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大英三第二单元Unit2


Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

English Song — Abraham, Martin & John
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Text Prediction

Background Information

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English Song — Abraham, Martin & John Think While Listening
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Read the Script of the Song
People in the Song

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Background Information Map Reading
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Timeline of Slavery
The Underground Railroad Uncle Tom’s Cabin

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Think While Listening Listen to the song Abraham, Martin & John, sung by Dion, and think about the following questions.
Detailed Reading 1. A few names are mentioned in this song. Can you make out who these people are?

Clues: They are all Americans. All died young. They freed a lot of people. They are Abraham Lincoln, John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King and Bobby Kennedy. 2. Do you know why they all died young? 3. Whom did they free?

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Read the Script of the Song Abraham, Martin & John Has anybody here, Seen my old friend Abraham? Detailed Reading Can you tell me, where he?s gone? He freed a lot of people, But it seems the good they die young, You know, I just looked around, And he?s gone. Anybody here, Seen my old friend John? Can you tell me, where he?s gone?

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He freed a lot of people, But it seems the good they young, I just looked around, And he?s gone. Detailed Reading

Anybody here, Seen my old friend Martin? Can you tell me, where he?s gone? He freed a lot of people, But it seems the good they die young, I just looked around, And he?s gone.

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Didn?t you love the things that they stood for? Didn?t they try to find some good for you and me? And we?ll be free, Detailed Reading Someday soon it?s gonna be one day ...

Anybody here, Seen my old friend Bobby? Can you tell me, where he?s gone? I thought I saw him walkin? up over the hill, With Abraham, Martin and John.

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People in the Song
1. Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln was the sixteenth president of the US. As President, he issued The Emancipation Proclamation Detailed Reading (《解放黑人奴隶宣言》) that declared forever free those slaves within the Confederacy (南部邦联). During the Civil War Lincoln stated most movingly in dedicating the military cemetery at Gettysburg: “that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”

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On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated at Ford?s Theatre in Washington by John Wilkes Booth, an actor, who somehow thought he was helping the South. The Detailed opposite was the result,Reading with Lincoln?s death, the for possibility of peace died.

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2. John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the thirtyfifth president of the US. In his Inaugural Address (就职演说) he said: “Ask not what Detailed Reading your country can do for you — ask what you can do for your country.” As President, he took vigorous action in the cause of equal rights, calling for new civil rights legislation. On November 22, 1963, when he was hardly past his first thousand days in office, John F. Kennedy was killed by an assassin?s bullets as his motorcade (汽车队) wound through Dallas, Texas. Kennedy was the youngest man elected President; he was the youngest to die.

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3. Martin Luther King Dr. King was a pivotal (关键) figure in the Civil Rights Movement. His lectures and dialogues stirred ( 激 起 ) the concern and Detailed Reading sparked the conscience of a generation. In one of his speeches, he said, “I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. I have a dream today. I have a dream that ... one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with the little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today.”

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Dr. King was shot while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968. Dr. King was in Memphis to help lead sanitation workers in a Detailed Reading protest against low wages and intolerable working conditions.

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4. Bobby Kennedy Bobby Kennedy or Robert F. Kennedy, was the brother of President John F. Detailed Reading Kennedy. He was appointed attorney general (司法部长) of the United States in the early 1960s. In September 1962, Attorney General Kennedy enforced a Federal court order admitting the first African American student — James Meredith — to the University of Mississippi. The riot (暴动) that had followed Meredith?s registration ( 注 册 ) had left two dead and hundreds injured. Robert Kennedy saw voting as the key

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to racial (种族的) justice (正义) and collaborated (合作) with President Kennedy when he proposed the most farreaching civil rights statute since Reconstruction, The Civil Rights Act of 1964, Reading Detailed passed after President Kennedy was slain on November 22, 1963. Robert Francis Kennedy was slain on June 5, 1968 at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, California. He was 42 years old. Although his life was cut short, Robert Kennedy?s vision and ideals live on today.

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Text Prediction

Read the introductory part of the text and think about the following questions.
In 2004 a center in honor of the “underground railroad” opens in Cincinnati. The railroad was unusual. It sold no tickets and had no trains. Yet it carried thousands of passengers to the destination of their dreams. 1. What is an underground railroad in the normal sense? 2. What is this underground railroad special for? 3. Can you imagine what this railroad was built for?
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4. What probably are the dreams of the passengers? 5. What probably is the destination of their dreams? 6. What is the text probably about? Detailed Reading

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Map Reading Read the following three maps and answer the following questions.
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Click to see big picture.

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1. Find the following states:

Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Detailed Reading Texas, Virginia.
Which part do these states belong to, the Northern States or the Southern States? 2. Which states are most densely populated with slaves? 3. Where did most slaves want to go?

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Timeline of Slavery 1619 — Slaves in Virginia Africans brought to Detailed Reading are the first slaves Jamestown imported into Britain?s North American colonies.

1705 — Slaves as Property Describing slaves as real estate, Virginia lawmakers allowed owners to bequeath their slaves. The same law allowed masters to “kill and destroy” runaways.

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1775 — American Revolution Began Battles at the Massachusetts towns of Lexington and Concord on April 19Detailed Reading war for American sparked the independence from Britain. 1776 — Declaration of Independence The Continental Congress asserted “that these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States”.

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1783 — American Revolution Ended Britain and the infant United States signed the Peace of Paris treaty.
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1808 — United States Banned Slave Trade Importing African slaves was outlawed, but smuggling continued. 1860 — Abraham Lincoln Elected Abraham Lincoln of Illinois became the first Republican to win the United States Presidency.

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1861~1865 — United States Civil War Four years of brutal conflict claimed 623,000 lives.
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1863 — The Emancipation Proclamation President Abraham Lincoln decreed that all slaves in rebel territory were free on January 1, 1863.

1865 — Slavery Abolished The 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution outlawed slavery.

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The Underground Railroad 1. General Information The Underground Railroad was not underground. Detailed Reading Because escaping slaves and the people who helped them were technically breaking the law, they had to stay out of sight. They went “underground” in terms of concealing their actions. Sometimes they even hid in unusual places. Many clever and creative ideas helped slaves during their escape. When abolitionist (废奴主义者) John Fairfield needed to sneak (偷偷摸摸地进行) 28 slaves over the roads near Cincinnati, he hired a hearse ( 灵 车 ) and disguised the group as a funeral procession.

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Henry “Box” Brown, a slave, had himself shipped from Richmond to Philadelphia in a wooden box. 2. Routes to Freedom
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The routes the slaves traveled appear in this map. The trip is 560 miles (900 kilometers) long. A strong, lucky runaway might have made it to freedom in two months. For others, especially in bad weather, the trek (跋涉) might have lasted a year.

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Uncle Tom’s Cabin Uncle Tom’s Cabin, written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, is one of the most famous Detailed Reading and popular pieces of Civil War literature. Drawn from selected pieces of real life anecdotes, Uncle Tom’s Cabin was a book that drew many people into the fight over the institution of slavery. Northerners hailed (欢呼) the book, while southern slaveholders abhorred it.

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True or False

Part Division of the Text

Further Understanding

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Further Understanding

Questions and Answers Text Analysis

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True or False 1. Just like Uncle Tom in Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Josiah Henson was a long-suffering slave who was unwilling to stand up for himself. ( F ) According to Barbara Carter, Josiah Henson was a man of principle and totally different from Uncle Tom. 2. All the men and women who forged the Underground Railroad were blacks. ( F ) Some whites were driven by religious convictions and took part in this movement.

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3. These railroad conductors were frequently faced with death threats and warnings from the local government. ( T )

4. Many fugitives chose Canada as their primary destination because slavery had been abolished there. ( T )

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Part Division of the Text Parts Para(s) 1 1~5 Main Ideas It is high time to honor the heroes who helped liberate slaves by forging the Underground Railroad in the early civilrights struggles in America. By citing examples the author praises the exploits of civil-rights heroes who helped slaves travel the Underground Railroad to freedom.

2

6~23

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Questions and Answers 1. Both Josiah Henson and Uncle Tom were slaves. But in the eyes of Barbara Carter, they were different. In what way was Josiah Henson different from Uncle Tom? Uncle Tom汤姆叔叔;逆来顺受的美国黑人 was an enduring slave and unwilling to struggle for himself, while Josiah Henson did what he believed was right and took an active part in the anti-slavery movement.

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2. Why was Henson called an African-American Moses? In the Bible, Moses was the leader who brought the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt and led them to the Promised Land. Just like Moses, Henson helped hundreds of slaves escape to Canada and liberty, so he was called an African-American Moses. 3. What was the Underground Railroad? Who forged it? The Underground Railroad was a secret web of escape routes and safe houses. Many men and women, including both the blacks and whites, together forged it.

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? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

the Bible ;the Holy Bible ;Holy Writ 《圣经》是基督教的正式经典,又称《新旧约全书》。被奉为教义和神学的根本 依据。内容主要包括历史、传奇、律法、诗歌、论述、书函等。各书被认为具有 神的启示和旨意。bible圣经.一般引用是指我们必须遵守的规则等. Jesus Christ is the ONLY Way to God 耶稣基督:一个让大家生活更舒坦但后来却被钉死在十字架上的人。 (耶和华) 救 世主 a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity (circa 4 BC - AD 29) Moses ['m?uziz] n. 1. 【圣经】摩西(犹太人的古代领袖)[《出埃及记》] 2. 摩西式人物;神圣的领袖;制定法典的伟人 3. [贬义]犹太人 1. (Old Testament) the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus; Moses received the Ten Commandments戒律 from God on Mount Sinai Israelites ['izri?laits] n. the ethnic group claiming descent from Abraham and Isaac (especially from Isaac‘s son Jacob); the nation whom God chose to receive his revelation启示 and with whom God chose to make a covenant圣约 (Exodus 19)

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4. Why does the author want to tell the readers the stories of the heroes of the Underground Railroad?

Because most of them remain too little remembered and their exploits are still largely unsung.

Judaism犹太教是世界三大一神信仰中,最早而且最古老的宗教,也是犹太
民族的生活方式及信仰。犹太教的主要诫命与教义,来自托辣,即圣经的前 五卷书。犹太教的成年礼在12岁(女)与13岁(男)。犹太教最重要教义在 于只有一位神,即无形并且永恒的上帝。他愿所有的人行公义,好怜悯,因为上 帝按照他的形象造人,所以人都应该有尊严且受到尊敬地对待。犹太人以学习 及祈祷来侍奉上帝,同时遵行摩西五经上所指引的诫命。

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Text Analysis

In this part, the author tells the stories of three civilrights heroes. Who are they? Give the main idea of each story.
Stories Heroes 1 John Parker Para(s) 6~10 Main Ideas After winning his own freedom from slavery, John Parker helped other slaves escape north to Canada to get freedom.

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Stories Heroes
2 Levi Coffin

Para(s)
11~15

Main Ideas
Supported by a strong religious conviction, the white man Levi Coffin helped black slaves escape at huge risk to himself. By traveling the Underground Railroad, Josiah Henson reached his destination and became free at last.

3

Josiah Henson

16~23

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THE FREEDOM GIVERS Fergus M. Bordewich A gentle breeze swept the Canadian plains as I stepped outside the small two-story house. Alongside me was a slender woman in a black dress, my guide back to a time when the surrounding settlement in Dresden, Ontario, was home to a hero in American history. As we walked toward a plain gray church, Barbara Carter spoke proudly of her great-great-grandfather, Josiah Henson. “He was confident that the Creator intended all men to be created equal. And he never gave up struggling for that freedom.”

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Carter?s devotion to her ancestor is about more than personal pride: it is about family honor. For Josiah Henson has lived on through the character in American fiction that he helped inspire: Uncle Tom, the longsuffering slave in Harriet Beecher Stowe?s Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Ironically, that character has come to symbolize everything Henson was not. A racial sellout unwilling to stand up for himself? Carter gets angry at the thought. “Josiah Henson was a man of principle,” she said firmly.

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I had traveled here to Henson?s last home — now a historic site that Carter formerly directed — to learn more about a man who was, in many ways, an African-American Moses. After winning his own freedom from slavery, Henson secretly helped hundreds of other slaves to escape north to Canada — and liberty. Many settled here in Dresden with him. Yet this stop was only part of a much larger mission for me. Josiah Henson is but one name on a long list of courageous men and women who together forged the Underground Railroad, a secret web of escape routes and safe houses that they used to liberate slaves from the American South. Between 1820 and 1860, as many as 100,000 slaves traveled the Railroad to freedom.

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In October 2000, President Clinton authorized $16 million for the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center to honor this first great civil-rights struggle in the U. S. The center is scheduled to open in 2004 in Cincinnati. And it?s about time. For the heroes of the Underground Railroad remain too little remembered, their exploits still largely unsung. I was intent on telling their stories.

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John Parker tensed when he heard the soft knock. Peering out his door into the night, he recognized the face of a trusted neighbor. “There?s a party of escaped slaves hiding in the woods in Kentucky, twenty miles from the river,” the man whispered urgently. Parker didn?t hesitate. “I?ll go,” he said, pushing a pair of pistols into his pockets.

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Born a slave two decades before, in the 1820s, Parker had been taken from his mother at age eight and forced to walk in chains from Virginia to Alabama, where he was sold on the slave market. Determined to live free someday, he managed to get trained in iron molding. Eventually he saved enough money working at this trade on the side to buy his freedom. Now, by day, Parker worked in an iron foundry in the Ohio port of Ripley. By night he was a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad, helping people slip by the slave hunters. In Kentucky, where he was now headed, there was a $1000 reward for his capture, dead or alive.

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Crossing the Ohio River on that chilly night, Parker found ten fugitives frozen with fear. “Get your bundles and follow me,” he told them, leading the eight men and two women toward the river. They had almost reached shore when a watchman spotted them and raced off to spread the news. Parker saw a small boat and, with a shout, pushed the escaping slaves into it. There was room for all but two. As the boat slid across the river, Parker watched helplessly as the pursuers closed in around the men he was forced to leave behind.

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The others made it to the Ohio shore, where Parker hurriedly arranged for a wagon to take them to the next “station” on the Underground Railroad — the first leg of their journey to safety in Canada. Over the course of his life, John Parker guided more than 400 slaves to safety. While black conductors were often motivated by their own painful experiences, whites were commonly driven by religious convictions. Levi Coffin, a Quaker raised in North Carolina, explained, “The Bible, in bidding us to feed the hungry and clothe the naked, said nothing about color.”

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In the 1820s Coffin moved west to Newport (now Fountain City), Indiana, where he opened a store. Word spread that fleeing slaves could always find refuge at the Coffin home. At times he sheltered as many as 17 fugitives at once, and he kept a team and wagon ready to convey them on the next leg of their journey. Eventually three principal routes converged at the Coffin house, which came to be the Grand Central Terminal of the Underground Railroad.

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For his efforts, Coffin received frequent death threats and warnings that his store and home would be burned. Nearly every conductor faced similar risks — or worse. In the North, a magistrate might have imposed a fine or a brief jail sentence for aiding those escaping. In the Southern states, whites were sentenced to months or even years in jail. One courageous Methodist minister, Calvin Fairbank, was imprisoned for more than 17 years in Kentucky, where he kept a log of his beatings: 35,105 stripes with the whip.

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As for the slaves, escape meant a journey of hundreds of miles through unknown country, where they were usually easy to recognize. With no road signs and few maps, they had to put their trust in directions passed by word of mouth and in secret signs — nails driven into trees, for example — that conductors used to mark the route north. Many slaves traveled under cover of night, their faces sometimes caked with white powder. Quakers often dressed their “passengers,” both male and female, in gray dresses, deep bonnets and full veils. On one occasion, Levi Coffin was transporting so many runaway slaves that he disguised them as a funeral procession.

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Canada was the primary destination for many fugitives. Slavery had been abolished there in 1833, and Canadian authorities encouraged the runaways to settle their vast virgin land. Among them was Josiah Henson. As a boy in Maryland, Henson watched as his entire family was sold to different buyers, and he saw his mother harshly beaten when she tried to keep him with her. Making the best of his lot, Henson worked diligently and rose far in his owner?s regard.

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Money problems eventually compelled his master to send Henson, his wife and children to a brother in Kentucky. After laboring there for several years, Henson heard alarming news: the new master was planning to sell him for plantation work far away in the Deep South. The slave would be separated forever from his family. There was only one answer: flight. “I knew the North Star,” Henson wrote years later. “Like the star of Bethlehem, it announced where my salvation lay. ”

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At huge risk, Henson and his wife set off with their four children. Two weeks later, starving and exhausted, the family reached Cincinnati, where they made contact with members of the Underground Railroad. “Carefully they provided for our welfare, and then they set us thirty miles on our way by wagon.” The Hensons continued north, arriving at last in Buffalo, N. Y. There a friendly captain pointed across the Niagara River. “?Do you see those trees?? he said. ?They grow on free soil.?” He gave Henson a dollar and arranged for a boat, which carried the slave and his family across the river to Canada.

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“I threw myself on the ground, rolled in the sand and danced around, till, in the eyes of several who were present, I passed for a madman. ?He?s some crazy fellow,? said a Colonel Warren.” “?Oh, no! Don?t you know? I?m free!?”

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Josiah Henson was a man of principle. Paraphrase the sentence.

Josiah Henson observed/followed moral principles.

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I had traveled here to Henson?s last home — now a historic site that Carter formerly directed — to learn more about a man who was, in many ways, an African-American Moses. 1. Who was Moses? In the Old Testament, Moses was the Hebrew prophet and lawgiver who led the Israelites out of Egypt. 2. Why was Henson called an African-American Moses? Henson, a black who lived in America, helped other blacks escape from the US.

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Josiah Henson is but one name on a long list of courageous men and women who together forged the Underground Railroad, What is the part of speech of but in this sentence? And what does but mean? Here but is an adverb, which means “only”.

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Eventually he saved enough money working at this trade on the side to buy his freedom.
Translate the sentence into Chinese. 后来他终于靠这门手艺攒够钱赎回了自由。

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In Kentucky, where he was now headed, there was a $1000 reward for his capture, dead or alive.
Paraphrase the sentence. In Kentucky, anyone who captured him, no matter he was dead or alive, would be rewarded $1000 and now he was going to Kentucky.

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There was room for all but two. What does but mean? What is the part of speech of but in this sentence? Here but is a preposition, which means “except”.

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The others made it to the Ohio shore, where Parker hurriedly arranged for a wagon to take them to the next “station” on the Underground Railroad — the first leg of their journey to safety in Canada.

1. What does made it mean?
Make it means “succeed in doing something”. Here made it means “arrived (at the Ohio shore)”. 2. What does leg mean? Leg means “a stage of a journey or course”. For example, the last leg of the flight (飞行中的最后一段 路程).

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Levi Coffin, a Quaker raised in North Carolina, What is a Quaker? ?n. 教友派信徒;贵格会教徒 A Quaker is any member of the Society of Friends, a religious group established in England in the 1650s by George Fox. They were originally called Quakers because members were thought to “quake” or shake with religious excitement. Quakers worship Christ without any formal ceremony or fixed beliefs, and their meetings often involve silent thought or prayer. They are strongly opposed to violence and war, and are active in education and charity work.

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Making the best of his lot, Henson worked diligently and rose far in his owner?s regard. 1. What does lot mean in this sentence?

Lot means “one?s fortune in life, fate”.
2. Paraphrase “rose far in his owner?s regard”. He was regarded highly by his owner.

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breeze: n. a gentle wind
A gentle breeze blew over the garden. 凉爽清新的微风 a cool, refreshing breeze NB: All of the following words are related to wind. Can you match them with their definitions?

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hurricane gust gale

a strong, abrupt rush of wind a very strong wind a severe tropical cyclone, usu. involving heavy rains a rotating column of air

tornado

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slender: adj. 1. (of people) slim; not very wide but comparatively long or high slender fingers a slender waist 有苗条身材的女子 a woman with a slender figure 2. (of things) slight; inadequate
a slender income 渺茫的希望 slender hopes

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CF: slender, thin & slim 这几个词都有细小、瘦弱之意。 slender 主要表示苗条之瘦,往往含有瘦得好看或匀称 的意思。例如:

Film actress Zhang Ziyi is a slender woman.
电影演员章子怡身材苗条。 When the wind blows, the slender tree bends but never breaks. 起风时,细长的树常被吹弯但决不会被吹断。

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CF: thin 表示人或物的直径与长度的比例较小。例如: People usually get thinner after an illness. 生病后,人们通常变得瘦一些。 This metal may be thin but is of great strength. 这种金属虽然很薄,但强度却很高。 slim 用于指人与动物时,其含义与 slender 相同,但 在引申意义上却侧重于贫乏和不足状态。例如: As a slim boy, he has now filled out. 他原是一个清瘦的男孩,现在胖多了。 To tell you the truth, your chances to pass the exam are too slim. 实话告诉你,你考试过关的希望实在是太小了。

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racial: adj. relating to a person?s race, or to different races of people
There is a serious racial conflict in that African country.

他是种族歧视的牺牲者。
He was a victim of racial discrimination.

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stand up for: speak, work, etc. in favor of sb./sth.; support sb./sth
Don?t be afraid to stand up for your rights. 我所有的朋友都会支持我。 All my friends will stand up for me. stand up to: to oppose fearlessly; to bear, to last A soldier must stand up to the danger. 士兵必须敢于面对危险。

你的论点根本经不起仔细检查。
Your argument just won?t stand up to close scrutiny.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

principle: n. a rule or standard, especially of good behavior
She was a woman of principle. I usually follow the principle that it is better not to get involved in other people?s quarrels.

我们恪守人人都应受到公平对待的原则。
We adhere to the principle that everyone should be treated fairly.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

Collocation:

against one?s principle as a matter of principle by principle
of principle

违反原则
作为原则性问题 按照原则,根据原则 有原则的 坚持原则 抛弃原则

adhere to one?s principles
abandon one?s principles

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

historic: adj. famous or important in history a historic spot 两位领导人的具有历史意义的会见 a historic meeting between the two leaders CF: historic & historical 这两个词都是形容词,都有“历史上的”之意。 historic 泛指历史上有名的或富有历史意义的。例如: This change in government is a historic event of our times. 这项政府变革是当代具有历史意义的大事。

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

The signing of The Declaration of Independence was a historic occasion. 《独立宣言》的签署是具有历史意义的事件。 CF: historical 主要意思是属于历史的,历史上的,与历史 有关的,真实的而不是传说中的。例如:

He gave all his historical papers to the library.
他把他所有的历史资料都赠送给这个图书馆。 There is a historical society in our university. 我们大学有一个历史研究所。

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

site: n. place where a building, town, etc. was, is, or will be situated
The site for the new factory has not been decided. 一所新的学校占据了工厂的旧址。 A new school occupies the site of the old factory. Collocation: a historic site construction sites a battlefield site 历史古迹 建筑工地

战场的遗址

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

mission: n. particular task or duty undertaken by an individual or a group
Mission accomplished. 任务已完成。 代表团成功地完成了使命。 The delegation completed its mission successfully. 炸毁那座桥梁的任务未能完成。 The mission to blow up the bridge failed.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

Collocation:
carry out / perform a mission fulfill a mission 执行任务 完成使命

cancel a mission

取消一项任务

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

web: n. network of fine threads spun by a spider or some other spinning creature; complex series or network
The spider is spinning a web. 铁路网 a web of railroads 电话线网络 a web of telephone wires

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

liberate: vt. set free
Pattern: liberate sb. from sth. liberate people from poverty liberate sb. from economic worry 解除心中偏见 liberate the mind from prejudice 把一个国家从军事控制中解放出来 liberate a country from a military control

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

forge: v.
1. create by means of much hard work Their friendship was forged by shared adversity. 他们和法国共产党建立了联系。 They forged links with the French Communist Party. 2. make a forgery or counterfeit He got the money dishonestly, by forging his brother?s signature on a check. 伪造签名

forge a signature

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

authorize: vt. give approval or permission for (sth.); give authority to
I have authorized him to act for me during my absence. 主任允许我们在实验室工作。

The director authorized us to work in the laboratory.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

exploit:
1. n. brave or adventurous deed or action Their heroic exploits will go down in history.

歌颂某人的功绩
sing sb.?s exploits 他的战功使我感到惊异。 His military exploits amazed me.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

2. vt. employ to the greatest possible advantage exploit one?s talents

充分发挥某人的才能
exploit one?s friends 利用自己的朋友 这家公司用长工时、低工资的方法来剥削工人。 The company exploited its workers with long hours and low pay.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

be intent on doing sth.: be eager and determined to do sth.
He was intent on the job he was doing. 他决心去法国继续深造。 He is intent on going to France to continue his studies.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

peer: vi. look closely or carefully, esp. as if unable to see well (followed by at/through/into, etc.)
She peered at him closely, as if not believing it could really be him. She peered through the mist, trying to find the right path.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

CF: peer, gaze & stare 这三个词都是动词,都有注视、凝视之意。 peer 通常指半闭着眼睛看,并伴随着向前移动,含有 好奇地看或难以看清的意味。例如: The old man peered at her over his spectacles. 老头儿从他的眼镜上方盯着她。 Short-sighted people often peer at others when they are wearing no glasses. 近视眼的人不戴眼镜时常常眯着眼看人。 The sleepy father got up and peered through a crack in the door to see who knocked at the door. 还未睡醒的父亲起了床,透过门缝眯着眼看是谁在敲门。

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

CF: gaze 指持久不停地看,通常有惊奇、羡慕、感叹等含 义。例如:
All of us gazed at the beautiful view in the distance. 我们都凝视着远方美丽的景色。

For two hours Tom sat gazing out of the window.
两个小时过去了,汤姆一直坐着凝视着窗外。 stare 指出于好奇、惊讶、茫然或赞叹等原因而瞪大眼 睛长时间、直接地注视。例如: The woman stared at the stranger in astonishment. 那个女人吃惊地盯着陌生人。 It is very impolite to stare at other people. 死死盯着他人是极不礼貌的。

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

on the side: as an additional job or source of income; secretly
He is a teacher, but he makes a little money on the side by repairing cars in his free time. He?s married but he has a girlfriend on the side. 他虽有妻室,但暗地里还有一个女朋友。

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

capture:
1. n. the act of taking by force or of being taken by force He was released yesterday, six months after his capture by the terrorists. 2. v. take (a person or animal) as a prisoner She was captured trying to escape from the country.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

close in (on/around): come near to, esp. in order to attack from several directions; surround The people were trapped when the enemy army began to close in on them.
Night is closing in.包围;迫近

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

religious: adj. of religion
a religious service 宗教仪式 宗教问题 a religious question

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

conviction: n. firm opinion or belief

She expressed her firm conviction that television was harmful to children.
她坚信她是对的。 She had a firm conviction that she was right. Collocation: a lifelong conviction political conviction strengthen/deepen one?s conviction that … 终身的信仰 政治信念 增强/加深某人的信念?

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

impose: vt. 1. place (a penalty, tax, etc.) officially on sb./sth. New duties were imposed on wines and spirits. 征收进口税 impose a tax on imports 2. try to make sb. accept (an opinion or a belief)

She imposed her ideas on the group.
I must perform the task that has been imposed on me.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

transport: vt. take sth./sb. from one place to another in a vehicle It took all day to transport the furniture to the new apartment. The goods were transported by train. 公共汽车把我们从机场送到城市。 A bus transported us from the airport to the city.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

disguise: vt. give sb./sth. a false appearance He disguised himself as a woman.

The soldiers disguised themselves by wearing white garments in the snow. 这一事实是无法隐瞒的。
It is impossible to disguise the fact.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

abolish: vt. end the existence of (a law, custom, system, etc.) The death penalty is to be abolished before the end of this year. 废除奴隶制 abolish slavery 坏的风俗应当废除。 Bad customs should be abolished.

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

compel: vt. make (sb.) do sth.; force

Duty compelled the soldiers to volunteer for the mission.
大雨迫使我们呆在屋内。 The heavy rain compelled us to stay indoors. Collocation: compel sb. to do sth. be compelled to (do) 强迫某人做某事 不得不(做)

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

at risk: threatened by the possibility of loss, failure, etc.; in danger The disease is spreading, and all children under five are at risk. Collocation: at all risks (=at any risk) at the risk of 无论冒什么危险;无论如何 冒?之险;不顾?之风险

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

starve: v. (cause a person or an animal to) suffer severely or die from hunger starve to death What?s for dinner? I?m starving! 晚饭吃什么? 我饿死了!

starve for news
渴望消息

She?s lonely, and starving for companionship. 她很寂寞,渴望友谊。

Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

pass for: appear like; be accepted or looked upon as (same as pass as)冒充,假扮;被认为

He can pass for a Frenchman.
I can?t imagine how this place passes for a five-star hotel. 他被认为是个医生。 He passes for a doctor. 他被误认为是个有学问的人。 He passes for a learned man.


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