Art and Architecture
1. Every great culture in the past had its own ideas of beauty expressed in art and architecture. 历 史上的每一种伟大的
文化,都有其审美观念在艺术和建筑中体现? had its own ideas of beauty expressed 属“have + 宾语 + 过去分词”结构?这个结构往往具 有下面两个意思: (1) 表示“使某事/某人被……”,其中过去分词表示的动作多半是由别人来完成的?例如: You’d better go to see a doctor and have your blood pressure taken. 你最好去看看医生一下 血压? Your fridge is out of order. Why not have it repaired? 你的冰箱坏了?为什么不请人修一修 呢? Don’t quarrel with him. You might have yourself beaten. 别和他吵架?你也许会挨揍的? (2) 表示“未曾料到的不愉快的遭遇”?例如: Mr. Smith had his house robbed last night. 昨天夜里史密斯先生的家被洗劫一空? She had her straw hat blown away on the way home. 在回家的路上她的草帽被吹走了? The body－bomb had ten people killed. 这次人体炸弹使十个人丧生? 2. Modernism was invented in the 1920s by a group of architects who wanted to change society with buildings that went against people’s feeling of beauty. 现代主义是 20 世纪 20 年代一群建 筑师们创立的,他们想用背离人们审美标准的建筑来改变社会? go against 是一个短语动词,意思是“背离”?“违反”?例如: Man cannot go against nature. 人不能违反自然规律? His idea went against common sense. 他的想法违背常识? We mustn’t do anything that goes against the interests of the people. 我们决不做任何违背 人民利益的事情? The trend is going against them. 发展趋势对他们不利? 3. The buildings look like boxes with flat roofs, sharp corners and glass walls that act as mirrors. 大楼外观就像盒子——这些盒子具有平屋顶?突兀转角,还有镜面的玻璃墙? act as 意为“担任”?“充当”? as 后面接表示人的名词,名词前面往往省去冠词, as 后面还可 接表示事物的名词?例如: Helen sometimes acts as her father’s secretary. 海伦有时充当她父亲的秘书? We went to Canada to travel and my cousin acted as our guide. 我们去加拿大旅行?我的表 哥就担任我们的导游? An oar often acts as a rudder. 船浆常被当作舵来使用? 4. Looking at the architecture by Gaudi is like a dream, full of fantastic colors and shapes. 观赏高 迪搞出来的建筑就像进入了一个色彩斑斓?形状奇特的梦境? full of fantastic colors and shapes 是形容词短语,作后置定语用,相当于非限制性的定语从 句 which is full of fantastic colors and shapes? 5. Despite the fact that he used traditional materials, Gaudi was a modern architect. 尽管高迪使 用了传统建筑材料,他却是一位现代建筑师? despite 是介词,作“不管”?“不顾”?“虽然”解,其意义相当于 in spite of, 由其构成的介词短 语作让步状语?例如:
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Despite all this, I still want to see him again. 尽管如此,我仍然想再见他一次? Despite the fact that Japanese cars continued flowing in, the chief American auto makers refused to cut their production. 尽管日本汽车继续涌进来,但美国主要汽车制造厂家仍不愿减 少自己的生产量? 6. Frank Lioyd Wright, who built an art museum in New York, found himself inspired by Japanese seashells. 尽管弗兰克· 劳埃德· 赖特建成了纽约的艺术博物馆,但其灵感却来自日本的海贝? inspired by Japanese seashells 是过去分词短语作宾语补足语,也是本单元的重点语法项? 过去分词在句中作宾语补足语时,其前的谓语动词多为表示感觉?心理状态以及表示“致 使”等意义的动词,如 see, hear, watch, notice, observe, find, smell, look at, listen to, think, have, get, set, catch, keep, leave 等?例如: He found his cell－phone stolen. 他发现自己的手机被偷了? We must get the curtains washed. 我们必须请人把这些窗帘洗一下? We won’t have anything said against you. 我们不允许让你们受到这样的攻击? His actions made him respected. 他的行为使他受人尊敬? 7. Seen from the top, it looks as if the stadium is covered by a gray net of steel, and it looks just like a bird’s nest made of tree branches. 从顶上看,仿佛体育馆覆盖着灰色的钢网,外表上非常 像是用树枝搭成的鸟巢? Seen from the top 是过去分词短语,用作条件状语,相当于“If it is seen from the top”?过去 分词作状语时,它所表示的动作与其逻辑主语之间有“被动关系”?作状语表示时间?条件?原 因?让步的过去分词可转换成相应的状语从句,表示伴随状况?结果的过去分词可转换成与原 来主句并列的分句?这种情况下,过去分词表示的动作一般发生在句子谓语动词表示的动作 之前?例如: Seen from the top of the mountain, the city of Chongqing looks very beautiful with lights on at night. 晚间从山顶上看,山城重庆华灯初放,显得漂亮极了? Lost in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police. 两 名学生在山上迷失了一个星期之后,最终被当地的警察救下? Dressed in a white uniform, he looks more like a cook than a doctor. 他穿上白色的制服,看 上去与其说像个医生,倒不如说像个厨师? 8. Just so, the spaces in the structure of the stadium will be filled with huge plastic bags full of air. 与此相仿,体育场构架中的空间里将填满充足空气的大塑料袋? be filled with 和 be full of 都可以作“充满”解,但它们的搭配方式不同?试比较: The glass is filled with water. 杯子里装满了水? The waiting room is full of passengers. 候车室里挤满了乘客? I was filled with joy. 我心中充满了喜悦? The young people are full of vigor. 这些年轻人朝气蓬勃? You are a green leaf filled with the tinges of spring; you are a drop of water full of golden glowing. 你是一片绿叶,这片绿叶充满了春天的气息;你是一滴水珠,这滴水珠饱含着金灿灿 的光点? 9. A nest is to a bird what a house is to a man. 鸟巢与鸟就像房子与人一样不可缺少? “A is to B what C is to D”在英语中是一个十分重要的句式,表示“A 与 B 的关系如同 C 与 D 的关系”? what 用作连接代词,它既是前面 is 的表语,又是后面 is 的表语?又如: His love was to his thoughts what the sweet air was to his feeling. 他的爱对于他的思想来 说,就像新鲜空气对他的感觉一样? The teaching plan is to a teacher what the blueprint is to an architect. 教案对于教师犹如蓝 图对于建筑师一样不可或缺?
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Motherly love is to children what sunshine is to grass. 母爱对于孩子犹如阳光对于小草一 样? 10. Everywhere in the world old buildings, such as schools, factories and even churches are left empty because they are no longer needed. 世界各地的旧建筑物,诸如学校?医院?工厂,乃至教 堂等,由于不再需要就废弃了? be left empty 表示“被闲置”?其主动式为: leave sth./sb. + 形容词,意为“将某物/某人置 于……状态”?例如: His illness left him very weak. 他的病使他的身子非常虚弱? Who was it that left the door open? 是谁让门开着的? 11. Often, these buildings are pulled down after having stood empty without use for many years. 这些大楼闲置几年后往往就会拆除? (1) pull down 的意思是“拆除”?“拆毁”?“拉倒”等?例如: They pulled down our old houses and built five new ones. 他们拆除了我们的旧房子,建起 了五幢新房子? The firemen pulled down some nearby sheds to stop the fire from spreading. 消防队员们把 附近的一些棚子拆除,不让火势蔓延? (2) stand 在这里是连系动词,意为“处于……状态”,后面常接形容词作表语?例如: He stood idle while his wife was busy with housework. 妻子忙于家务,他却袖手旁观? She stood ready to dive. 她作好了跳水的准备? 12. They are decorated with small round windows that remind you of ships, bent roofs and twenty －foot high walls of glass that make them special when compared with other architecture from the same period. 它们用小圆窗装点,这让人想到轮船,穹顶和 20 英尺高的玻璃墙,与同时期的其 它建筑相比,风格独特? (1) ... when compared with other architecture 是状语?实际上 when 后面省略了主语和 be, 原句应为“... when they are compared ...”?在 when, while, if, as soon as, as if, though, although 等 从属连词引导的状语从句中,当从句主语与主句的主语相同,且从句谓语中含有 be 动词时,从 句中的主语和 be 动词可以省略?例如: If (you are) in trouble, ask a policeman. 有困难,找警察? Although (I was) invited, I didn’t go. 虽然受到了邀请,但我还是没有去? She stood at the door as if (she were) waiting for somebody. 她站在门口似乎在等一个什么 人? (2) compare ... with/to ... 意为“与……相比”, compare ... to ... 意为“把……比作……”? 试比较: If you compare British football with American football, you’ll find many differences. 如果 你把英式足球和美式足球相比较,便会发现二者之间有许多不同之处? Living in a town can’t be compared with living in the country. 住在城市不能与住在乡下相 比? People often compare information to the life of an enterprise. 人们常常把信息比作企业的生命? The ancient Egyptians compared the sunrise to the beginning of life and the sunset to the end of life. 古代埃及人把日出比作生命的开始,把日落比作生命的结束? 13. The simple style of the buildings and the fact that they are German set them aside as very different from Chinese architecture. 建筑物的简朴风格和德国式样使它们与中国建筑迥然不 同? set aside 表示“把……置于一旁”?“留出”?“驳回”?“取消”,是短语动词,其中的 aside 是副?
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例如: She set twenty per cent of her income aside. 她把自己收入的百分之二十存起来? Setting aside our differences we went ahead with our work. 我们把分歧暂时搁置,继续进行 我们的工作? The court set aside our claim for compensation. 法院驳回我们提出的赔偿要求? 14. Many large cities, such as Liverpool and New York, have had experiments of this kind, with old factories turned into successful arts centers. 许多大城市,例如利物浦和纽约,已经做过实验, 把旧厂房变成红红火火的艺术中心? with old factories turned into successful arts centers 是由“with + 复合宾语”构成的独立结 构,在句中作状语? old factories 和 turned into successful arts centers 在逻辑上是主谓关系?当名 词或代词是分词所表示的动作的承受者时,要用过去分词?例如: She felt nervous, with so many eyes fixed on her. 这么多眼睛都盯着她,她感到紧张? With the task completed, we went out to take some fresh air. 任务完成了,我们出去呼吸一 下新鲜空气? With the key lost, she couldn’t enter the house. 钥匙丢了,她无法进屋?
Ⅰ. 单项填空 一? 课本知识 1. Balzac＿＿＿＿ interesting characters in his novels. A. invented B. created C. discovered D. found 2. Many students＿＿＿＿ guides for foreign visitors. A. act for B. act on C. act as D. act up 3. You’d better＿＿＿＿ some money for special use. A. pick up B. set aside C. put off D. give away 4. Her teacher is so strict that she is scared to＿＿＿＿ against his wishes. A. turn B. fight C. keep D. go 5. Come and see me whenever＿＿＿＿. A. you are convenient B. you will be convenient C. it is convenient to you D. it will be convenient 6. What he said just now＿＿＿＿ me of that American professor. A. mentioned B. informed C. memorized D. reminded 7. —Do you have an extra ticket for the concert? —Yes. —Well, who would you rather＿＿＿＿ with you, George or me? A. have to go B. have gone C. to have gone D. have go 8. Among these shoes are none＿＿＿＿ to us. A. belonged B. to be belonged C. belonging D. belongs 9. My brother prefers＿＿＿＿ TV at home to＿＿＿＿ to the cinema. A. to watch; going B. watching; going C. watch; going D. to watch; go 10. It was raining heavily. Little Mary felt cold, so she stood＿＿＿＿ to her mother. A. close B. closely C. closed D. closing
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二? 专项语法(过去分词用作宾语补足语) 11. The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see＿＿＿＿ the next year. A. carry out B. carrying out C. carried out D. to carry out 12. —Good morning. Can I help you ? —I’d like to have this package＿＿＿＿. A. be weighed B. to be weighed C. to weigh D. weighed 13. —What are you going to the street for? —I’d like to have my computer＿＿＿＿. A. repaired B. be repaired C. to repair D. to be repaired 14. If you want to have＿＿＿＿ immediately, you have to give us some money in advance. A. the work doing B. the work done C. the work to be done D. the work to be doing 15. Having passed all the tests, she felt a great weight＿＿＿＿ off her mind. A. taking B. taken C. take D. to be taken Ⅱ. 完形填空 Frank Lioyd Wright probably is the greatest architect that the United States has ever seen. He was very 1 and had a natural ability to 2 buildings. His buildings were not only beautiful, but they were also 3 in use. They fit their purposes very well. Wright’s 4, for example, make people feel like thinking and praying. His office buildings make people enjoy working, 5 his houses make people feel 6 at home. 7 , Frank Lioyd Wright’s beautiful, functional buildings are not the only reason that he is 8 . There is another reason. Frank Lioyd Wright is 9 the greatest American architect 10 he started an American 11 in architecture. More of the architecture in the United States before Wright was 12 European, not American. Wright’s buildings do not look like 13 in old European States or in other parts of the world. The most important 14 in Frank Lioyd Wright’s style of architecture is that a building 15 fit its purpose and the land 16 it. His houses are often called “grass－land houses” because their lines are 17 to the lines on the grass land. 18 the lines of the grass land and the lines of Wright’s houses are parallel(平行的) to the 19 , the place where the earth and sky seem to 20 . 1. A. responsible B. talented C. sincere D. diligent 2. A. draw B. create C. design D. complete 3. A. typical B. classical C. practical D. commercial 4. A. stadium B. exhibition C. school D. churches 5. A. but B. and C. or D. yet 6. A. convenient B. comfortable C. traditional D. useful 7. A. Therefore B. Otherwise C. However D. Meanwhile 8. A. famous B. intelligent C. reliable D. admired 9. A. believed B. called C. felt D. known 10. A. since B. when C. because D. if 11. A. style B. preference C. taste D. form 12. A. hardly B. probably C. clearly D. really 13. A. these B. ones C. those D. others 14. A. advice B. idea C. mind D. sense
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15. A. will 16. A. behind 17. A. similar 18. A. All 19. A. horizon 20. A. appear Ⅲ. 阅读理解
B. need B. around B. related B. Among B. land B. see
C. may C. beyond C. compared C. Both C. sky C. meet
D. must D. before D. equal D. Between D. surroundings D. connect
(A) Almost everyone has read about the Taj Mahal(泰姬陵) in India. It is one of the most beautiful buildings in the world. Over three hundred years ago Shah Jehan built the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his wife. Shan Jehan wanted his wife’s tomb to be perfect. He didn’t care about time or money. He brought together workmen from all Asia. Altogether, over 2,000 men worked on the building, and it took them over seventeen years to finish it. The building rests on a platform of red sand－stone(沙岩). Four thin white towers rise from the corners of the platform. A large dome(圆顶) rests at the center of the building. Around this large dome there are four smaller ones. The building is made of fine white and colored marble(大理石). It has eight sides and many arches(拱门). There is an open corridor(走廊) just inside the outer walls. From this corridor, the visitor looks through marble screens(隔屏) to a central room. The bodies of Shah Jehan and his wife lie in a tomb below this room. A beautiful garden surrounds the Taj Mahal. The green trees make the marble look even whiter. In front of the main entrance to the building there is a long, narrow pool. If you look in this pool, you can see all the beauty of the Taj Mahal in the reflection from the water. Many people think the Taj Mahal is most beautiful at sunset. The marble picks up the color of the sunset, and the building and its reflection in the pool gleam(闪烁) like red jewels. 1. The Taj Mahal was built in the＿＿＿＿ century. A. fifteenth B. sixteenth C. seventeenth D. eighteenth 2. Which of the following statements is NOT true? A. Shah Jehan built the Taj Mahal to keep the body of his wife. B. Shah Jehan built the Taj Mahak to keep the bodies of himself and his wife. C. The bodies of Shah Jehan and his wife are kept in the Taj Mahal. D. No other bodies are kept in the Taj Mahal. 3. What can you see when you visit the Taj Mahal? A. A beautiful garden. B. A long, narrow pool. C. The place where Shah Jehan and his wife are buried. D. A, B and C. 4. The building must have＿＿＿＿. A. only one entrance B. two entrances C. three entrances D. several entrances 5. It is most probable that the long, narrow pool is to＿＿＿＿ of the building.
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A. the west
B. the east
C. the south
D. the north
(B) Architecture is an art: Unlike sculpture, painting or music, it is an art that has a practical basis. Each building serves a definite purpose. People living in different ways have developed different styles of architecture to suit their special needs. The development of architecture has been a long, long progress. At first, people lived in caves. Then, experimenting with whatever material they could find——wood, mud, stone, plants ——they started to build homes to protect themselves from the bad weather and danger. However, wood and plants easily caught fire, so important buildings were probably the pyramids in Egypt. In the 1800s, for the first time in centuries, new building materials were available. The new materials included iron, steel, concrete and large sheets of glass. One of the first buildings using these new materials was built in the US by the architect Louis Sullivan. It was the Guaranty Building in New York, built in 1894. It had a steel frame. The 20th century is one of the greatest periods in the history of architecture. It brought a revolution in the design of buildings. Architects thought that old cities should be destroyed and replaced with tall concrete towers connected on many levels by bridges and roads. During the 1950s many cities, particularly in the US, became involved on urban renewal programs. Many older buildings were destroyed. However, today, architects realize that older buildings are of historic importance. So they try to make them useful once again or to design new buildings so that they fit comfortably with the old. Architects seem to have realized that past and present can live side by side. 6. According to the article, what is the difference between architecture and other art forms? A. The development of architecture has been a long, long process. B. Architecture is an art that has a practical basis. C. Past and present can live side by side in the field of architecture. D. Architecture can not stay forever. 7. The basic purpose of architecture is＿＿＿＿. A. to protect people from the bad weather and danger B. to please people’s eyes C. to take the place of the old houses D. to make use of different materials 8. When did new building materials appear? A. When people found materials that can last long. B. When people compared architecture with other forms of art. C. Not long before the Guaranty Building was built. D. When the pyramids in Egypt were built. 9. Why is the 20th century one of the greatest periods in the history of architecture? A. Because more and more buildings were built with iron, steel, concrete and glass. B. Because there was a revolution in the design of new buildings. C. Because old buildings are urban renewal programs in the US. D. Because there were urban renewal programs in the US. 10. If new buildings are needed today, the architects will probably＿＿＿＿.
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A. pull down the old ones to have completely new ones built B. build another city C. ask the opinions of different people D. design them that fit comfortably with old ones Ⅳ. 短文改错 Zhaozhou Bridge was built in Sui Dynasty. It lie in Zhao County in Hebei Province. As oldest stone arch bridge in China, but it has a long history of over 1,360 years. The big stone arch is made up by more than 1,000 stones, each of that is 30 centimeters thick and weighs one ton. It was rebuilt in the 1950s. Old Zhaozhou Bridge was taken on a new look ever since. As more and more people visit, the bridge becomes more famous in and around China. The bridge is very simple and strong. You will be, however, deep impressed by the harmonious beauty presenting in the architecture going with the nature Key to Unit Three: Ⅰ. 1-5 BCBDC6-10 DDCBA 11-15 CDABB Ⅱ. 1-5 BCCDB6-10 BCABC 11-15 ADCBD16-20 BACAC Ⅲ. 1-5 CBDAC6-10 BACBD Ⅳ. 1. lie→lies2. oldest 前面加 the3. 去掉 but4. by→of 5. that→which6. was→has7. visit 后面加 it8. √ 9. deep→deeply10. presenting→presented
1.＿＿＿＿ 2.＿＿＿＿ 3.＿＿＿＿ 4.＿＿＿＿ 5.＿＿＿＿ 6.＿＿＿＿ 7.＿＿＿＿ 8.＿＿＿＿ 9.＿＿＿＿ 10.＿＿＿＿
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