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科宝肉鸡饲养管理


Feeding The Cobb Broiler

科宝肉鸡饲养管理
Andrew Bourne – Broiler Specialist (World Technical Support ) Andrew Bourne-肉鸡专家

(世界技术支持) 世界技术支持)

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Feed & Management 饲料 & 饲养管理
A. B. C. Genetic trends What to expect in the future? What Ration? LEAST COST Chick Start How To Maximise Feed Intake

A。育种趋势 未来可以期待什么? B。衡量的标准(量化标准是什么)? 最低成本 C。育雏 如何摄入最多的饲料
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A. GENETIC TRENDS 育种趋势

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Annual Improvement Rates Cobb 500 科宝500每年的遗传进展率 科宝500每年的遗传进展率
Trait 项目
Weight体重 Feed Conversion饲料转化率 Eviscerated Yield酮体 Breast Meat胸肉 Eggs / Hen Housed入舍母鸡 产蛋

Improvement 进展 50 g(克) - 0.02 0.1 % 0.3 % 1

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Selection Pressure on Body Wt. 2700 体重方面的选种压力
2600 Body W t. (grams) 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100 2000

98

99

02

97

00

01

03

04 20

96

19

19

20

19

20

20

20

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20

19

05

Cobb Male Performance 科宝公鸡性能
Trait 项目 Wt at 42 42日龄体重 日龄体重 Wt at 56 56日龄体重 日龄体重 Days - 2kg 2公斤需要的 公斤需要的 天数 Days - 3 kg 3公斤需要的 公斤需要的 天数 1994 2076g 3082g 40.9 2003 2848g 4064g 32.9 DIFFERENCE

差异
770g 770g 982g < 8 days

54.8

43.6

< 11.2 days

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Avian 48 / Cobb 500 AVIAN 48/科宝500 48/科宝 科宝500
Male line 公系 Grand Parent祖代 祖代 Female line 母系

Line 35 x Line 35

Line 58 x Line 12 44 Line 12
Female Parent父母代母鸡 父母代母鸡

Parent Stock父母代 父母代

Male Parent父母代公鸡 父母代公鸡 Broiler 肉鸡

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Characteristics of the Avian 48 VS Cobb 500 AVIAN 48与科宝500特点对照 48与科宝 与科宝500特点对照
Hybrid Vigor – Improved Livability and FCR. Little difference in BW & FCR compared to Cobb 500 Cobb 500 - Breast muscle is wider. Avian 48 - Breast muscle longer & narrow Reduced Breast Yield BUT increased Drum Stick ≈ Similar WOG yield. 高效性能-成活率和肉料比更好 与科宝500相比,体重和肉料笔差异很小 科宝500-胸肉更宽 AVIAN 48-胸肉更长更窄 胸肉率减少,但腿肉更多 ≈ 出肉率相似

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B. THE LEAST COST WAY OR THE COBB WAY 最低成本的方式 或 科宝的方式

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Low Density Nutrition 低营养饲料
The Economics 经济性 The obvious way to increase profitability is by reducing the cost per kg of live weight produced. 提高经济效益的 produced.

最好方法是降低活鸡的每公斤生产成本 最好方法是降低活鸡的每公斤生产成本
Many companies, however, measure production efficiency with indicators like EPEF (Feed Conversion, Mortality and Average Daily Gain ) 然而,许多公司喜欢使用如EPEF的指标去衡量生产效率(饲料转化率,

死亡率和每天增重)

A drive to maximise Broiler physical performance is not always the most cost effective business strategy最求肉鸡的最

高生长表现不一定是最有效的经济策略 高生长表现不一定是最有效的经济策略
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Managing Broilers for Profit 为盈利为目的去管理肉鸡
根据肉鸡的要求调整营养标准
Adjusting Nutrient Density to the bird’s requirement bird’

Lysine – Indicator of the cost of a ration 赖氨酸-成本的合理指标
% reduction in feed cost – Lysine - does not always result in the same % increase in FCR!!! 饲料成本下降的幅度 %-赖氨酸-不一定导致肉料比数值提高相同 的幅度%

Depending on initial levels - a reduction in nutrient density (essential Amino Acids) MAY not cause performance loss. 与最初的营养水平相关 – 营养水平的下降(必须的氨基酸)

不一定导致性能的下降 不一定导致性能的下降
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Effects of Lysine on BW, FCR & WM yield 赖氨酸对体重、肉料比和WM的影响
110

Responses, % relative to 100%

Optimum Lysine Level 最佳的赖氨酸水平

100

90

80

LEAST COST WAY 最低的成本方式

B ody Wt FCR WM Yie ld

70

60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145

Lysine level, % relative to N RC

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Local Change

FCR vs. Feed Cost /kg 肉料比(FCR)VS. 每公斤饲料成本 肉料比(

Customers need to be convinced that nutrition requirements are different. Cobb birds are fed “cheaper” rations than the OTHER BREEDS.

我们要说服肉鸡饲养户,科宝肉鸡的营养要求是不同的。科 我们要说服肉鸡饲养户,科宝肉鸡的营养要求是不同的。 宝肉鸡需要比其它品种更加“低廉”的饲料 宝肉鸡需要比其它品种更加“低廉”
FCR is no longer a valid comparative index… Feed Cost/ kg is the index (FCR x Diet Cost) 肉料比(FCR)不再是有效的比较指标 肉料比( 每公斤的饲料成本才是有效的指标(FCR x 配方成本) 配方成本) 每公斤的饲料成本才是有效的指标(
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Essential Nutrients基本营养要求 Nutrients基本营养要求
不能降低的方面 不能降低的方面
Areas NOT to compromise on

Mineral and Vitamin Nutrition

微量元素和矿物营养

High early growth potential – VERY IMPORTANT that levels of several key micronutrients are not compromised. 早期生长速度潜力高– 几种微量元素的水平不能降低,很重要 几种微量元素的水平不能降低, Rapid Growth usually = high feed consumption = more rapid passage of digesta through the gut = shorter period for absorption of some key nutrients. 通常, 生长速度快 = 饲料消耗量高 = 内脏消化液的分 通常, 泌更快 = 营养成分的吸收时间更短 Ca absorption is about 50%, however, this declines with increasing feed intake.钙的吸收大概是50%,然而,却随着饲料摄入的增加而下降 然而,
STARTER GROWER 1.00 0.48 5.0 FINISHER 0.90 0.45 5.0 1.05 0.50 5.0

Calcium % 钙 Av. Phosphorus % Vitamin D3 (MIU/t) 维生 素D3

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Response to Energy对能量的反应 Energy对能量的反应
Effects on FCR 对FCR的影响
Like all birds, the Cobb bird responds to lower energy by EATING MORE!!. Cobb Energy Specifications are LOWER than the OTHER BREEDS. Reducing consumption by increasing energy to high levels is – VERY DANGEROUS - the bird’s appetite is enormous!

Use Cobb diets for the intended periods. Example: Grower Ration - is NOT intended to go over 22 days. Energy is too low and FCR is lost quickly

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AVIAN 48 Feed Formulation AVIAN 48 饲料配方
Starter FEEDING AMOUNT/bird FEEDING AMOUNT days Crude Protein Metabolisable Energy Lysine Dig Lysine Methionine Dig Methionine Met + Cys Dig Met + Cys Tryptophan Threonine Arginine Calcium Av. Phosphorus Sodium Chloride Linoleic Acid Cal:Protein Ratio % MJ/kg Kcal/kg % % % % % % % % % % % % % % 250 g 0 – 10 22.00 12.51 2990 1.25 1.10 0.51 0.45 0.93 0.81 0.20 0.83 1.32 1.00 0.50 0.20 0.20 1.25 136 Grower 1000 g 11 - 22 20.00 12.92 3090 1.20 1.06 0.52 0.47 0.94 0.82 0.20 0.82 1.29 0.96 0.48 0.17 0.20 1.25 154 Finisher 1 Finisher 2 23 – 42 19.00 13.29 3176 1.12 0.99 0.50 0.45 0.92 0.81 0.20 0.79 1.22 0.90 0.45 0.16 0.20 1.00 167 42+ 17.50 13.42 3208 1.07 0.95 0.48 0.43 0.88 0.77 0.19 0.75 1.17 0.90 0.45 0.16 0.20 1.00 183

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Cobb 500 Feed Formulation 科宝 500 饲料配方
Starter FEEDING AMOUNT /bird FEEDING PERIOD days 250 g 0 - 10 Grower 1000 g 11 - 21 Finisher 1 Finisher 2 22 - 42 42 +

Protein Metabolisable Energy Lysine Dig Lysine Methionine Dig Methionine Met + Cys Dig M + C Tryptophan Threonine Arginine Calcium Av Phosphorus Sodium Chloride Linoleic Acid Cal:Protein

% MJ/kg Kcal/kg % % % % % % % % % % % % % %

21.00 12.50 2988 1.20 1.08 0.46 0.41 0.89 0.80 0.20 0.79 1.26 1.00 0.50 0.20 0.20 1.25 142

19.00 12.90 3083 1.10 0.99 0.44 0.40 0.84 0.75 0.19 0.74 1.17 0.96 0.48 0.17 0.20 1.25 162

18.00 13.29 3176 1.05 0.95 0.43 0.39 0.82 0.74 0.19 0.72 1.13 0.90 0.45 0.16 0.20 1.00 176

17.00 13.29 3176 1.00 0.90 0.41 0.37 0.78 0.70 0.18 0.69 1.08 0.90 0.45 0.16 0.20 1.00 187

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Mineral and Vitamin Requirements

矿物质和维生素的需求
TD, Rickets

与矿物质和维生素缺乏或失蘅相关的腿病

Leg Disorders associated with deficiency or imbalance

Rotated tibias - Perosis
Perosis = Manganese deficiency commonly. Tendon slips. In rotated tibias tendon remains in place

Infectious leg disorders or long bone deformities can develop after a nutritional disorder as they weakens the chicken’s legs

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矿物质和维生素的需求

Mineral and Vitamin Requirements Leg Disorders associated with deficiency or imbalance

与矿物质和维生素缺乏或失蘅相关的腿病
Normal Ca/D deficiency

Rickets- growth plate lesions
P deficiency

Often between 2 and 4 weeks of age
通常在2-4周期间发生
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矿物质和维生素的需求

Mineral and Vitamin Requirements Leg Disorders associated with deficiency or imbalance

与矿物质和维生素缺乏或失蘅相关的腿病

Tibial Dyschondroplasia (TD)

Ca/P imbalances (Normal ratio = 2.1) Normally post 4 weeks of age 钙/P 失蘅(正常比例 = 2.1) 失蘅( 通常在4周龄以后发生 Research and Development World Tech Support

Low Density Nutrition低营养饲料 Nutrition低营养饲料
Why consider it? 为什么要考虑?
CONTROL GROWTH 0 – 21d = GOOD SKELETAL HEALTH Low density = Low Cost nutrition THE KEY to growth control 0-21日龄控制体重增长 = 良好的骨骼健康 21日龄控制体重增长 低营养 = 低成本 GROWTH CURVE 体重增长控制的关键
COBB 500 COBB POTENTIAL

3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 AGE

COBB >21 DAYS COMPENSATORY GROWTH 科宝在超过21日龄

B D W IG T OY E H

后出现补偿性生长

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Least Cost 最低的成本
Reduced Energy and Amino Acids BUT WELL BALANCED. Lowered Live Weight Gain (ADG) & Increased FCR OPTIMAL Cost Per Kilogram of BW 降低能量和氨基酸,但仍然达到良好的均衡 体重增长率下降,同时, 肉料比(FCR)值升高 最好的 每公斤活鸡成本

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Least Cost 最低的成本
Starter Protein蛋白 Protein蛋白
Lys,total

Grower 19.0
1.10 0.96 .86 .75 .75 .88 .42 .17 12.70 3035 160

Finisher 17.5
1.00 .87 .82 .71 .70 .84 .40 .16 13.20 3155 180

21.0
1.20 1.04 .89 .77 .79 .90 .45 .20 12.45 2976 142

Lys,dig.
TSAA

TSAA,dig.
Threonine

Calcium Av. P
Sodium ME,MJ/kg

ME,kcal/kg
Cal:Prot

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Define Your Business Nutrition Requirements 根据自己的公司策略制定肉鸡的营养标准

Net return: KG/M?/YEAR KG/M?/YEAR ?Gross Margin

Customer Needs ?Carcass weight

Production Parameters: 1. Slaughter weight 2. Slaughter Age 3. Cycle Length 1.屠宰体重 屠宰体重 2.屠宰日龄 屠宰日龄 3.饲养周期 饲养周期 Research and Development World Tech Support

US DATA : Least Cost VS EEI 美国数据 : 最低成本 vs. EEI
Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Cost/lb. 25.15 25.39 25.51 25.66 25.89 25.94 26.22 26.27 26.4 26.44 Weight 2742 2692 2788 2633 2838 2933 2742 2592 2615 2892 Age 49 49 50 49 52 49 53 51 50 52 Livability 97.02 96.31 96.17 95.74 95.45 94.66 95.51 95.41 95.07 95.58 FCR 1.75 1.96 1.90 1.96 1.99 1.93 2.00 1.97 1.98 1.99 EEI 310 270 282 262 262 294 247 246 251 267

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US DATA : Least Cost VS EEI 美国数据 : 最低成本 vs. EEI
Cost Rank Cost/lb. 1 25.15 6 25.94 35.54 29 27.13 18 3 25.51 27.88 23 30.02 28 2 25.39 27.65 22 27.48 21 Weight 2742 2933 2574 2538 2788 2470 2406 2692 2397 2797 Age 49 49 44 47 50 45 44 49 46 51 Livability 97.02 94.66 95.86 96.11 96.17 96.65 95.39 96.31 95.63 95.80 FCR 1.75 1.93 1.93 1.84 1.90 1.90 1.91 1.96 1.86 1.96 EEI 310 294 288 282 282 282 274 270 269 268

US Statistical Service 2/04

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AVIAN 48 PERFORMANCE AVIAN 48 肉鸡性能
Age Days Male 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 41 165 435 858 1434 2090 2794 3462

Weight For Age
As Hatched 41 160 417 818 1355 1956 2584 3154 Female 41 155 399 777 1277 1823 2373 2847

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COBB 500 PERFORMANCE 科宝500 科宝500 肉鸡性能
Age Days Male

Weight For Age
As Hatched 41 164 430 843 1397 2017 2626 3177 Female

0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49

41 170 449 885 1478 2155 2839 3486

41 158 411 801 1316 1879 2412 2867

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BROILER BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
? ? ? ? ? ? ? MEASURE & BENCHMARK YOUR BUSINESS! HOW? Answer: Weigh Each Week. Measure Feed Consumption – 1st Week!!! Measure Daily Water Consumption Benchmark performance with the BEST 7d BW = 4 × day old weight 160-170grams

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D. CHICK START – FEED INTAKE MANAGEMENT 开始育雏 – 吃料管理

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CHICK START 开始育雏
? Financial Success Chick Start ? HOUSE PREPARATION – FEED ACCESS + WATER! – LITTER TEMP. ? Check chicks regularly the day of placement. ? 经济收益 开始育雏 ? 准备鸡舍 ? - 准备充足的饲料和水 ? - 垫料温度 ? 在进雏当天经常检查鸡雏的情况

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7 DAY WEIGHTS - LOW? 7日龄体重 – 低? WHY? 为什么?
1. 2. 1. 2. LOW FEED CONSUMPTION!! OR FEED QUALITY? 吃料少!!! 或 饲料质量?

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Importance Of Early Feed Consumption 早期吃料的重要性
Absorption of yolk - secretion of yolk in the intestine Nutrients : 25% protein, 25% lipids & 50% water + antibodies Internal organ growth liver, intestines, pancreas grow at 2-5 times faster than the body. proper organ growth needed for digestion. spleen and bursa weights relate to body weight = immunity. 蛋黄吸收 -

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Digestive Tract - Early Feed Intake
Post Hatch - Intestine increases in weight quicker than the body Max Intestine Growth for 6 - 10 days post hatch Villus Height Increases 200% 48HR Post HatchVilli ESSENTIAL for Absorption
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Digestive Tract - Early Feed Intake
Digestion - Need gastric and pancreatic secretions Feed intake increases secretions

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FEED
? Additional feeding space for first week
? 25% brooding area covered with paper ? 50 - 65g additional feed per chick ? Supplementary trays – 1 per 100 chicks

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STARTER FEED MANAGEMENT
? ? ? ? Refresh feeders 3 times per day Starter Crumb - 10 days Feed & Water Access Run Automatic Feeders 3 times per day

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CHICK CHECK
? ? ? ? ? Morning after placement Check: – temperature of feet against neck or cheek ARE THE FEET COLD???
– Revaluate pre-heating temperature

Results of Cold Litter:
1. poor early feed intake 2. poor growth and 3. poor uniformity

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CHICK CHECK PART 2 SAMPLE 100 BIRDS
?Morning after placement ?GOOD RESULT = 95% CROP FULL
Full Feed & Water 95% ?? Full & Hard Only Feed # Full & Soft Only Water # EMPTY

#

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Summary
1. Preparation
– – – – – Be ready 24 hours before chicks arrive Don’t limit performance with poor management Know how your chicks are growing Always give them a good environment More nutrients are not necessarily better!

2. Chick Start 3. Weigh and Monitor 4. Maintain a Good Environment 5. Correct Nutrition

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THANK YOU

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