名词性从句 在复合句中具有名词的性质的作主语、表语、同位语、宾语的从句叫名词性从句。因此， 我们把主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句和宾语从句这四种从句统称为名词性从句。 种类 作用 在复合句中做主语，相当于名词， 主语从 一般置谓语之前， 也可用 it 作形式 句 主语，主语从句放主句之后 Whether he will come or not doesn’t matter muc
h. Whoever comes here will be welcome. 常用关联词 例句
that, whether, if, as if, as though, 表 语 从 在复合句中做表语，相当于名词， who, whose, It looks as if it is going to snow. which, how, 句 位于系动词之后 when, where, why, what, 宾语从 whatever, He asked me which team could win the 在复合句中做宾语，相当于名词 whoever, game. 句 wherever 同位语 从句 放在名词之后(news, problem, idea, suggestion, advice, thought, hope, fact 等) 表明其具体内容 You have no idea how worried we are. The fact that he lied again greatly surprised us.
主语从句(subject clauses)在复合句中起主语作用的从句叫主语从句。引导主语从句的词有从属连 词、 、 关系代词、 连接副词等。 引导主语从句的关联词有从属连词 that、 whether， 关系代词： who, what, which , whom, whose, whatever, whoever, whomever, whichever；关系副词：when, where, how, why, however, whenever, wherever 等。 That you don’t like him is none of my business.你不喜欢她不管我的事。 What he said is true. 他说的是真的。 Do you remember how he arrived almost at the end of the party? 你记得他几乎是在宴会快结 束时才到的吗？ This party's really where it's at, man! 啊，这个晚会真棒！
Tell us how you fulfilled the heavy task ahead of schedule.告诉我们,你们是怎样提前完成这 一艰巨任务的。 We have reason to believe that the fighting on the border may develop into a full-blown war. (喻)我们有理由相信边境上的冲突可能发展成一场全面战争。 He said that he would come. 他说他要来。
Whether the football game will be played depends on the weather.足球比赛是否举行将视天气 而定。 表语从句 用作表语的从句叫作表语从句，它位于主句中的连系动词之后。引导表语从句的词有从属 连词 that、whether、as though(if)；关系代词 who, what, which, whom, whose, whatever, whoever, whomever, whichever 等；关系副词 when, where, why, how, however, whenever, wherever 等。可 以接表语从句的连系动词由 be, look, remain, seem 等。That 引导表语从句时，在口语中，间或可 以省略。 The trouble is that we are short of money.困难是我们资金短缺。 That is why stone walls are used instead of fences around New England fields.这就是为什 么在新英格兰用石头墙而不用栅栏的原因。 At that time, it seemed as if I couldn't think of the right word anyhow.当时,我似乎怎么 也想不出一个恰当的字眼来。 宾语从句(object clauses)用作宾语的从句叫做宾语从句。宾语从句的位置与陈述句基本结构中的宾 语相同。宾语从句可作谓语动词的宾语，也可以作介词和非谓语动词（动词不定式、动名词、分词） 和某些形容词的宾语。 宾语从句可以由从属连词 that whether、 if， 关系代词 what, who, whose, which 和关系副词 when、where、how、why 等引导。 He said he wanted to go to town. 他说他想去城里。 I hope you'll be better soon.我希望你能很快好起来。 I’m so glad that you were able to come to this party.你能设法抽空出席这个交际会，我很高 兴。 I know nothing about it except what I have read in the papers.除了在报上读到的以外,我对 这件事一无所知。 Most of the Chinese people usually go to work on the bike except when it rains.除了雨天, 大多数中国人一般都骑自行车上班。 He asked me whether she was coming. 他问我，她来还是不来。 同位语从句 用作同位语的从句叫同位语从句。 它一般跟在抽象名词 fact， idea， news， hope， belief， thought，truth，doubt，suggestion，warning, instruction，reason，information, question 等
之后， 对这些名词进行说明或解释。 引导同位语从句的词除连词 that， whether 外， 还有关系代词 what, which, who, 以及关系副词 how，when，where，why 等。 It is a fact that smoking is a danger to health. 吸烟危害健康，这是事实。 I have no idea what you mean.我一点儿也不明白你的意思。 He made the suggestion that we go by train. 他建议我们坐火车去。 There is no doubt that he is guilty. 毫无疑问，他是有罪的。 一、考点聚焦 1、名词性从句中连接词的运用 名词性从句中的连接词有连词 that / whether / as if，连接代词 what / who/ which / whose / whatever / whoever / whomever / whichever，连接副词 where / when / why / how / wherever / whenever。 （1）that 的用法。 ①主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句中用 that 但不能省略。如： That they are good at English is known to us all. The problem is that we don’t have enough money. She expressed the hope that they would come to China one day. ②宾语从句中的连接词 that 有时可省有时又不可省， 在以下几种情况中 that 不能省略： （A） 当 that 从句和主句谓语动词之间有插入词语或者从句主语之间有插入语时，that 不可省略； （B）当 that 从句 与另一名词性从句并列作宾语时，that 不能省； （C）当 that 作介词宾语时，that 不可省掉。如： He judged that, because he was a child, he did not understand wine Everyone knew what happened and that she was worried. The reason lies in that she works harder than the others do. ③that 从句作主语和宾语时，可以用 it 来替换成以下几种结构表达。 (A)It is clear/certain/likely/true/surprising that… （B）It is a pity/shame/good idea/no wonder that ...（C） It is said/reported/ believed/known/thought/suggested that … （D）It seems/happens that。如： It happened that I went out last night. It is said that China will win in the World Cup. ④that 和 what 的区别。 that 引导名词性从句时， 在主从句中不以当任何句子成分，也没有任何含义；而 what 引导名词性 从句时，在主从句中都要充当一定的句子成分，what 可以分解成定语从句中的先行词 + 关系代词即 常说的先行词 + that。如：
It’s shame that he has made such a mistake. ⑤同位语从句与定语从句中 that 的区别。
Do what he says.
同位语从句中的连词 that 只起连接作用，在从句中不担当任何句子成分；而定语从句中的关系代 词 that 在句中做宾语或主语，宾语与先行词有修饰关系。如果句子是同位语从句，就应用连词 that 而 不能用 which.同位语从句一般放在表具体含义的名词后解释名词的含义或内容，如以下名词：news、 fact、suggestion、truth、plan、belief、doubt、possibility、idea 等，而定语从句只是对先行词的限定和 修饰。如： They expressed the hope that they would come to visit China again.(同位语从句) The hope she expressed is that they would come to visit China again.（定语从句） （2）whether 和 if 的用法。 ①whether 和 if 在宾语从句中可以互换，但是作介词宾语时连接词一般用 whether。如： It all depends on whether they will come back. ②后面直接跟 or not 时用 whether。如： I didn’t know whether or not he had arrived in Wuhan. ③主语从句表语从句中只能用 whether。如： Whether the meeting will be put off has not been decided yet. The question is whether they have so much money. ④whether 可以引导同位语从句，用以说明前面的名词的内容，if 不能。如： We ought to discuss carefully the question whether we can do it or not. ⑤whether 常与 or 连用表示一种选择，if 不能这样用；whether 也可与动词不定式连用但 if 不能。 如： The question of whether they are male or female is not important. I have not decided whether to go or not. ⑥间接引语位于句首时或者是间接引语提前时用 whether 不用 if。如： Thank you, but whether I’ll be free I’m not sure at the moment. ⑦whether 可引导一个让步状语从句表示“不管” 、 “无论” ，而 if 不能。如： Whether he comes or not, we will begin our party on time.
（3）疑问词 + ever 和 no matter + 疑问词的区别。 ①疑问词 + ever 可引导名词性从句，在主从句中要充当一定的部分。如： Whoever breaks the rule must be punished. You can choose whatever you like in the shop. ②疑问词 + ever 还可引导让步状语从句。如： Whoever breaks the rule, he must be punished, Whatever you do, you must do it well. ③no matter + 疑问词只能引导让步状语从句。如： No matter what you do, you must do it well. No matter who breaks the rule, he must be punished. （4）when 和 where 引导的同位语从句与定语从句的区别。 when 和 where 前面的名词若是表示时间、地点的名词，则 when 和 where 引导的是定语从句，否 则则为同位语从句。如： They put forward the question where they could get the money. This is the place where the accident happened. 2、名词性从句中主句和从句的时态一致 （1） 宾语从句中主句和从句的时态保持一致， 但如果从句中表示提示的是客观现象， 虽然主句是 过去时态，从句仍用一般现在时。如： Hello,I didn’t know you were in London. How long have you been here? The teacher told us that light travels at a very high speed. （2）主语从句作主语相当于单数第三人称作主语，谓语动词用单数，如果由 and 连接两个或两 个以上的主语从句作主语时，谓语动词用复数；由两个或多个连接词引导一个主语从句，谓语动词用 单数。如： When the meeting will begin has not been decided yet. When they will start and where they go have not been decided yet. When and where the meeting will begin has not been decided. 3、名词性从句的词序 名词性从句在句中要用陈述句语序。如： He asked me what was the matter with me.
We’ve heard the news that we’ll move into the new house. Whatever you say will interest us all. 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. A computer can only do ________ you have instructed it to do.(NMET 2001) A. how B. after C. what D. when
解析：答案为 C。本题考查的是名词性从句作宾语的用法。此句的引导词既作连词又在宾语从句 中充当一成分，故 what 最合适。 2. —I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.. —Is that _________ you had a few days off ? (NMET 99) A. why B. when C. what D. where
解析：答案为 A。此题考查的是从句的用法。根据题意“我上周开车去珠海看航空展去了。 ”下面 一句接着问： “那就是你为什么离开的原因吗？”故用 why 引导表语从句表示原因。 3. I hate __________ when peope talk with their mouths full.(NMET 98) A. it B. that C. these D. them
解析：答案为 A。本题考查的是形式宾语的用法。题意为“我讨厌人们谈话时嘴里塞满东西” 。该 空白处没有任何含义，而且已经用了 when 连接该宾语从句，所以此处只填一个形式宾语 it。 4. We cannot figure out A. that B. as quite a number of insects, birds, and animals are dying out. C. why D. when
解析：答案为 C。本题考查宾语从句知识，figure out 为及物动词，故此句为宾语从句，从句意得 知连词在从句中作原因状语，故选 why. 6.After Yang Liwei succeeded in circling the earth, space. A. where B. what C. that D. how our astronauts desire to do is walking in
解析：答案为 B。此题句子为时间状语从句，全主句的主语是由主语从句来充当的，并且主语从句中 不定式动词 do 缺少宾语，故选 what 1. _________they have won the game made us excited. A./ B.That C.What D.Where 2. ________I accept the gift or refuse it is none of your business.
A.If B.Whether C.Even if D.When 3. _________he says in his report is a very interesting question. A.What all B.All what C.What D.What that 4. When they will start________not been decided. A.have B.is C.does D.has 5. _______certain that his invention will lead to the development of production. A.That is B.This is C.It is D.It has 6. ________is unknown to us all. A.Where did she put it B.Where she put it C.That where she put it D.In which she put it 7. ________nothing to do with us. A.What she did have B.What she did is C.What did he do has D.What she has done has 8. The trouble is________we are short of hands. A.what B.that C.how D.which 9. Energy is_________makes things work. A.what B.everything C.something D.that 10. My hometown is not________it used to_______ten years ago. A.when, do B.what, do C.what, be D.when, be 11. The reason_______I have to go is _______my mother is ill in bed. A.why, why B.why, because C.why, that D.that, because 12. The thought________he might fail in the exam worried him. A.which B.that C.when D.so that 13. That is________ I lost my pen. A.when B.where C.that D.what 14. Have you any idea_______? A.how fast does light travel B.how quick light travels C.how soon light travels D.how fast light travels 15.His suggestion_______to see the art exhibition interested every one of us. A.that we go B.which we should go C.that we would go D.we would go 16.He was interested in________he had seen at the exhibition. A.which B.that C.all what D.all that 17.He often thinks of________he can do more for his country. A.what B.how C.that D.which 18.He made_________quite clear that he wouldn't change his mind. A.this B.that C.it D.what 19.I don't know_________. A.what was the matter outside B.what the matter outside was C.what was outside the matter D.what was happened outside 20.He has come , but I didn't know that he________until yesterday. A.is coming B.will come C.was coming D.wasn't coming 21.He ran back into the room to see if he________anything behind. A.has forgotten B.had forgotten C.has left D.had left 22.They want to know_________do to help us. A.what can they B.what they can C.how they can D.how can they 23.Do you know________brighter than the moon?
A.why the sun look B.why the sun looks C.why does the sun look D.why is the sun look 24.Can you tell me_______the railway station? A.how I can get to B.where I can get to C.how can I get to D.where can I get to 25.These photographs will show you________. A.what does our village look like B.what our village looks like C.how does our village look like D.how our village looks like 26.Can you make sure________the gold ring? A.where Alice had put B.where had Alice put C.where Alice has put D.where has Alice put 27.No one can be sure_________in a million years A.what man will look like B.what will man look like C.man will look like what D.what look will man like 28.He asked________for the violin. A.did I pay how much B.I paid how much C.how much did I pay D.how much I paid 29.I remember_________this used to be quiet village A.when B.how C.where D.what 30.----Do you remember_________he came? ----Yes, I do, he came by car. A.how B.when C.that D.if 31.________the 2000 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing is not known yet. A.Whenever B.If C.Whether D.That 32.It worried her a big_________her hair was turning grey. A.while B.that C.if D.for 33.________he said at the meeting astonished everybody present. A.What B.That C.The fact D.The matter 34.They have to no idea at all_________. A.where he has gone B.where did he go C.which place has he gone D.how busy we were 35.You have no idea___________those days. A.that we were how busy B.how busy were we C.that how we were busy D.how busy we were 答案：1. B 2. B 3. C 4. D 5. C 6. B 7. D 8. B 9. A10.C 11.C 12.B 13.B 14.D 15.A 16.D 17.B 18.C 19.C 20.C 21.D 22.B 23.B 24.A 25.B 26.C 27.A 28.D 29.A 30.A 31.C 32.B 33.A 34.A 35.D