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限定词+描绘性形容词+颜色+国籍或地区+用途 巧记口诀:限官形龄色国材 a, 以-er, -en 结尾的形容词, 一般作前置定语。 如: lower, other, wooden, golden, woolen 等

各个形容词的位置: 或类别+名词

br />一. 形容词的用法: 概念:形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征,通常可将形容词分成性质形容 1.形容词的位置:形容词作定语通常前置,但在下列情况下后置 1 2 修饰 some, any, every, no 和 body, thing, one 等构 nobody absent, everything possible 成的复合不定代词时 以-able, -ible 结尾的形容词可置于有最高级或 the best book available, the only only 修饰的名词之后 solution possible the only person awake a bridge 50 meters long a huge room simple and beautiful a man difficult to get on with


b. 不定代词或以-a 为前缀的形容词,一般作后置
定语。someone, something, afraid, alone, alive 等 注意:有些形容词以-ly 结尾的,不要和副词混淆 如 friendly, lovely 等



3 alive, alike, awake, aware, asleep 等作定语时后置 4 和空间、时间、单位连用时 5 成对的形容词可以后置 6 形容词短语一般后置

3.形容词比较构成法略 a. 两者之间比较永比较级通常与 than 连接 4.形容词比较级与最高 级的用法 Tom is taller than his deskmate. b. 两者以上的事物比较用最高级,前面需加定冠词“the” That seemed to the happiest day of her life. 1. enough 的位置:形容词、副词放在 enough 前面,名词放在 enough 的后面 巧记口诀:形前名后 There is enough rice for you to eat. 2. 副词比较等级构成法略。 注意:副词最高级可以 the,也可不用。 Who swims (the) best in your team? a. most+形容词.一般前面需加定冠词 the,但表示一种程 度上非常高的特性和品质时,不表示比较 What he said is most interesting? If I had a long enough holiday, I’d visit Europe.

______to take his adventure course will certainly learn a lot of useful enough 修饰名词时可以前置也可以后置,但修 skills. A.Brave enough students 7 饰形容词或副词时要后置 B.Enough breave students C.Students brave D.Students enough brave enough


3. 形容词和副词 的特殊用法

b. 比较等级的修饰。形容词副词的比较等级常可用下列 词来修饰。如 much, far, even, still, a little, no, any, a lot a bit 等 There are now a lot more trees on the hills. c. ―比较级+and+比较‖ 越来越。 。 。 。 “too+形容词或副词+to do sth.”太??而不能 later, latest 指时间上的较迟 latter, last 指顺序上的后者 d. 两种不同形式的 比较等级不同的意义 older, oldest 指人的年纪或事年代的久远 elder, eldest 指人的长幼顺序 farther, farthest 指距离上 further, furthest 指抽象意义上的

注意:多个形容词修饰同一个名词的顺序, 熟记口诀就可以顺利解题: 限定描绘大长高, 形状年龄和新老,颜色国籍跟材料,作用类别往后靠。 规则:限定语(The、A)+ 描绘性形容词 + size(小)+ shape(形状)+ age(年龄、时 间)+ color(颜色)+ origin(国籍、来源)+ material(材料)+ purpose(目的)+ 名词 There is a famous fine old stone bridge near the village. 村子附近有一座著名的漂亮的古代石桥。 2.复合形容词的构成 1 2 4 5 形容词+名词+ed 形容词+形容词 副词+现在分词 副词+过去分词 kind-hearted dark-blue hard-working newly-built 6 7 8 9 10 名词+形容词 名词+现在分词 名词+过去分词 数词 +名词+ed 数词+名词 world-famous peace-loving snow-covered three-egged twenty-year

3 形容词+现在分词 ordinary-looking

3.形容词(短语)作伴随状语 As he looked at the goat, it rolled over, dead. 当他看着山羊的时候,山羊翻了个身,死了。 Afraid of difficulties, they prefer to take the easy road.由于害怕困难, 他们宁愿走好走的路。 4. 用形容词表示类别和整体 1) 某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人,与谓语动词的复数连接。如:这类词 有:rich / poor; good / bad ; young / old ; healthy / ill ; living / dead ; black / white (表示人种等)。 The poor are losing hope. 2) 有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用。 the British,the English,the French,the Chinese. The English have wonderful sense of humor. 5. 形容词的作用,见下表: 作 定 表 用 语 语 例 Your coat is too small. 句

2). 副词修饰形容词或副词时,通常放在形容词或副词的前面如: These flowers are quite beautiful. (在形容词前) 这些花相当漂亮。 He works very hard. (在副词前)他工作很努力。 ▲ 但也有例外,如:She is old enough to go to school. (在形容词后)她已到了上 学的年龄。 [说明] ①形容词一般修饰名词, 副词一般修饰动词、 形容词或副词。 ②一些形容词 后加上-ly 可以变成副词,如 slow-slowly, quick-quickly, careful-carefully 等。 二、副词的排列顺序: 1) 时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。 2) 方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用 and 或 but 等连词连接。 Please write slowly and carefully. 3) 多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。 注意:副词 very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。 改错:(错)I very like English. (对)I like English very much. 注意:副词 enough 要放在形容词的后面,形容词 enough 放在名词前后都可。 I don't know him well enough. There is enough food for everyone to eat. There is food enough for everyone to eat. 2.副词的分类: 1 2 3 4 时 间 soon, now, early, finally, 5 副词 once, recently 地 点 here, nearby, outside, 6 副词 upwards, above 方 式 hard, well, fast, slowly , 7 副词 excitedly, really 程 度 almost, nearly, 副词 fairly, quite, rather very, 8 频度副词 疑问副词 连接副词 关系副词 always, often, frequently, seldom, never how, where, when, why how, when, where, why, whether, however, meanwhile when, where, why

You can see a lot of beautiful flowers in the garden.

宾语补足语 The old woman keeps everything clean and tidy. 注意:有些形容词只能作表语,如:alone, afraid, asleep 等。例如: Don't wake the sleeping baby up. He is asleep. The old man is alone. 二、副词的用法: 概念:用以修饰动词、 形容词或其他副词的词叫做副词。例如: not(不) ,here(这里) , now(现在) 。 1、副词的位置: 1). 副词修饰动词时,通常可以放在句首、句中或句末。如: Usually I do my homework in the evening. (句首) 通常我晚上做家庭作业。 I often get up at six. (句中) 我常在 6 点起床。 Please speak slowly. (句末) 请慢慢说。

三. 形容词和副词的比较等级 形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的变化方法如下: 1. 符合规则的: 构成法 原级 比较级 Taller greater nicer larger abler bigger hotter easier busier cleverer narrower 最高级 tallest greatest nicest largest ablest biggest hottest easiest busiest cleverest narrowest most important most easily 一 般单音节词未尾加 tall(高的) -er,-est great(巨大的) 以不发音的 e 结尾的单 nice(好的) 音词和少数以- le 结尾的双音 large(大的) 节词只加-r,-st able(有能力的) 以一个辅音字母结尾的 big(大的) 闭音节单音节词, 双写结尾的 hot (热的) 辅音字母,再加-er,-est "以辅音字母+y"结尾的 easy(容易的) 双音节词, 改 y 为 i, 再加-er, busy(忙的) -est 少数以-er, -ow 结尾的双 clever(聪明的) 音节词未尾加-er,-est narrow(窄的)

注意:1). 可以修饰比较级的词有:much, many, a lot, even, far, a bit, a little, still, yet, by far, any, a great deal; 2). 表示“最高程度“的形容词没有最高级和比较级。如:favourite, excellent, extreme, perfect ,superior,junior 等。 3.形容词和副词比较级的用法 级 别 比较程度 肯 定 形 式 否 定 形 式 表达方式和意义 例 句 Art is as interesting as music. Play as well as you can. English is not so difficult as science. She does not study so well as I do. 比较级前面 可以加 much, far, even, still, a lot, a little, a bit 等 备 注

同 等 程 度

As+原级+as (像……一样)

not + so (as) +原级+as (不如……那样)

其他双音节词和多音节 important( 重 要 more important 词,在前面加 more,most 来 的) more easily 构成比较级和最高级。 easily(容易地) 2.几个不规则的形容词和副词的比较级和最高级如下表: 原 级 good , well bad , ill many , much little far 比较级 better worse more less farther / further

比 较 级 最高级 best worst most least farthest / furthest

不同程度 (用于两者 比较)

比较级+than (比……)

Jim is older than Luky. I like pork better than beef.

比较级+and+比较级 (越来越……) 程度加深 The + 比较级,the + 比较级 (越……, 越……) The +最高级+of (in) (最……)

He is growing taller and taller. He studies better and better. The more books she reads, the better she understand. Spring is the best season of the year. Lin Tao jumped (the) farthest of all. 副词最高级 前面的 the 往往省略

最 最高程度 高 (用于三者 级 或三者以上)

4. 倍数的表达 表达法一:A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B. The new building is four times the size(the height)of the old one. 这座新楼是那座旧楼的四倍大(高)/这座新楼比那座旧楼大(高)三倍。 表达法二:A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B. Asia is four times as large as Europe. 亚洲是欧洲的四倍大/亚洲比欧洲大三倍。 表达法三:A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B. Your school is three times bigger than ours. 你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。 用 times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用 twice 或 double. 四. 词语辨析 1. close 与 closely close 意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地" He is sitting close to me. Watch him closely. 2.late 与 lately late 意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近" You have come too late. What have you been doing lately? 3.deep 与 deeply deep 意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply 时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地" He pushed the stick deep into the mud. Even father was deeply moved by the film. 4.high 与 highly high 表示空间高度;highly 表示程度,相当于 much The plane was flying high. I think highly of your opinion. 5.wide 与 widely wide 表示空间宽度;widely 意思是"广泛地","在许多地方" He opened the door wide. English is widely used in the world. 6.free 与 freely

free 的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地" You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like. You may speak freely; say what you like. 7. good 和 well well 既可作副词又可作形容词。 作副词时修饰动词。作形容词时可作表语, 指身体好。 These oranges taste good. good 只作形容词,指质量好或某人品质好。 He did very well in the exam. 8.most, almost 和 mostly a. most 是 many, much 的最高级,表示“最??”前面需加定冠词 He is one of the most famous writers in China b. most+形容词 意为“很,非常” ,前需加不定冠词 Guilin is a most beautiful city almost 表示“几乎,差一点就”与 nearly 相似 Jack has almost finished the work mostly 表示“主要地,多半地” The guests are mostly her friends. 9.How long??,How soon??, How often??和 How far?? How long: 多久,多长时间,表示动作或状态需持续多久,通常回答“for+一段时间” “since+时间点”等 —How long have you been at this school? —Er, I’ve been here for just over two years. How soon: 多快。通常回答“in+一段时间” “一段时间+later”等 —How soon will you be back? —I’ll be back in a week. 注意:若要指动作快,要用“How quickly/fast” How often: 多少时间内发生频率。通常回答“几次 a day” “always” “usually”等 —How often do you watch TV? —Once a day 注意:若指提问“多少次”则要用“How many times?” How far:距离有多远

—How far do you live from here —Not morn than one mile. 10.sometimes, some times, sometime 和 some time sometimes:有时,不时 Sometimes I go to sleep after 12:00 some times: 几次,数次 He has been to Beijing for some times. sometime: 某时 I saw him sometime last year. some time: 一段时间,一些时候 He used to live in England some time when he was young. 11.too much 和 much too too much: 太多 He drank too much beer yesterday much too: 太 It’s much too cold today. 12. alone 和 lonely alone:既可作形容词,也可作副词。一般后置,在 be 动词或动词后面,意为“独自的, 单独地”无感情色彩。 She is alone at home. I like to work alone lonely: 只作形容词,既作定语,也可作表语。 意为“孤单的,寂寞的”有感情色彩 I was alone but I didn’t feel lonely. 13. too, also 和 either too 用于肯定句和疑问句中,表示“也” ,放句尾。 also 放在系动词、助动词后,实意动词前。 either 用于否定句,意为“也不”放在句尾 14. so?that 和 such?that so?that:so 为副词,后面直接形容词,中间不一定需要加名词。若有名词,不定冠词 放在形容词后。 She is so beautiful (a girl) that everyone loves her. such?that:such 为形容词,后面接名词,且中间如果有不定冠词,放在形容词前 She is such a beautiful girl that everyone loves her. 15. ago 和 before ago 不能单独使用,只能接一段时间+ago,句子时态用一般过去时 before 一段时间+before;句子用过去完成时 before+时间点:句子用一般过去时 16. not?or 和 not?and not?or, 全部否定 She can’t read or write. not?and: 部分否定 She can’t read and write

习题 1. This town has _______ bridge. A. a stone old fine B. an old stone fine C. a fine old stone D. an old fine stone 2. The apple tastes______ and sells________. A. well; well B. good; good C. well; good D. good; well 3. We drank ______coffee at the café . A. very good hot some B. some very hot good C. some very good hot D. some good very hot 4. What you’ve said sounds___________ A. correct B. correctly C. correctness D. correcting 5. They all looked______ at the master and felt quite. A. sad; sad B. sadly; sadly C. sad; sadly D. sadly; sad 6. He looked dead but the faint pulse proved that he was still__________ A. live B. life C. alive D. lively 7. This is a _________clock A. nice Swiss little B. nice little Swiss C. little nice Swiss D. Swiss nice little 8. She spent________ time studying French. A. much so B. so much C. such much D. so many 9. –How was the examination? --It wasn’t very difficult, but it was________ long. A. too much B. so much C. very much D. much too 10. The weather was _______ worse than I had expected. A. fairly B. quite C. much D. very 11. The patient’s progress was encouraging as he could ______ get out of bed without help A. nearly B. only C. hardly D. badly 12. He wasn’t ________ to buy a color TV A. too rich B, enough rich C. rich enough D. so rich 13. Mary’s _________brother is a doctor. He is four years _________ than her. A. older; elder B. elder; elder C. elder; older D. older; older 14. –Are you feeling______? --Yes, I’m fine now. A. any well B. any better C. quite good D. quite better

15. –How are you getting on with your work? --I can’t do it _________ any longer, I’ll have to get help. A. lonely B. quietly C. alone D. hard 16. I'm not ________ to lift the heavy box. A. short enough B. enough tall C. health enough D. strong enough 17. They got a Christmas tree and it was ____ ours. A, so tall as B, so taller as C, as tall as D, as taller as 18. I saw the film two days________ A. ago B. later C. lately D. more lately 19. This box is __________ heavy _________I cannot carry it. A. too; to B. so; that C. very; that D. such; that 20. --________ do you write to your pen pal? --Once a week. A. How long B. How many times C. How often D. How soon 21. These oranges taste_______. A. good B. well C. to be good D. to be well 22. I can’t pay ________ as he asked for. A. a as high price B.as a high price C.as high price D.as high a price 23. — We are going to see a film this evening . Why not go with us ? — I have to do many things this evening . I’m _______ , you see . A. free B. glad C. sorry D. busy 24. —Mum, Bill is coming to dinner this evening. —OK. Let’s give him ___ to eat. A. something different B. different anything C. anything different D. different something 25.The ____ person is talking with the doctor. A. ill B. sick C. illness D. sickness 26. The day is bright and _______ . Let’s go for a walk . A. sunny B. dark C. cloudy D. windy 27. Look ! _______ beautiful that lake is ! A. What B. How C. How a D. What a

28. ---I won't go to the Great Wall tomorrow. --- I won't, ______. A. neither B. either C. too D. also 29. He likes to do some reading in the morning, I like it, _____. A. too B. either C. neither D. also 30.That maths problem is ______ difficult ______ nobody can work it out. A. too; to B. very; that C. so; that D. very; but 31. —What’s on the desk? —It’s ____ . A. a new green bag B. new green bag C. a green mew bag D. a bag new green 32. The night was very ___, so he had to take off his shoes ___. A. quiet; quietly B. quite; quickly C. late; quick D. quite; quietly 33. I got up____today. A. later B. more lately C. lately D. late 34 .Alice___goes to school at seven. A. usual B. usually C. hard D. a little 35. Your room is _______ than mine. A. three time big B. three times big C. three times bigger D. bigger three times 36. When spring comes, it gets_______. A. warm and warm B. colder and colder C. warmer and warmer D. shorter and shorter 37. ______ he read the book, _______ he got in it. A. The more; the more interesting B. The less; the more interesting C. The more; the more interested D. More; more interested 38. like______ one of the two books. A. the older B. oldest C. the oldest D. older 39. Which do you like _______, tea or coffee? A. well B. better C. best D. most 40. Tom is one of _______ boys in our class. A. tallest B. taller C. the tallest B. the tall

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