2．____________ n．百分比；百分率 3．____________ n．(人口、贸易的)繁荣 vi.处于经济迅速
4．____________ n．海关；关税；进口税 5．____________ vi.发生；出现 6
．____________ n．行李 7．____________ vi.滑动；滑行；滑跤 n．滑动；滑倒
8．____________ vt.& n．租用，雇用 9．____________ adv.无处；到处都无
11．____________ vt.& vi.哀悼；悼念；表示悲痛 12．____________ vt.& vi.改革；革新 n．改革；改造；改 良 13．____________ vt.& n．抓住；抓紧；掌握；领会 14．____________ vt.插入；嵌入
(二)派生单词 15 ． ____________ adj. 清 晰 的 ； 明 显 的 ； 明 确 的
16．____________ n．大多数；大半→____________ n．少 数
17 ． ____________ vt. 选 择 ； 决 定 做 某 事 ； 选 举 某 人
→____________n．选举 18 ． ____________vt. 指 出 ； 标 示 ； 表 明 ； 暗 示 →____________ n．迹象→____________n．指示器，指示物
19 ． ____________ adj. 显 而 易 见 的 ； 显 然 的 ； 表 面 上 的 →____________ adv.显然地；显而易见地
Ⅱ.短语回顾 (一)根据汉语提示完成下列短语 1．继续存在；继续生存____________ 2．用??办法；借助??____________
7．画线；标出??界线____________ 8．包括；吸收____________ 9．许多；很多____________ 10．申请；请示得到____________
(二)用上述短语的适当形式填空 11．Thoughts can also be expressed ______________music.
12．They scratched lines in the dirt to ______________a
pitch. 13．Our government takes measures to make this custom ______________. 14 ． We should ________________the Chinese traditional customs. 15 ． To our surprise ， he didn't want to ____________ anybody.
Ⅲ.佳句仿练 1．However，it is likely that Native Americans were living in
California at least fifteen thousand years ago.(It is likely
2 ． That is why today over 40% of Californians speak Spanish as a first or second language.(That is why...那就 是??的原因。) 那就是他为什么昨天生气的原因。 →______________________________________________ 3．By the time California elected to become the thirty-first federal state of the USA in 1850 ， it was already a multicultural society.(by the time用作连词，意为“到?? 时”，主句谓语常用完成时。) 当他十四岁时，他就已经自学完成了高等数学。 →______________________________________________
4．It is believed that before long the mix of nationalities will
be so great that there will be no distinct major racial or cultural groups，but simply a mixture of many races and
cultures.(It is believed that...意为“人们认为/相信??”。)
5．Built in 1873，the cable car system was invented by
Andrew Hallidie ， who wanted to find a better form of transport than horse-drawn trams.(built in 1873为过去分词
Ⅳ.教材活用 用适当的词填空，或用所给词的适当形式填空 California is the 1.________(three) largest state in the USA but has the largest population.It has 2.________(attraction) people from all over the world.No one really knows when the first people arrived in 3.________we now know as California.Now 4.________(live) there in are more Native in Americans any other California than
state.California 5.________(rule) by Spain and there is still a strong Spanish 6.________(influence) in the state.People began 7.________(settle) in California when gold
8.________(discover) there.But people from Africa have been living there.It is believed that before long the mix of
9.________(nation) will be so great that there will be no
major racial or cultural groups ， but simply a 10.________(mix) of many cultures.
12 ． reform
15.distinct ； distinction
16.majority ； minority indication ； indicator
17.elect ； election
19.apparent ； apparently
Ⅱ.1.live on 2.by means of... 6.team up with 3.make a life 7.mark out 4.keep up 9.a
5.back to back out 13.live on
11.by means of
15.team up with
Ⅲ.1.It is likely that he can't attend the meeting. why he was angry yesterday.
3.By the time he was fourteen 5.Offered help，
years old he had already learned advanced maths. 4.It is all
believed that carelessness led to the accident. one often says“Thank you”or“It's kind of you”．
Ⅳ.1.third 2.attracted 3.what 4.living 5.was ruled
6.influence 7.settling 8.was discovered 9.nationalities 10.mixture
1．majority n．大多数；大半 Of the first Spanish to go to California，the majority were religious men，whose ministry was to teach the Catholic religion to the natives.(P2)在首批移居加州的西班牙人中，大 部分是宗教人士，他们的职责是向原居住人民传授天主教。 The majority of lone parents are divorced or separated women. 单身父母中大多数是离婚或分居的妇女。(朗文) Young people were in the majority at the meeting. 这次会议中年轻人占了多数。
①in a/the majority占大多数 ②have a majority over sb.获得多于某人的??
③by/with a majority of以大多数??赢得??
④minority n．少数 ⑤in the minority占少数
“the majority of＋复数名词”做主语时，
谓语动词用复数形式；“the majority of＋不可数名词”做 主语时，谓语动词用单数形式。the majority做主语时，谓
(1)__________________ ( 大 部 分 人 )seem to prefer TV to
radio. (2)多数人赞成这个建议。 ________________ in favour of the proposal. (3)He was elected __________________(以多数票)． 【答案】 (1)The majority of people (2)The majority
was/were (3)by a large majority
2．elect vt.选择；决定做某事；选举某人 By the time California elected to become the thirty-first
federal state of the USA in 1850 ， it was already a
multicultural society.(P2) 到1850年加利福尼亚被选为美国第31个联邦州的时候，它已
She became the first black woman to be elected to the Senate. 她成为第一个被选进参议院的黑人妇女。(牛津)
①elect to_do sth.选择/决定做某事
②elect sb.to sth.把某人选入??
③elect sb.＋职务(职务、官衔作同位语、补语、表语时前不 加冠词)选某人作?? ④elect adj.“当选而尚未就职的，候任的”，常作后置定语。 ⑤election n．选举；选择
(1)现在越来越多的人选择在家工作。 Increasing numbers of people ____________ at home
(2)他被选为美国总统。 He was ________________ of the USA.
________________ will come into office next January. 【答案】 (1)elect to work (2)elected president (3)The
3．occur vi.发生；出现 It didn't occur to me that there'd be a big festival on at the same time as my holiday.(P5) 我没有想到还有一个重大节日和我的假期在同一个时间。 The idea occurred to him in a dream. 这个主意是他在梦中想到的。 I suppose it never occurred to you to phone the police。
②It occurs to sb.to do sth.某人想到做某事 ③It occurs to sb.that...某人想到??
occur，happen，take place，break out表示
完成句子 (1)五四运动发生于1919年。 The May 4th Movement __________ in 1919. (2)就在那时，我想起了一个主意。 Just then an idea __________ me. (3)我想到以前在什么地方见过她。 ____________________ I had seen her somewhere before.
(1)occurred (2)occurred to
(3)It occurred to me
4．indicate v．指出；标示；表明；暗示 Try to use the expressions above to indicate that you are
listening carefully to your partner.(P7)
试着用上面的表达表明你在认真听同伴的讲述。 He patted the sofa to indicate that she would join him. 他拍拍沙发，示意让她过来坐。(朗文)
①indicate sth.to sb.向某人指出/暗示某物 ②indicate that...示意；表明；暗示；说明 ③indication of doing sth.做某事的迹象 ④indication that...……迹象
Both sides are ________ their willingness to restore diplomatic relations. (2)她的语气暗示她对我的解释一个字儿也不信。 Her tone ________ she didn't believe a word of my explanation. 【答案】 (1)indicating (2)indicated that
5．apparent adj.显而易见的；显然的；表面上的 Apparently he'd been shocked when he saw a terrible
accident in which a tram's brakes failed...(P8)
他 曾经 看到过 一次可 怕的 交通事 故： 一辆马 车的 刹车 失 灵??，很明显这让他受到了极大的震惊。
It was becoming increasingly apparent to me that she didn't
love me. 对我来说，愈来愈明显的是她并不爱我。(文馨)
①be apparent to sb.??某人看得出来 ②It is apparent that...显而易见的是?? ③It becomes apparent that...很清楚?? ④for no apparent reason莫名其妙地 ⑤apparently adv.显然地；显而易见地
__________________________ that she was lying. (2)某些问题从一开始就是显而易见的。 Certain problems ________________ the beginning. 【答案】 (1)It was apparent from her face (2)were
6．hire vt.& n．租用；雇用 Teamed up with a couple from my hotel (Peter and Terri)
and hired a car.(P8)我和住在同一家旅馆的一对夫妇(皮特和
特丽)合作，租了一辆车。 She was hired three years ago.
①hire out租出去；受雇(＝hire oneself out)
用”之意，多指临时租用某物。如：hire a boat/a car/a camera/a bicycle/an evening dress/a hall for a meeting等。指 人时，有“雇用、受雇”两种含义。 ②employ较正式，多指商店或公司长期雇用人手；受雇人员 较广，甚至包括社会地位较高的职业人员，有“聘请”之义； 也可以解释为“忙于，从事，采用”，常用于be employed in sth./doing sth.短语中。
用于长时间的租借。如：rent a house/a flat/a TV等。rent还
David used to ________ his car sometimes when he didn't need it himself. (2)这里有许多船出租。 There are many boats ________ here. 【答案】 (1)hire out (2)for hire
用hire/employ/rent的适当形式填空 (3)Our house has been ________ by a newly-married couple. (4)It's important to ________ proper words in writing poems. (5)They ________ in writing when I came. (6)We ________ a driver to take us on a tour of the city. 【答案】 (6)hired (3)rented (4)employ (5)were employed
1．by means of用??办法；借助?? Scientists believe that these settlers crossed the Bering Strait
in the Arctic to America by means of a land bridge which
existed in prehistoric times.(P2) 科学家们认为，这些定居者是通过史前时期就存在的大陆桥
I wouldn't say I was an expert，not by any means. 我不敢说我是个专家，绝对不是。
①by all means尽一切可能；当然；完全可以 ②by this /that means用这/那种方法 ③by no means决不；一点也不 ④by any means无论如何
词修饰时，谓语动词用单数；有some，several，many，few 等词修饰时，谓语动词用复数。 ②by no means放到句首时，句子用部分倒装语序。
way与介词in搭配；means与by搭配；method与with搭配。 表示“(做)??的方法”时，way后接of doing或to do；
We need a fresh approach to sports in education. 我们需要用一种新的态度来看待体育教育。
Is there any way of contacting you while you are in Africa?
你去非洲后有什么办法可以跟你联系？ We are trying to develop new methods of pollution control.
(1)The scientist is showing the________of scientific farming
to the peasants. (2)A car is a________of transportation. (3)To scare a bird is not the________to catch it. (4)He thought of an efficient________to the study of English idioms. 【答案】 (1)method (2)means (3)way (4)approach
2．keep up坚持；维持；沿袭(风俗、传统等) In 1911 immigrants from Denmark established a town of
their own ， which today still keeps up their Danish
The heavy rain kept up for three hours. 大雨持续了三个小时。
①keep it up保持优秀成绩；继续干下去 ②keep up with不落后；跟得上
③keep away (使)远离
④keep back隐瞒(某事)；扣下；留下 ⑤keep down控制/抑制(某事物)
⑦keep out (of)阻止进入；不卷入；避开
【即时应用】 完成句子 (1)并非所有的变化我都能跟得上。 I can't __________ with all the changes. (2)你还坚持说西班牙语吗？
Do you still __________ your Spanish?
(3)我们不该沿袭古老的习俗。 We should not __________ old customs.
______________ you but you won't listen. 【答案】 on telling (1)keep up (2)keep up (3)keep up (4)I kept
3．team up with与??合作或一起工作 Teamed up with a couple from my hotel and hired a car.(P8)
Is she going to be on the team this year? 她今年会在该队打球吗？(朗文)
①team up结成一队；合作 ②a team of一队??
③on a team属于??队
④play for a team为??队效力
You can ________________ another class member if you want. (2)我和他合作做这项工作。 I ______________ to do the work. 【答案】 (1)team up with (2)teamed up with him
4．mark out划线标出??的界限 There's a fascinating drive marked out for tourists.(P8)
They marked out a tennis court on the lawn. 他们在草坪上画了个网球场。(牛津)
①mark down记下；减价；给低分 ②mark up涨价；提高分数
④mark...with用??在某物上做标记 ⑤be marked with标有??的标志
(1)Please ________ how much each item costs.
(2)He ________ the names of all the suitable candidates. (3)Foreign cars are often _________in China. 【答案】 (1)mark down (2)marked off (3)marked up
5．take in包括；吸收；改小；领会；欺骗 It's a 79km round-trip that takes in all the famous tourist
旅游景点。 The price takes in the cost of all the accommodation and food.
I told Grandpa we were going away，but I don't think he took it in. 我告诉爷爷我们要走了，但我认为他没听明白。
①bring in引进；赚钱 ②get in收获；进入；收割 ③let in让??进来；欺骗 ④cut in插嘴 ⑤be set in以??为背景 ⑥settle in安顿好；定居在??
【即时应用】 完成句子 (1)他没有地方可睡，我们于是就提出让他留宿。 He had nowhere to sleep so we offered to ________.
It took me a long time to ____________________. (3)不要被他的许诺蒙骗。
Don't be ________ by his promises.
【答案】 (3)taken in (1)take him in (2)take in what you said
From 1882 to 1940 Angel Island was a famous immigration station where many Chinese people applied for right to live in
You have to apply to the passport office for a visa.
你得向护照办公室申请签证。(牛津) This does not apply to foreigners.
He applied himself to learning English. 他专心于他的英文学习。
①apply to do sth.申请做某事 ②apply to sb.for sth.向某人申请某物 ③apply...to...把??应用/运用到?? ④apply to...适用于；适合 ⑤apply oneself to...专注；勤奋于??
(1)A similar technique can be applied________the treatment
of cancer. (2)Has your roommate applied________a scholarship? 【答案】 (1)to (2)for
1 ． That is why today over 40% of Californians speak Spanish as a first or second language.(P2) 那就是今天为什么还有超过40%的加利福尼亚人仍然把西班 牙语作为第一或第二语言的缘故。 这是一个复合句，why today over 40% of Californians speak Spanish as a first or second language在句子中作表语。That is/was why...那就是??的原因。 That is why I came early.那就是我早来的原因。 It was raining hard then.That was why I was late.
③The reason why...is/was that...??的原因是?? (表语从句常用that引导，而不用because)
【即时应用】 用适当的连接词填空 (1)Tom came late to the meeting.That was ________ he was ill. (2)Tom was ill.That was ________ he came late to the meeting. (3)The reason ________ Tom came late to the meeting was ________ he was ill. 【答案】 (1)because (2)why (3)why；that
Tom came late for the meeting.________________ he was ill.
(5)每年需要重新注射的原因是这种病毒经常变化。 ____________ the injection needs repeating every year __________ the virus often changes. 【答案】 (4)That was because (5)The reason why；is that
2．By the time California elected to become the thirty-first federal state of the USA in 1850 ， it was already a
句中by the time表示“到??时候为止”，引导时间状语从
By the time you get this letter，I'll be in Canada. 等你收到这封信的时候，我已经在加拿大了。
By the time we arrived，the other gusets were already there.
我们到的时候，其他客人都已经在那里了。 By the time we got to the cinema，the film was already beginning. 我们到达电影院的时候，电影已经开始放映了。
(1)By yesterday evening he______________(已读完)the text
three times. (2)By the time we got to the music hall ， the
concert____________________(已开演)for 5 minutes. 【答案】 (1)had read (2)had been on
3．It is believed that before long the mix of nationalities will be so great that there will be no distinct major racial or cultural groups，but simply a mixture of many races and cultures.(P3) 人们认为，过不了多久，多种国籍的混合将会很大，以至于 不可能存在明显的主要的种族和文化群体，而是一个多种族、 多文化的混合体。 It's believed that...人们认为??。在该句型中，it是形式主 语，that引导主语从句。 It's believed that he should be punished because he drove too fast. 大家认为他应该受到惩罚，因为他开车太快了。
①It's said that...据说??
②It's reported that...据报道??
③It's hoped that...大家希望?? ④It's well-known that...众所周知?? ⑤It's thought that...大家认为?? ⑥It's suggested that...据建议??
【温馨提醒】 但是hope除外。 【即时应用】
said/thought/believed/reported to do/have done/be doing sth.
(1)It is said that he has won a gold medal. ___________________________________________________
(2)It is thought that he was broken the word.
___________________________________________________ 【答案】 (1)He is sad to have won a gold medal. (2)He is
thought to have broken the word.
Spanish soldiers first arrived in South America in the early 16th century，when they fought against the native people and took their land. 西班牙士兵最早是在16世纪初期来到南美洲的，他们同土著 人打仗，并夺去了他们的土地。 这是一个主从复合句，前半句是主句，后半句是when引导 的非限制性定语从句。修饰先行词the early 16th century。
Ⅰ.单词拼写 1 ． Actually ， these a________can only apply for the
positions as a conductor.
2．Such kind of things never o________ in a socialist country. 3．The new research i________ that the seagulls staying here
come from Spain.
4．My father h________ three men to help him with the harvest last summer.
5．Voters always e________ those who represent their needs.
6．The ________(大多数)of the young people who are from
Italy are learning Chinese in our school. 7 ． Only a small ________( 百 分 比 )of the countries are
thankful for our assistance.
8．________(显然地)，many Chinese women are interested in Korean movies.
9．Hardly had we put down our________(行李)and sat down
when the train started off. 10．She had looked everywhere for her children，but they were ________(到处都无)to be found，which made her very worried.
1.applicants 2.occur 3.indicates 4.hired
5.elect 6.majority 7.percentage 8.Apparently
Ⅱ.完成句子 1 ． It took me quite a long time to ______________( 领 会)what you said. 2．In the team，young people are ______________(占大多 数)． 3．He has ______________(申请)the job. 4．______________(与??合作)the big company is the only way to break out of money problem. 5．The young man in the rural areas have to leave for big cities to ______________(习惯于新的生活方式，工作等)．
6．她从未想过问任何人。 __________________to ask anyone.
__________________ is that he was too careless. 8．我们绝不能放弃我们的计划。 __________________give up our plan. 【答案】 1.take in 2.in the majority 3.applied for 4.To
team up with
5.make a life
6.It never occurred to her
7．The reason why he was fired 8.By no means shall we
1. ________ Barbara Jones offers to her fans is honesty and
happiness. 【解析】 句意：Barbara Jones展现给她的粉丝们的是诚
实和快乐。what引导主语从句，在从句中作offers的宾语。 【答案】 What
2．The shocking news made me realize ________ terrible problems we would face.
所以用what。 【答案】 what
3．I'm afraid he's more of a talker than a doer，which is ______ he never finishes anything.
4．We've offered her the job，but I don't know ________ she'll accept it.
她是否会接受它。 【答案】 whether
5．His writing is so confusing that it's difficult to make out ________ it is he is trying to express.
Here are some comments on Li Hua from his classmates. Lily said，“Li Hua is the smartest student in our class and usually scores the highest marks in the English and mathematics exams.His homework and assignments are always done to a very high standard so our teachers ask us to
follow his example.We all admire his intelligence.”
Kate said，“Li Hua is really a hard-working student.He
spends at least four hours every day reviewing his lessons and his homework is never late.As the exams get closer he
becomes even more diligent and works into the early hours of
the morning ， making sure he has gone over all of the information covered in our classes.”
John said，“Li Hua is the kind of person who is easy to
cooperate with.Although he's very clever，he is still willing to listen to others' opinions and take their suggestions.When
we do groupwork in class we all want to be in his group
because he always does his share of the work and is easy to get along with.”
Tim said，“Li Hua is the class monitor and the most helpful student in our class.He always makes sure the classroom is
kept clean and assists the teacher in handing out and
collecting the students' books and homework.When a student is absent from school he will call and tell him/her what he/she
【写作内容】 假设你叫李平，你的同学李华拟申请到美国某大学学习。申 请材料需包括同伴的推荐信。李华邀请你为他写一封推荐信。 上文是其他同学对李华的一些评价，请根据这些评价和你自 己对李华的看法，写一封推荐信。以下是信的内容(信的开 头和结尾已写好)： 1．以约30词概括同学们眼中李华的特点和优点； 2．以约120词表达你对李华的看法，并包括如下要点： (1)你对同学们评价意见的看法； (2)以你和李华之间的经历来说明其中的一点看法。
【评分标准】 概括准确，语言规范，内容合适，篇章连贯。 Dear Principal， I'm writing this letter to support my good friend Li Hua's application to study at your university. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________
【思路点拨】 对人物的描写应包括人的外貌、性格、行为举止、思想感情、 事业成就等。写这类文章要注意人物的肖像描写、语言描写、 行为描写、心理描写及细节描写、要以人物为中心组织材料， 围绕这个人物可以写一个事情，也可以写几个事情，通过对 人物的描写，要能达到塑造活灵活现人物的目的。
【词汇热身】 1．与??合作 ____________ 2．受??欢迎 ____________ 3．从??中获益 __________ 4．在??初期 ____________ 5．住院________ 6．落在??的后面 __________ 7．多亏；由于 ________
9．完成；做完 __________ 10．一天至少两个小时 ______________
1.be cooperative with
2.be popular with
3．benefit from... 4.at the beginning of 5.in hospital 6．fall behind 7.thanks to 8.not only...but(also) 9．go through 10.at least 2 hours every day
①________________________________________ ②_________________________________________ 2．这种状况让我非常担心，因为我害怕在这么重要的学年里 我会被同学们落得很远。 ①_____________________________________________ ②_________________________________________
1.①I agree with my classmates and I have
personally benefited greatly from his help.②I agree with what my classmates said；what's more，his help is of great benefit to me. 2.①This situation caused me great concern as I feared I would fall far behind my classmates in this very
important year.②I was very worried about this situation，
because I was scared to fall far behind my classmates in this very important year. 3.①But thanks to Li Hua，by the
time I was well enough to leave hospital and return to school
I was up-to-date in all areas of my study.②But with the help of Li Hua，I was up-to-date in all areas of my study when I
recovered from the accident and return to school.
a's_application_to_study_at_your_university.In my classmates' eyes ， he has always been an intelligent and
hard-working student，who is helpful and cooperative with
others.For these reasons, he is very popular with everyone.
I agree with my classmates and I have personally benefited
greatly from his help.I still remember at the beginning of this school year I was in a traffic accident and that required me to
be in hospital for over two months.This situation caused me
great concern as I feared I would fall far behind my classmates in this very important year.But thanks to Li Hua，
by the time I was well enough to leave hospital and return to
school I was up-to-date in all areas of my study.Not only did he come to visit me every day, bringing with him all the
lessons and materials our class had gone through each day,
but he patiently sat with me and explained to me all those issues that I didn't understand.Only after staying with me for at least 2 hours every day would he go home and begin his own studies.
For the reasons above，I recommend you to consider his application favourably.
【名师点评】 本文较好地使用了较复杂的句子结构，如定语从句：In my
classmates' eyes，he has..，who is helpful and cooperative
with others.状语从句，not only 引导的倒装句和Only after staying...引导的倒装句等。同时还使用了较好的连接词，如
for these reasons，still, but，only after...等。这些结构及表