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Solvay Polyolefins Europe

E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

A DECADE OF EXPERIENCE WITH THE PE100 COMPOUNDS FROM SOLVAY POLYOLEFINS EUROPE : THE ELTEX TUB 120 SERIES
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD HISTORY GENERAL ADVANTAGES OF POLYETHYLENE EXTRA ADVANTAGES OFFERED BY THE ELTEX TUB120 SERIES DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELTEX TUB120 SERIES MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ELTEX TUB120 SERIES COMPETITIVENESS OF THE ELTEX TUB120 SERIES THE ELTEX TUB120 SERIES : A COMPLETE RANGE OF PRODUCTS A DECADE OF EXPERIENCE WITH THE ELTEX TUB120 SERIES THE NEXT DECADE...

3 4 5 6 9 10 14 16 17 17

E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

FOREWORD

Problems associated with the supply of water and energy are one of the major challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. Many thousands of men and women are already suffering from drinking water shortages throughout the world. At the same time, energy is one of the defining factors in economic development. Solvay Polyolefins Europe, one of the largest producers of high-density polyethylene, devotes 50% of its production capacity to manufacturing resins for the pressure pipes used to transport natural gas, drinking water and industrial fluids. No other producer in the world has a ratio similar to this. This demonstrates our total commitment to your applications and fields of activity. In the space of 10 years we have supplied more than 250,000 tonnes of resins in the ELTEX? TUB 120 series to you, and that is only the beginning.

PE 100

Thanks to you we will continue to make progress and push our developments forward so that we can offer products that meet your expectations even more completely. Together we can build the future.

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E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

HISTORY
Plastic pipes have steadily increased in importance for designing fluid transportation systems throughout the world. This trend reflects the development of plastic materials, the increased knowledge of their properties and the subsequent exploitation of their advantages over traditional pipe materials. PVC was the first plastic to be introduced for the manufacture of pipes. The medium sized PVC pipes were largely used for the distribution of water. Low price per unit length as well as simple handling and jointing techniques contributed towards PVC gaining a substantial market share. Polyethylene has been in use as pipe material for more than 40 years. Conventional LDPE was initially proposed for small diameter pipes and low pressures. Today polyethylene holds a prominent and expanding global market position. Since the late 1950's, HDPE (PE63 and later PE80) and subsequently MDPE (PE80) have been used in PE100 pipes for carrying gas, water, sewage and many other fluids. The inherent properties of pipes made PE80 from polyethylene have enabled the material to be PE63 routinely used for the manufacture of pipes in sizes from 16 mm to above 250 mm and, due to recent developments in lining techniques, to renovate old, deteriorating pipes of up to 1 m in diameter. Its resistance to corrosion, its weldability, its flexibility and its suitability for 'no-dig' installation techniques have all contributed to polyethylene's success.
HIGHER PRESSURE CAPABILITIES

ELE

T

? TUB 120 SE X R TE TUB 120 SER X E
?

THINNER PIPE-WALLS

PE 100 PE 100
HIGHER SAFETY MARGINS

HIGHER STIFFNESS

In the late 1980's a new PE type with noticeably improved mechanical properties was offered for pipe production. This Third Generation pipe material, PE100, first manufactured by SOLVAY POLYOLEFINS EUROPE and traded as the ELTEX TUB120 series, represents a milestone in the relation between Environmental Stress Crack Resistance and Rigidity.

Flexibility of polyethylene pipe

IES

L

The practical advantages offered by this material are: ? higher pressure of the transported medium; ? thinner pipe walls allowing larger diameters; ? higher safety margin; ? higher stiffness for both pressure and non-pressure sewage.

IES

4

E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

GENERAL ADVANTAGES OF POLYETHYLENE
The success of polyethylene as a pipe material derives from its numerous advantages:

? easy welding by butt-fusion or electrofusion offering a fully-welded,
leak-free system

? easy handling and installation due to low weight ? easy handling and installation due to flexibility.
The flexibility of PE pipes enables - coiling (reducing the need for joints/welds) - welds to be made outside the trench (allowing the use of narrower trenches) - the pipes to follow the contours of the trench - the pipes to resist ground movements (earthquakes and soil subsidence in mining areas) - the pipe to be squeezed off for repairs

? internal, external and microbiological corrosion resistance ? good hydraulic properties ? no encrustations ? good abrasion resistance ? suitability for contact with
foodstuffs (will not impart taste/ odour to drinking water)

? good chemical resistance
(suitable for the transport of acidic/basic media, sewage and natural/town gas)

? frost resistance ? environmentally-friendly ? life-span of more than 50 years
(low annual depreciation costs) Coilability of polyethylene pipe

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E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

PE100 possesses all the above-mentioned traditional advantages of polyethylene. The development of this Third Generation material represented a clear improvement of the mechanical properties of polyethylene. The resulting further advantages of PE100 have enabled it to expand the scope of PE in various directions.

EXTRA ADVANTAGES OFFERED BY THE ELTEX
HIGHER PRESSURE
Since PE100 resins have a Minimum Required Strength of 10 MPa (p. 10), gases and fluids can be transported at pressures that lie higher than those which were hitherto attainable with polyethylene (for a given pipe geometry and safety factor). The material's outstanding resistance to Rapid Crack Propagation and Slow Crack Growth guarantee the safety of such a pressure increase. According to the ISO and prEN standards, the maximum pressures for PE100 piping systems, as a function of pipe geometry and minimum design factor (2.00 for gas and 1.25 for water), are: Preferred pipe series SDR17 / SDR17,6 SDR11 Gas 4 bar 10 bar Water/Pressure sewage* 10 bar 16 bar

* the minimum design factor has not yet been defined for pressure sewage: the general minimum factor of 1,25 for polyethylene, according to ISO/DIS 12162.2, has been taken.

For a given diameter, an increase in pressure will clearly lead to an increase of the transport capacity of the pipe. For a gas pipe, the increase in pressure may alternatively be used to reduce the outside diameter of the pipe which can, in turn, lead to a reduction of the total costs since

%
260 240

Increasing the transport capacity of a gas pipe with PE100

Relative Transport Capacity

220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

? pipe material can be economised ? a narrower trench suffices ? the pipe might become small
enough to be supplied in coils rather than sticks (reducing the number of joints/welds needed) ? the pipe might become small enough to be installed by alternative installation techniques

4 bar
PE80, SDR11 pipe

10 bar
PE100, SDR11 pipe

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E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

TUB120 SERIES
THINNER PIPE WALLS
If the currently used operational pressures and safety factors are to be maintained, pipes with thinner walls may be used when the pipe is manufactured with ELTEX TUB120 series. The material savings (up to 1/3 for a 10 bar water network) and the gain in cross-section that can be achieved by using thinner walls are of special interest for the production of large diameter water and sewage pipes. PE100 thus provides the economical and technical means to expand the scope of polyethylene pipes to larger diameters. Apart from the fact that material savings represent an economical advantage, it is also easier to handle thin-walled pipes. The gain in cross-section that can be achieved by using thinner walls is of interest from a hydraulic point of view. For a given outer pipe diameter, the reduction of the wall-thickness increases the cross-section and thereby the transport capacity of the pipe. For example, the cross-section can be increased by 16% by switching from an SDR11 to an SDR17 pipe. This increase in cross-section offers an increase in transport capacity of 35% for water. Alternatively, if the transport capacity is to be held constant, the increase in cross-section leads to a reduction of the velocity of the fluid which, in turn, allows cost-savings via the use of smaller pumps. The use of thinner pipe walls is also of interest for relining applications. When a pipe is rehabilitated by slip or close-fit relining, the cross-section of the original pipe is reduced which decreases its transport capacity. This loss can, however, be offset by using PE100 to reduce the wall thickness of the liner.

Reducing the wall-thickness of water and gas pipes with PE100
Operating Pressure Material savings Gain in crosssection Gain in capacity

PE80

PE100

Water : 10 bar

SDR11

SDR17

33 %

16 %

35 %

Gas : < 4 bar

SDR11

SDR17,6

35 %

17 %

24 %

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E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

HIGHER SAFETY MARGIN
If no change of pipe dimension or operational pressure is desired, switching to PE100 resins ensures that the highest safety level available in PE piping systems today is achieved. The list of advantages includes:

? 25 % higher safety factor ? higher scratch resistance (p. 11) ? outstanding resistance to Rapid Crack Propagation (p. 12).
The resistance to Rapid Crack Propagation has traditionally limited the maximum diameter of polyethylene pipes to 250 mm. The outstanding resistance to Rapid Crack Propagation shown by PE100 has allowed an extension of the pipe size to well above 250 mm (today, the ELTEX TUB120 series is routinely used to manufacture gas pipes with a diameter of 450 mm). Furthermore, the material's outstanding resistance to Rapid Crack Propagation enables its use at sub-zero temperatures.

HIGHER STIFFNESS
For a given geometry, a PE100 pipe has a higher ring stiffness thanks to the material's higher E-modulus: 1250 MPa versus 950 MPa for a standard HDPE resin. This advantage can be of particular interest for the design of both pressure and non-pressure sewage networks.

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E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELTEX TUB120 SERIES
The excellent properties exhibited by polyethylene depend largely on its semi-crystalline structure. Its short-term properties, such as its stiffness, are defined by the crystalline phase of the material whereas its long-term properties, such as its Environmental Stress Crack Resistance (ESCR), depend on the entanglement of the long molecular chains in the amorphous phase. In the eighties, SOLVAY POLYOLEFINS EUROPE developed the ELTEX TUB120 series through the selective incorporation of a comonomer in the long molecular chains. This tailor-made chain branching allowed the traditional balance between stiffness and ESCR to be modified so that the stiffness could now be increased without having to sacrifice ESCR. Additionally, the ELTEX TUB120 series possesses an outstanding resistance to Rapid Crack Propagation. The combination of higher long-term strength, excellent stress crack resistance and outstanding resistance to Rapid Crack Propagation explains how the MRS10.0 or PE100 classification was attainable.

Increasing the number of Tie-molecules by Tailor Made Chain Branching
Tie molecule

Cilia

Loose loop

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E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE
HIGHER LONG-TERM STRENGTH
Long-term strength is determined by pressure testing of pipes at different temperatures (20, 40, 60 and 80°C). By combining the test results obtained at the various temperatures it is possible to calculate (by regression analysis) the maximum wall tension that the pipe will resist after 50 years at 20°C. A PE100 resin must possess a Minimum Required Strength (MRS) of 10 MPa after 50 years at 20°C (cf. 8.0 MPa for a PE80).

Evolution of PE pipe resins
20 Hoop stress (Mpa) 10

20°C

First Generation knee at 50 years

5 3 2 1

80°C

Second Generation : PE80 no knee

Third Generation : PE100 1 10 100 1000 Time (h) 10000 100000 50 years no knee 25% higher rigidity

Hydrostatic testing

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E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

ELTEX TUB120 SERIES
E X C E L L E N T S T R E S S C R A C K R E S I S TA N C E
Pipes in service may contain surface defects caused, for example, during site handling or relining of defective pipes made with traditional materials. These defects can act as initiation points for Slow Crack Growth, or Environmental Stress Cracking, ultimately leading to brittle failures. The above-mentioned pressure tests not only depict the mechanical strength of the material but they also indicate whether the pipes fail in a ductile or brittle manner. Ductile failures occur as the result of the normal plastic deformation of the pressurised pipe wall whereas brittle failures represent Stress Cracking. The appearance of brittle failures is depicted by a change of the slope of the regression curve at 80°C, the so-called 'knee', after which the material’s hydrostatic strength rapidly drops off. The data shows how the Stress Crack Resistance of Medium Density Second Generation compounds (no knee before 10,000 hours) was improved with respect to the First Generation compounds (knee at 100 hours). This improvement was, however achieved at the expense of density and consequently rigidity. The data also clearly illustrates how the selective incorporation of comonomer in Third Generation compounds led to a shift in this traditional compromise between Stress Crack Resistance and rigidity: no knee before 10,000 hours and 25% higher mechanical strength. The dramatically improved Stress Crack Resistance of 2nd and 3rd Generation pipe compounds has delayed the onset of Stress Cracking (>10,000 hours) to such an extent that they may be expected to last for more than 100 years at 20°C. An accelerated test had to be developed to measure their Stress Crack Resistance. In the so-called NOTCH test, pipes containing 4 artificial notches with a depth of 20% of the wall thickness are pressure-tested at 80°C. NOTCH tests on pipes made with the ELTEX TUB120 series confirm the material's excellent Stress Crack Resistance.

Notched Pipe Test

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E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

OUTSTANDING RESISTANCE TO RAPID CRACK PROPAGATION
Rapid Crack Propagation (RCP) is the phenomenon whereby an impact on a pressurised pipe (e.g. from a shovel, a bulldozer or a water hammer) leads to the formation of a fast running longitudinal through-wall crack. The propagation of this fracture can occur at the speed of sound and can be of considerable length. A crack length of 11 km has been reported for steel. For polyethylene, the longest reported crack was considerably shorter (700 m on a 315 mm gas pipe in Hungary). Several cracks (with a length of a few meters) have been documented in PE pipes for the transport of aqueous products. In the case of a water pipe this may lead to a considerable loss of production capacity but in the case of gas distribution in a densely populated area such a crack could lead to a highly dangerous situation. The resistance to Rapid Crack Propagation is thus a critical material property. To measure this property various tests have been proposed: The Full Scale Test (developed by British Gas) and the Small Scale Steady State or S4 Test (developed by Imperial College) have been retained in the ISO and prEN standards. The resistance to RCP has traditionally limited the use of polyethylene pipes to pressures of 4 bar in the gas sector and to pressures of 10 bar in the water sector. The outstanding resistance to RCP shown by the ELTEX TUB120 series allows the full exploitation of the material's MRS10.0 classification for the construction of 10 bar gas networks and 16 bar water networks.

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E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

Crack Length

Crack propagation MDPE Crack arrest PE100 (ELTEX?TUB 121, 124 & 125)

4

24 Equivalent gas network pressure (bar)

Crack Propagation immediately stopped by pipe in ELTEX TUB125 in the Full Scale Test at 24 bar

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E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

COMPETITIVENESS OF
The many advantages of polyethylene pipes made from PE100 resins provide a new competitiveness of PE against traditional materials. This is reflected by the advance of PE100 into new sectors. In the gas sector, the increase in pressure from 4 to 10 bar and the extension of the maximum diameter to well above 250 mm allow the construction of local transport networks. Practice has shown that such high pressure systems in PE100 can be highly competitive with 16 bar networks in steel. In the sewage and water sectors, the use of PE100 allows the economical production of large diameter pipes by means of wallthickness reduction. For the construction of 10 bar water networks, field data illustrates how PE100 has extended polyethylene's competitiveness from 250 mm to 400 mm.
Relative Installed Cost

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 DN150 PN16 steel pipe DA160 7 bar PE100 pipe 35,60% *Data subject to local circumstances

Price competitiveness of PE100 Water Pipe
Estimated Installed Cost* (10 bar network) in UK

Cost/m

PE100 PE80 Ductile Iron
new competitiveness

*Data subject to local circumstances

0

_ + 160

_ + 250 Diameter (mm)

_ + 400
Source : Stewarts & Lloyds, U.K.

14

Rehabilitation of cast-iron mains by slip-lining with ELTEX TUB120 series

E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

THE ELTEX TUB120 SERIES
By virtue of its flexibility and excellent Stress Crack Resistance, PE100 is also suitable for costsaving alternative installation techniques such as

? mole-ploughing ? narrow trenching ? chain trenching

and for trenchless techniques such as

? horizontal drilling ? relining (pipe-bursting,
slip-lining, or close-fit techniques such as rolldown, titeliner, swage-lining, U-liner and Compact Pipe).
Installation of ELTEX TUB125 gas pipe by narrow-trenching

The use of such alternative installation techniques strongly enhances the material's competitiveness.

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E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

THE ELTEX TUB120 SERIES : A COMPLETE RANGE OF PRODUCTS
Following 10 years of industrial production, the ELTEX TUB120 series now covers a wide range of applications including the transport of gas, water, sewage and industrial fluids. The resins are available in the colours royal blue, orange and black. In addition, blue, yellow, orange, red and brown stripe material can be obtained for the coextrusion of identification stripes. Field experience and test results have shown that common procedures for butt-welding can be directly applied to piping components in PE100.

A complete range of electrofusion products in PE100 A comprehensive range of fittings, tees, branch saddles, valves, elbows and other components (made with the ELTEX TUB120 series of resins) is commercially available. The proven welding compatibility of PE100 with PE80 ensures that such electrofusion products may be used in conjunction with both PE80 and PE100 pipes.

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E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

ISO 4437 (1997) ISO 4427 (1996) prEN1555 prEN12201 DE: DIN 8074 (Jan. 1998) DE: DIN 8075 (Jan. 1998) DE: GKR 14.3.1 (Jan. 1998) DE: DVGW VP608 (Dec. 1995) DE: DVGW G472 (revision expected in 1998) DE: DVS 2207/1 (Aug. 1995) GB: BS 7281:1990 GB: Gas Business Engineering GBE/PL2: part8 GB: WIS 4-32-13 FR: LNE: marque NF 114 groupe 1 et 2 IT: IIP-UNI: regolamento del marchio "P" ES: Normativa Técnica - Grupo GAS NATURAL: NT-011-GN CZ: TPG 702 01 R (1998) SK: STN 643042 AU/NZ: AS/NZS 4131:1997 SE: SIS approval SE: KP-M2 approval JP: JIS K 144

A DECADE OF EXPERIENCE WITH THE ELTEX TUB120 SERIES
Since its introduction in 1988, ELTEX TUB120 series has rapidly gained wide-spread use across the world. SOLVAY POLYOLEFINS EUROPE has manufactured more than 250,000 tonnes of PE100 in the last ten years, which would correspond to a network of 75,000 km (almost twice the circumference of the earth) if the network was constructed with 110 mm, SDR11 pipes. Compounds of the ELTEX TUB120 series have been approved by the vast majority of approval bodies and by companies such as British Gas (GB), Electrabel (BE), Gas Natural (ES), Gaz de France (FR), Italgas (IT) and TH?GA (DE). Their use has become generalised within major water companies such as Anglian Water, Northumbrian Water, North West Water and Severn Trent in the United Kingdom, AMGA di Genova (IT), Aguas de Barcelona (ES) and Canalisabel Segunda (ES). Recent developments include the use of PE100 by the Masovian Gas District in Warsaw and the Municipal Water Authority of Krakow (PL), by the Slovak gas company SPP, by the Water Administration of the Focsani District and the Administrative Council of Constanta in Romania, and for the construction of a gas ring around the town of Bjelovar in Croatia. Furthermore, PE100 has become fully integrated in the ISO, prEN and local standards and guidelines. Thanks to its improved properties, the ELTEX TUB120 series has established itself as the reference product for the following applications: ? Gas application pressure from 4 to 10 bar ? Relining applications ? Water application pressure from 10 to 25 bar ? Large diameter pipes

THE NEXT DECADE...
Summarising, the ELTEX? TUB 120 series has proven itself as an excellent technical and economical solution for both pressurised and non-pressurised transportation and distribution systems. An ever-increasing exploitation of its numerous advantages can be expected well into the next decade.

17

E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

NOTES :

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E L T E X T U B 1 2 0 SERIES

TH EE LT

EX ?

TU B

1

20

R SE

IE

G S:

LO

L BA

PR

N IN O VE

THE FIELD SINCE 1988

SOLVAY POLYOLEFINS EUROPE
Rue du Prince Albert 33 B- 1050 Brussels - Belgium Tel : 32/2/509 61 11 Fax : 32/2/509 69 18 Internet : http://www.solvay.com.

S.A.

Br 1754c-B -1-1098

Printed in Belgium


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