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情态动词+have


“情态动词+have done”的 用法

一、 “must+have+done”
? 表示对过去事情的肯定推测,译成“一定做 过某事”,该结构只用于肯定句。 ? 1. It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet. ? 昨晚一定下雨了,因为地面还是湿的。 2. You must hav

e been mad to speak to the servant. 你和仆人说话,一定是发疯了。

二、 “can't+have+done”
? 表示对过去事情的否定推测,译成“不可能做过 某事”。 ? 1. Mr. Smith can‘t have gone to Beijing, for I saw him in the library just now. 史密斯先生不可能去北京了,我刚才还在图书馆见 过他。

? 2. Mary can't have stolen your money. She has gone home. 玛丽不可能偷你的钱,她回家去了。

三、 “can+have+done”
? 表示对过去行为的怀疑,用于疑问句,译 成“可能做过……吗?”。 ? 1. There is no light in the room. Can they have gone out? 屋里没有灯,他们可能出去了吗? ? 2. There is nowhere to find them. Where can they have gone? ? 到处找不到他们,他们可能到什么地方去 呢?

四、 “could+have+done”
? 是虚拟语气,表示对过去事情的假设,意 思是本来能够做某事而没有做。 ? ? He could have passed the exam, but he was too careless. 本来他能够通过考试,但是他太粗心。

五、 “may+have+done”
? 表示对发生过的事情的推测,意思是“可 能已经”或“也许已经”,用于肯定句中。 ? ? ? ? —What has happened to George? —I don't know. He may have got lost. —乔治发生了什么事? ——我不知道,他可能迷路了。

六、 “might+have+done”
? 表示对过去事情的推测,might与may意思相同, 但可能性更小。多用于虚拟语气结构中。 ? 1. He might have given you more help, even though he was busy. (MET90) ? 他或许会多给你一些帮助,即使他很忙。 ? 2. She might have achieved greater progress, if you had given her more chances.

? 如果你多给她点机会,她可能已经取得更大的成 绩。

七、 “would+have+done”
? 虚拟语气,表示对过去事情的假设,意思 是“本来会…”。 ? 1. I would have told you all about the boy's story, but you didn't ask me. ? 我本来会告诉你这个小男孩的故事,但是 你没有问我。 ? 2. Without your help, I wouldn't have achieved so much. ? 没有你的帮助,我是不会取得如此大的成 绩。

八、 “should+have+done”
? 意思是“本来应该做某事,而实际没做。” “shouldn‘t+have+done”表示本来不应该做 某事,而实际做了。含有指责对方或自责的含意。 ? 1. Tom, you are too lazy. The work should have been finished yesterday. ? 汤姆,你太懒惰了,这项工作本来应该昨天就做 完的。 ? 2. Look, Tom is crying. I shouldn't have been so harsh on him. ? 看,汤姆哭了,我本来不应该对他如此严厉。

九、 “ought to+have+done”
? 表示过去应该做而实际并没有做,译成 “理应做……”,往往表示遗憾。与 “should+have+done”用法基本一样。

I ought to have gone home last Sunday. 我理应上星期日回家。
? You ought not to have given him more help. ? 你不应该帮助他那么多。

十、 “need+have+done”
? 表示本来需要做某事而没有做。 “needn‘t+have+done”则表示“本来不需要 做某事而做了” ? I needn‘t have bought so much wine—only five people came. ? 我本来没有必要买这么多酒,只来了五个人。 ? He need have hurried to the station. In that case, he wouldn't have missed the train. ? 他本来需要快点去车站,那样的话,他就不会误 了火车。

总结:
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ?

Can/could have done“本来能够做而没做” Can’t/couldn’t have done “不可能做了…” May/might have done “可能做过…” Must have done “肯定做了…” Should have done “本来应该做…”(实际上没做) = ought to have done Shouldn’t have done “本来不应该做…”(实际上
做了)

=ought not to have done Need have done “本来需要做…” Needn’t have done“本来不需要做…” Would have done“本来会…” Wouldn’t have done “本来不会…”

? 【经典考例1】 The weather turned out to be fine yesterday. I ________ the trouble to carry my umbrella with me. (2006江西) ? A. should have taken B. could have taken ? C. needn't have taken D. mustn't have taken
? 【经典考例2】 As you worked late yesterday, you ________ have come this morning. (2006 陕西) ? A. mayn't B. can't ? C. mustn't D. needn't

? 1. Harry ______ have won the Physics competition easily yesterday, but he gave up. ? A. could B. might C. should ? D. must
? 2. He paid for a seat, when he ______ have entered free. ? A. could B. would C. must D. need

? I didn’t see her in the meeting room this morning. She at the meeting . ? A. mustn’t have spoken ? B. mightn’t have spoken ? C. couldn’t have spoken ? D. shouldn’t have spoke

? ? ? ?

--- Hi, is that Peter Brown? ---Sorry. You ______ the wrong number . A. must dial B. must have dialed C. should dial D. should have dialed

? He is not poor. You ____ have lent him the money. ? A. can’t B. needn’t ? C. couldn’t D. mustn’t

? There was plenty of time. You ___ have hurried. ? A. won’t B. mustn’t ? C. needn’t D. couldn’t

? I ____ here in time, but I met an old friend of mine. I stopped and talked with him for some time. ? A. shouldn’t have come ? B. must have come ? C. needn’t have come ? D. could have come

? They ____ have finished the work yesterday, but it was raining hard. ? A. must B. could C. shouldn’t D. might ? ? ? ? ? Something ___ to him. ( 05江西 22题 ) A. must happen B. should have happened C. could have happened D. must have happened

? I didn’t hear the phone. I ____ asleep. (MET 89) ? A. must be B. must have been ? C. should be D. should have been


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