistakes:
1. Her voice sounds beautifully. beautiful 2. The whole company was surprising at surprised the news. to 3. To see isΛbelieve. 4. It seem like a good idea. seems 5. The lightsΛ still on. are 6. All the potatoes changed bad. went 7. Jim was remained a worker.

Exercises:
1.-Is this raincoat yours? -No, mine______ there behind the door. A. is hanging B. is hung C. hangs D. was hung
2. ______ your head, and you’ll see the sun______ now. A. Raise; rising B. Raise; raising C. To raise, rising D. Lift; being risen

3. More than a dozen students in that school______ abroad to study medicine last year. (上海) A. sent B. were sent C. had sent D. had been sent

4. The hero’s story______ differently in the newspaper. (全国I、II) A. was reported B. was reporting C. Reports D. reported

按句子功能可以分为: 陈述句 疑问句 祈使句 感叹句

按句子结构可以分为: 简单句 并列句 复合句

简单句Simple Sentences: 含有一个主语(或并列主语)和一 个谓语(或并列谓语)的句子。 ? He often reads English in the morning. ?Tom and Mike are American boys. ?He went up to the door,opened it and entered.

简单句的五种基本句型:
系动词

主语+系+表语

动词

不及物动词

主语+谓语
1.

及物动词

2. 3.

主语+谓语+宾语 主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语

1.主语 + 谓语(S+Vi)
1)Everything changes.
S Vi

2)The plane has already arrived.
S 复合谓语

2.主语 + 系动词 + 表语
1)She looks young. 2)The city will become rich. ? 在这类结构中最常用的系动词是: ? “状态”类: be “变化”类: get/ become/ turn/grow/go ______________________________________________. “感官”类: taste/ smell/ feel/look/sound ______________________________________________. “持续”类: stay/ keep/remain/continue ___________________________________________. Seem appear 其他:(似乎)________ _______ turn out/ prove(to be) (证明是)_________

3.主语 + 谓语 + 宾语
1.The boss employed five more workers. S Vt O 2.My brother takes care of the vegetable garden. 3.Few students like taking exams. 4.He forgot to close the door. 5.I hope I can speak English fluently.

4.主语 + 谓语 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语

1)He has fetched us some new textbooks. S Vt IO DO 2)Grandma cooked us a nice meal. S Vt IO DO 3)The man told the girl that he wants to go now.
4)The boy asked me if I could speak Chinese.

5.主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语
1)The villagers didn’t allow them to do this. 主语 谓语 宾语 宾语补足语 2)I will keep the box in the shade. 3)We found him a very good student. 4)She let me stay in the company.

记忆口诀
英语句子千千万,五大句型把线牵。 句型种类看动词,后接成分是关键。 系动词后接表语,不及物后无需连。 及物又可分三类,单宾双宾最常见。 还有宾语补足语,各种搭配记心间。

1. I can swim. 2.I like English. 3.They are reading books . 4.He bought a computer last week. 5.My mother is a scientist. 6.The food goes bad 7.My mother bought me a dictionary yesterday.

Exercises:
8.Can you give me the math book? 9.Will you tell us something about your school life? 10.We must keep our classroom clean and tidy. 11.My mother asks me to speak English as much as possible. 12.I heard her singing happily in the room just now.

并列句的简单认识

2、并列句Compound Sentences

包含两个或两个以上主谓结构的句子且句子之 间有并列连词and/but等或用分号连接。 e.g. You help him and he helps you. The future is bright; the road is tortuous.

常用并列连词 coordinating conjunctions
? 平行并列连词: ? 转折并列连词: ? 因果并列连词:
and, both…and, not only…but also, neither…nor, and then but, however, while, yet for, so

? 选择并列连词:

or, either…or, neither… nor

复合句 Complex Sentences

复合句是在简单句的基础上,通过从 属连词将两个或两个以上简单句连接 在一起而构成。从属连词所引导的从 句起形容词、名词、副词的作用。 复合句主要包含以下类型从句: ? 1. 主语从句 2. 宾语从句 ? 3. 表语从句 4. 定语从句 ? 5. 状语从句 6. 同位语从句

状语从句: 用来修饰主句中的动词,形容词和副词的从句。

分类:
时间状语从句,条件状语从句, 原因状语从句,结果状语从句, 比较状语从句,目的状语从句, 让步状语从句,地点状语从句

1.时间状语从句 常用when , as , before, while , after, since, till , until , as soon as 等连词引导。

e.g.(1) It was raining hard when I got to school yesterday. (2) While he was doing his homework,the telephone rang. (3) As he walked along the lake, he sang happily. (4) He had learned a little Chinese before he came to China. (5) After he finished middle school, he went to work in a factory.

2.条件状语从句 常由 if,as (so) long as 和 unless 引导。 注意: 谓语动词通常用现在时表将来的动作或状态。

e.g. (1)I'll help you with English if I am here toorrow. (2)He won't be late unless he is ill.

3.原因状语从句 由 because,as,since 或复合连接词 now that,in that 等 引导。(注意:for 是连词,虽然也可以表示“因为”,但

其后所接的是并列句中的一个独立句,而非从句。)

e.g. (1) He didn't come to school beause he was ill. (2) As it is raining, we shall no go to the zoo. (3) Since we have no money, we can't buy the car.

4.结果状语从句 由 so that,so...that,such...that 等引导。 特别提醒:so...that 与 such...that 的区别在于:前者的省 略号处是形容词或副词,而后者的省略号处最终是一个名词。

“最终”的意思是,该名词前也可以出现形容词甚至出现修
饰形容词的副词,但整个词组的中心词是这个名词。

5.比较状语从句
由 than,as...as 引导。 e.g. (1) Tom runs faster than John does. (2) his classroom is as big as that one.

6.目的状语从句 由so that,in order that,in case 等引导。 特别提醒:这类从句常常用情态动词 may/might,

can/could,should 等,以保证语气通顺自然。

7.让步状语从句 由 though,although,even if,even though, however,no matter how/what/who 等引导。 8.地点状语从句 由 where,wherever引导。 e.g. Where there is a will, there is a way.

宾语从句

宾语从句就是在复合句中做宾语的名词性从句,
通常放在主句谓语动词(及物动词)或介词之后。

①由 that 引导的宾语从句(that 通常可以省略),例
如:I heard that he joined the army. ②由what,whether(if)引导的宾语从句,例如: She did not know what had happened. I want to know if/whether he lives there.

? 由连接代词who , whom , whose , what , which 和

连接副词 when , where , why , how 引导的宾语从句.

e.g. Do you know who/whom they are waiting for.
He asked whose handwariting was the best.

Can you tell me where the No.11 Middle School.
I don't know why the train is late.

三、定语从句 ▲高考设置此考点时,主要是考查关系词的选择。关系词 在定语从句的构成里是至关重要的。我们甚至可以说,掌 握不好关系词就无法做成定语从句,也无法理解文中带有

定语从句部分的意思。定语从句中的关系词只有两类:关
系代词和关系副词,没有连词。也就是说,定语从句中的 所有关系词不但都有具体的意义而且都在从句中担任一定

的成分。

关系词在定语从句中的作用: ?纽带作用 ?成分:关系代词可做主语,宾语,定语 关系副词可做状语
1.关系代词:who,whom,whose,which,that

等。
2. 关系副词:when,where,why。

关系代词作主语: e.g. I don't like people who talk much but do little. The cars which are produced in Anhui Province sell very well.
关系代词作宾语: e.g. She is the person that I met at the school gate yesterday. The book that my teacher gave me is English book.

关系代词作定语: e.g. The girl whose father is a doctor studies very hard.

关系副词作状语: e.g. I'll never forget the day when I first came to Beijing.
This is the housee where I was born.


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