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高中英语必修一unit1词汇解析和练习


unit 1 friendship
词汇讲解 1、survey n.调查,概述; v. 测量,检查; surveyor n. 测量员,检察员 (1). make a survey of sth. 调查… (2). survey sth. 调查,评述,检查 survey the equipment 检查设备 Eg:a. A recent survey showed mos

t of those questioned were for the plan. 最近的民意测验显示大多数调查对象同意这项计划。 b. The governor surveyed the damage caused by the tsunami. 州长查看了海啸引起的破坏情况。 2、add v. 增加,增添 addition n. 附加物 additional adj. 附加的

add up sth 把……加起来 add sth to sth 把……加到…… add to sth = increase 增加了。。。相当于 increase 或 raise. add up to 合计;总共 add in 包括……;算进 in addition to 除……之外 e.g. He added some sugar to the coffee. 他给咖啡里加了些糖。 The bad weather added to our difficulty. 坏天气增加了我们的困难。 He added that he was satisfied with the talk. 它补充说他对会谈很满意。 e.g. Shall I add your name to the list? 我可以把你的名字写进名单吗? A new wing was added to the building. 这座大楼新添了一座边房。 point n. 要点,尖端,含义;v. 指出 pointless adj. 无意义的,无益的 (1). come to the point of 到了……地步 to the point of 达到……的程度 be on the point of doing 正要做…… There is no point in …没必要/没意义做…… boiling point 沸点 . point at 指向……非善意地用手指某人 point to 指向……表示指针指向、证据表明、建筑物的朝向等 e.g.The house points to the sea. 那所房子面向大海。 (3). point out sth to sb. 向某人指出某事

point out that…指出…… point sth to/at sb. 把……对着某人 e.g. a. The point is that you shouldn’t have to wait so long to see a doctor. 关键是看病不应等那么久。 b. He pointed to the spot where the house used to stand. 他指着那所房子原来所在的地方。 upset v. 使不安,打乱 adj. 心烦意乱的 (1). upset sb. 使某人不安 upset the plan 搅乱了计划 upset the cup 打翻了杯子 It upsets sb that 让某人心烦的是…… It upsets sb to do sth 做……使某人不快。 (2). be upset about 对……赶到心烦 e.g.a. His strange behavior upset his father. 他的奇怪行径困扰着他父亲。 b. I understand how upset you must be feeling. 我理解你心里有多难受。 近义词辨析 (1). upset 指由于某事的发生而心烦意乱。 (2). nervous 在做某事的过程中紧张害怕的感觉。 (3). anxious 因担心某事的发生或不发生而焦虑不安。 5、concern n. 担心,关心,关系; v. 涉及,有关 concerned adj. 有关的;担心的 (1). show/express concern about/ for 对……表示关心/担心 have concern with 和……有关系 with concern 关切地 (2). concern oneself about/ for 担忧/关心…… concern oneself with 从事,参与…… concern sb./ sth 与……有关 (3).be concerned about/ over/for 关心;挂念 as/so far as …be concerned 就……而言 e.g. As far as I’m concerned, the sooner, the better. 就我而言,越快越好。 There is growing concern about violence on TV. 人们对电视上的暴力内容日见担忧。 Don’t be involved in what doesn’t concern you. 不要管那些与你无关的事。 cheat v. 欺骗,作弊 n. 骗子, 作弊者 cheat sb. (out) of sth 骗取某人某物 cheat sb. into doing sth 骗某人做…… cheat sb. into the belief that 骗某人相信 catch sb. cheating in an exam 作弊被抓

eg. He is accused of cheating the taxman. 他被控欺骗税务员. eg. The two cheats set up tow looms. 这两个骗子支起两架织布机. 7、 series n. 一系列,连续 serial n. 连续剧, 连载小说 a series of 一连串的, 一系列的 a TV series 一部电视连续剧 in series 连续,一系列地 e.g. a series of accidents 一连串事故 a series of articles 一系列文章 There has been a series of accidents at the crossing. 在那个十字路口曾经发生过一连串的事故. 8 、nature n.大自然, 自然界,本性,性情,性质, 种类 the law of nature 自然法则 the balance of nature 生态平衡 the beauty of nature 大自然之美 human nature 人性 by nature 天生地 against nature 违反自然地 in a state of nature 处于未开化的状态 a man of gentle nature 性情温和的人 be different in nature 性质不同 it’s natural that = it’s natural for sb. to do sth 做……是当然的 e.g. It’s natural that we should carry out the plan. = it ‘s natural for us to carry out the plan. 这个计划是当然的. 9、powder n. 能量,力量,权力 powerful adj. 强有力的 powerless adj. 无力的,无权的

eg. Carry this luggage requires a lot of power. 搬运这件行李需要很大的力气. under one’s own power 凭借自身的力量 have the power to do sth 具有……的能力 beyond/ out of one’s power 力所不能及的 suffer v. 遭受,忍受 suffering n. 痛苦, 苦难 sufferer n. 受难者, 患者 suffer pain / loss / defeat / punishment / hardship 遭受痛苦/损失/失败/惩罚/艰难 suffer from a bad cold 患重感冒 suffer for sth. 为……而受苦

eg. The city suffered serous damage from the earthquake. 城市因地震遭受严重破坏. purpose n. 目的,意图 purposeful adj. 有目的的,故意的 purposeless adj. 的 purposely adv. 特意地,故意地 on purpose 故意地 for the purpose of 为了……的目的 with the purpose of 抱着……的目的 one’s purpose in doing sth . 某人做……的目的 eg. For what purpose did he go to Africa? 他去非洲的目的何在? n. 建议者,顾问

无目的

advice n. 劝告,建议 advise v. 建议 adviser / advisor give / offer sb. some advice on 就……给某人提建议 ask sb. for adcice 征求某人的意见 follow / take one’s advice 接受某人的建议 on / upon one’s adcice 听某人的劝告

advise sb. to do sth 建议某人做…… advise sb. not to do sth = adcise sb. against doing sth 建议某人不要做…… advise doing sth 建议做…… advise that 建议…… advise sb. on 向某人提…..建议 eg. He gave us some advice on how to learn a foreign language. 他就如何学习外语给我们提了一些建议.

13、effort n. 努力

effortless adj. 不费力的

make an effort to do 努力做…… = make every effort to do = make grat efforts to do without effort 毫不费力地 eg. You should put more effort into your work. 你应该更加努力地工作.

14、habit n. 习惯,习性 develop / form the habit of = build up the habit of 养成……的习惯 fall / get into the habit of 染上……的习惯 be in the habit of = have the habit of 有……的习惯 get sb. into the habit of 使某人养成…..的习惯 get out of the habit of = give up the habit of = kick / break/ drop the habit of 戒除…….的习 惯

eg. You need to change your eating habits. 你需要改变饮食习惯. 课文短语: go through 通过;经受; 仔细检查; 完成 get through 完成, 通过 look through 浏览 The new law has gone through. 新的法律已经通过了. The teacher went through all the students’ homework. 老师将学生的作业仔细的检查了一遍. 2. hide away 躲避,隐蔽 eg. a. The thief hid away in the woods for a week. 小偷在树林里隐藏了一周. set down 记下, 放下,认为,归因于…… set down (doing) sth 着手(做)某事 set out to do sth. 着手做某事 set off 动身,引爆 set up 竖起,创设,开办 注: 表示” 记下, 写下” 时 set down = put down = write down = get down eg. a. Set down his name and address. 记下他的名字和地址. b.He set down the book on the table . 他把书放在桌上. c. I set the man down as a soldier. 我以为那人是个士兵. d. I set down his bad temper to his health. 我认为他的坏脾气是由于身体的原因. 4. do with 处理,与….. 有关 have sth. to do with 与……有关 have nothing to do with 与……无关 have much / a lot of to do with 与……有很大关系 What to do with his camel how to deal with his camel do without 没有……也行 eg. If there’s none left we’ll have to do without. 如果没有剩余的我们就只得将就了。 He didn’t kow what to do with his camel. 他不知如何处置他的骆驼. 5.face to face( with)面对面地 heart to heart 心贴心地,坦诚地 shoulder to shoulder 肩并肩地 hand in hand 手拉手地 arm in arm 臂挽臂地

side by side 并排地 back to back 背靠背地 from door to door 挨门挨户地 from mouth to mouth 口口相传地 from left to right 从左到右地 from generation to generation 一代一代地 from head to foot 从头到脚 from time to time 不时地 同步练习 一、单词拼写: 1、She was really u_____ about the way her father treated her. 2、All the people are c_____ about the growth of the younger generation. 3、She’s h_____ my book away somewhere. 4、My summer vocation was completely spoiled by a_____ of wet days . 5、It’s against n_____ for a mother to hurt her child. 6、He came here on p____ to discuss it with you. 7、Design a_____ to find out what kind of friends your classmates are. 8、I want your a_____ on this work. 9It is a little difficult to c____ someone down when he or she is excited. 10、10He was caught c_____ in the exam. 11、C_________ with other countries was difficult during the war. 12、He formed the h______ of getting up early. 13、List what a good friend should do and ____ the list with your partners.(分享) 14、Arrange the exhibits_______ to size.(根据) 15、He’s_____ from loss of memory.(患有) 16、Why don’t you ____your idea ____on paper?(写下) 17、He _________________his English study(有困难) 18、She ___________________a foreigner.(爱上) 19、____________to change the situation.(努力) 20、____________snow can cause trouble.(过多)

五、完型填空 Surfing: It's Not Just for Boys Anymore If you asked high school girls to name their favorite sports, most would probably say basketball or volleyball. I am one of the few girls who would 41 : surfing(冲浪运动). But isn't that a boy thing? Some people 42 . Most certainly not. I started surfing about five years ago and 43 in love with the sport on the very first day. Riding the first 44 was the best feeling I had ever experienced. When I try to 45 surfing with other things, I find it very difficult because, in my 46 , there's nothing like it. It involves(牵涉到) body and 47 . There's sand between my toes and cool, salt 48 all around us. The feeling I get when I'm surfing 49 that water, becoming one with the 50 , is like I'm weightless.

The one thing I can 51 from surfing and not any other sport is endless challenge. You can never be the "best surfer" because the ocean 52 too many kinds of waves that nobody can ever master. The variations of surfing styles are wonderful. Some surfers are free and flowing; others are very aggressive(活跃有力的) and 53 . All of these things attract me to surfing and make it 54 from any other sport. I've 55 to tell every girl I know to do something that people don't think girls can do. It's part of being human to advance to new 56 , so shouldn't it be expected that girls should step up and start 57 the limits of things boys and men used to dominate(主宰)? There're women 58 side by side with the President of our country, so why not side by side with the boys 59 the football team or out in the water surfing? Give girls a chance to 60 , and they will. 41. A. tell B. answer C. give D. realize 42. A. think B. understand C. reply D. believe 43. A. stayed B. came C. dropped D. fell 44. A. wave B. storm C. sail D. boat 45.A. bring B. connect C. compare D. tie 46. A. work B. study C. holiday D. life 47. A. mind B. effort C. health D. time 48. A. beach B. ocean C. water D. coast 49. A. through B. across C. over D. above 50. A. sky B. world C. earth D. ocean 51. A. take B. get C. make D. keep 52. A. catches . includes C. offers D. collects 53. A. exciting B. great C. hard D. calm 54.A. known B. right C. far D. different 55.A. chosen B. tried C. managed D. promised 56. A. levels B. points C. steps D. parts 57. A. reaching B. accepting C. pushing D. setting 58.A. sitting B. walking C. fighting D. working 59. A. of B. from C. on D. with 60. A. think B. succeed C. perform D. feel

六、阅读理解 A The old shoes had brought him so much trouble that Johnny decided to throw them away. He went to the rubbish pit (垃圾坑)outside the city and threw the old shoes into the pit. "Now they can bring me no more trouble," he said. He returned home, lay down in his bed and slept. But he had a dog, and the dog was used to going to the rubbish pit to look for food, because Johnny never bought food for his dog. The dog, who loved its master (主人) even though it was not given food, saw the shoes in the pit and knew they were its master's. So the dog took one of the heavy shoes in its mouth and went slowly back with it, and left it at its master's bedside. Then the dog fetched the other shoe in the same way. When Johnny woke up, he saw the shoes by his bed and he was afraid. "There, shoes can walk by themselves, they must be done away with." he thought. Then he made a

large fire in front of his house and put the shoes on it. Just then a strong wind was blowing and before long the fire made the house begin burning. His neighbours immediately came but could do nothing. The house burnt down but the old shoes were saved by the dog again. 61. Johnny didn't fall asleep until ______ . A. he had brought the old shoes home B. he had thrown the shoes away and returned C. the shoes had brought him so much trouble D. he went to the rubbish pit 62. The dog loved Johnny only because he _______ . A. bought food for it B. was its master C. even gave food to it D. loved it too 63. The dog took back _______ . A. one of the heavy shoes B. neither of the two shoes C. the pair of shoes D. the second shoe in another way 64. A strong wind was blowing when ________ . A. he made a large fire B. the shoes walked back C. the shoes had been done away with D. the dog found the shoes in the pit 65. When Johnny saw the shoes again after the fire, he would be _______ . A. very happy B. pleased C. wild with joy D. very sad B Many teenagers(青少年) feel that the most important people in their lives are their friends. They believe that their family members don't know them as well as their friends do. In large families, it is quite often for brothers and sisters to fight with each other and then they can only go to their friends for some ideas. It is very important for teenagers to have one good friend or a group of friends. Even when they are not with their friends, they usually spend a lot of time talking among themselves on the phone. This communication is very important in children's growing up, because friends can discuss something. These things are difficult to tell their family members. However, parents often try to choose their children's friends for them. Some parents may even stop their children from meeting their good friends. Have you ever thought of the following questions? Who chooses your friends? Do you choose your friends or your friends choose you? Have you got a good friend your parents don't like? Your answers are welcome. 71. Many teenagers think that _____ can understand them better. A. friends B. brothers C. sisters D. parents 72. When teenagers have something difficult to tell their parents, they usually_______. A. stay alone at home B. fight with their parents C. discuss it with their friends D. go to their brothers and sisters for help

73. The sentence (句子) "Your answers are welcome." means _______. A. you are welcome to discuss the questions with us B. we've got no idea, so your answers are welcome C. your answers are always right D. you can give us all the right answers 74. Which of the following is the writer's attitude(态度)? A. Parents should choose friends for their children. B. Children should choose everything they like. C. Parents should understand their children better. D. Teenagers should only go to their friends for help. 75. Part of the purpose of this passage is to ________. A. give information for the parents to make their own judgment(判断) B. give advice to children who want to choose their friends C. help parents to find better friends for their children D. get some information from many readers

参考答案 1.Upset 2.concerned 3. hidden 4. series 5. nature 6. purpose 8. advice 9. calm 10. cheating 11. Communicating 12. habit 13. share 14. according 15. suffering 16. set down 17. has trouble with 18. falls in love with 19. Make an effort 20. Too much

7. questionnaire

完形填空 41--60 BDDAC DACBD BCADB ACDCB 阅读理解 61--65 BBCAD 71--75 ACACD


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