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NORSOK-Life cycle cost for systems and equipment


NORSOK STANDARD

COMMON REQUIREMENTS

LIFE CYCLE COST FOR SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

Please note that whilst every effort has

been made to ensure the accuracy of the NORSOK standards neither OLF nor TBL or any of their members will assume liability for any use thereof.

Life cycle cost for systems and equipment

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

CONTENTS
1 FOREWORD 2 SCOPE 3 NORMATIVE REFERENCES 4 DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVATIONS 4.1 Definitions 4.2 Abbrevations 5 CALCULATION METHOD 5.1 General 5.2 Applications 5.3 Uncertainty 5.4 Assumptions 5.5 Calculation method ANNEX A ASSUMPTIONS (NORMATIVE) ANNEX B LIFE CYCLE COST MODEL FOR SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT (NORMATIVE) ANNEX C USER GUIDE LCC MODEL FOR SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT (NORMATIVE) 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

NORSOK standard

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Life cycle cost for systems and equipment

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

1

FOREWORD

NORSOK (The competitive standing of the Norwegian offshore sector) is the industry initiative to add value, reduce cost and lead time and remove unnecessary activities in offshore field developments and operations. The NORSOK standards are developed by the Norwegian petroleum industry as a part of the NORSOK initiative and are jointly issued by OLF (The Norwegian Oil Industry Association) and TBL (The Federation of Norwegian Engineering Industries). NORSOK standards are administered by NTS (Norwegian Technology Standards Institution). The purpose of this industry standard is to replace the individual oil company specifications for use in existing and future petroleum industry developments, subject to the individual company's review and application. The NORSOK standards make extensive references to international standards. Where relevant, the contents of this standard will be used to provide input to the international standardization process. Subject to implementation into international standards, this NORSOK standard will be withdrawn. All annexes are normative. The described LCC model has been developed on a spreadsheet and is available as an Excel file. For further information contact the NORSOK administration at NTS. This standard replaces Life cycle cost, P-CR-002, Rev. 1, December 1994. Minor changes are made to clause 1, Foreword and clause 4.1, Definitions and it is renamed and renumbered.

2

SCOPE

The scope of this standard is to standardize Life Cycle Cost calculation methods for systems and equipment.

3

NORMATIVE REFERENCES
Operational principles.

NORSOK O-DP-001

4

DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVATIONS
Shall mean normative in the application of NORSOK standards. Shall mean informative in the application of NORSOK standards. Shall is an absolute requirement which shall be followed strictly in order to conform with the standard. Should is a recommendation. Alternative solutions having the same functionality and quality are acceptable. May indicates a course of action that is permissible within the limits of the standard (a permission). Can-requirements are conditional and indicates a possibility open to Page 2 of 9

4.1 Definitions Normative references Informative references Shall Should May Can NORSOK standard

Life cycle cost for systems and equipment the user of the standard. System and Equipment Purchase Cost Installation Cost Commissioning Cost Insurance Spares Cost

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

The total purchase cost within a vendors scope of supply. The total cost to install the system and equipment within the vendors scope of supply. The total cost to commission, and where necessary certify, the installed system and equipment. The total purchase cost for the initial spares holding for the system and equipment within the vendors scope of supply, necessary to obtain the required system regularity. The total cost to remove, refurbish or purchase, install and commission systems and equipment that is predicted to exceed its design life during the life of the production facility. The total maintenance manhour cost required to maintain the system and equipment within the vendors scope of supply. The manhour cost to include preventive maintenance, servicing and corrective maintenance. The cost for corrective maintenance to include maintenance carried out offshore and maintenance carried out onshore. The total cost of spare parts and consumables, over the design life of the system and equipment, necessary to complete the predicted work load for all maintenance actions (i.e. preventive maintenance, corrective maintenance and servicing). The total logistic support cost predicted to be necessary to support the maintenance requirements for the system and equipment within the vendors scope of supply (e.g. supply boat, diving support vessel). The total energy consumption cost for the system and equipment within the vendors scope of supply. It shall include the cost of the fuel required to generate the power and associated CO2 tax. The total cost of deferred production due to the probability of failure of system and equipment. Baseline cost data, for comparison with vendor input, will be based on historic records for similar equipment within the vendors scope of supply. A computer model programmed in Excel. The model contains the formulas shown in clause 5.5 and the assumptions provided in Annex A. The model is structured for input of variable data and calculation Page 3 of 9

Reinvestment Cost

Manhour Cost

Spare Part Consumption

Logistic Support Cost

Energy Consumption Cost

Deferred Production Cost Baseline Cost

Life Cycle Cost Design Optimisation and Evaluation Model NORSOK standard

Life cycle cost for systems and equipment

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

of results. It enables the user to evaluate and optimise system and equipment design and calculate the result based on Life Cycle Cost. The model also provides an option to take tax considerations into account. A smaller model for simpler cost calculations is also available. 4.2 Abbrevations CDP CMM CMSP MTTR PMM PMSP

Cost of deferred production Corrective maintenance manhours (annual average) Corrective maintenance spare parts (annual average consumption) Mean time to repair Preventive maintenance manhours (annual average) Preventive maintenance spare parts (annual average consumption)

5

CALCULATION METHOD

5.1 General This section defines the calculation method to complete Life Cycle Cost evaluation and optimisation for system and equipment. The calculations are automated in the LCC-model attached to the standard on a diskette. The diskette also contains a small model for quick cost calculations on a higher level. 5.2 Applications The LCC model may be used for: ? Design optimisation (evaluating different system designs). ? Bid evaluation. 5.3 Uncertainty Qualification shall be accomplished by quantifying uncertainty in the results of the Life Cycle Cost evaluation. 5.4 Assumptions To complete the Life Cycle Cost calculations within the model, assumptions shall be made.The necessary assumptions are shown in annex A. 5.5 Calculation method

5.5.1 General This section defines the calculations that provide the basis to complete Life Cycle Cost evaluation and optimisation, and the formulas required. 5.5.2 Value of money related to time The base year for the analysis shall be established. All costs shall be discounted back to this base year to take into account the time value of money. For this the following formula is applied:

NORSOK standard

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Life cycle cost for systems and equipment

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996


Where: St N K

n = t =0

S

(1 + k )t

t

= Net cost in year t. This can be assumed equal for all the years, it can vary according to production, or it can have some other given variation throughout the lifetime. = The lifetime of the equipment/function to be evaluated. When the required lifetime of the equipment exceeds the expected lifetime, the required life is used. = The discount rate/interest rate to be used for the evaluation.

5.5.3 Capital cost Capital cost shall be calculated by adding the following cost elements : ? Equipment purchase cost. ? Installation cost. ? Commissioning cost. ? Insurance spares cost. ? Reinvestment cost. Where there is a deviation between when the investments will be made and the base year for the evaluation, capital cost shall be discounted back to the base year as shown in clause 5.5.2. 5.5.4 Operating Cost General Operating cost shall be calculated by adding the following cost elements: ? Manhour cost. ? Spare parts consumption cost. ? Logistic support cost. ? Energy consumption cost. For costs that will be constant through the lifetime, multiply the annual cost with a discount factor f to get the cost over the lifetime.

f =
Where: t0 t1 m k a)

(

1 1 + k t 1? t 0

)

∑t =1 1 + k t
( )

m

1

= = = =

The base year for the evaluation. The time for startup of operations. Number of years in operation. The discount rate/interest rate to be used for the evaluation.

Manhour Cost

NORSOK standard

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Life cycle cost for systems and equipment Manhour cost shall be calculated as the sum of: ? Corrective maintenance manhours. ? Preventive maintenance manhours. ? Servicing manhours. Corrective Maintenance

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

The formula for average annual corrective maintenance manhours (CMM) is as follows :

CMM = λ ? 8760 ? MTTR ? A ? M
T

Where: CMM λ
T

= = = = = =

8760 MTTR A M

Average annual manhour cost for corrective maintenance. Total failure rate as number of failures per hour. This includes all failures. (Equals 1/Mean Time Between Failures). Number of hours in a year. Mean Time To Repair. The time in hours it takes to repair the faulty item back to operating condition. The number of men required to do the work. This also includes the safety aspect. The manhour rate.

The average annual costs shall be discounted as shown in clause 5.5.2. Preventive Maintenance The formula for annual preventive maintenance manhours (PMM) is as follows: PMM = Number of times per year x Manhours x Manhour rate Where: Manhours = The number of manhours required to perform the preventive maintenance routine.

The average annual cost shall be discounted as shown in clause 5.5.2. Servicing Calculations shall be as for Preventive Maintenance. b) Spare Parts Consumption

Spare parts consumption shall be calculated as the sum of: ? Spare parts for corrective maintenance. ? Spare parts for preventive maintenance. ? Spare parts for servicing.

NORSOK standard

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Life cycle cost for systems and equipment

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

Corrective Maintenance The formula for average annual corrective maintenance spare parts (CMSP) consumption shall be as follows:

CMSP = λ x 8760 x Averagecorrective spares
T

Where: CMSP λ
T

= = =

8760

Average annual corrective maintenance spares consumption. Total failure rate as number of failures per hour. This includes all failures. (Equals 1/Mean Time Between Failures). Number of hours in a year.

Average annual spares = Average spares needed for repair of the equipment. The average annual cost shall be discounted as shown in clause 5.5.2. Preventive Maintenance The formula for average annual preventive maintenance spare parts (PMSP) consumption is as follows : PMSP = Number of times per year x Average spare parts consumption per PM routine Servicing Calculations shall be the same as for Preventive Maintenance. c) Logistic support cost

Logistic support cost shall be calculated as the sum of all logistic support activities necessary to maintain the equipment. The average annual cost shall be discounted as shown in clause 5.5.2. d) Energy consumption cost

For an equipment package where the power requirement is constant throughout the lifetime and not dependent of the production the formula for average annual energy consumption cost is as follows:

? Q ? O ? 100 % l l ??C EC = ∑ l = 0 ? ? ? ? ? ..... ? ? ? l1 ln ?
Where: Ql

=

Power requirement at operational level l for the equipment requiring power (e.g. Page 7 of 9

NORSOK standard

Life cycle cost for systems and equipment

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

Ol l ?ln C

= = = =

a pump). Average fraction of time the equipment will be operated at operational level l. Operational level in steps from 0 to 100% (Max required capacity). Efficiency at operation level l for related equipment in the power transmission (i.e. gear, converter, el. motor). Cost per kWh based on fuel consumption and CO2-tax.

The average annual cost shall be discounted as shown in clause 5.5.2. For an equipment package where the power requirement is varying throughout the lifetime, e.g. follows the production profile, the formula will be the same but will have to be calculated with different distributions (Ol) for operational level for each year and be discounted. 5.5.5 Cost of deferred production The formula for cost of deferred production (CDP) is as follows : CDP = E ? p ? D ? L ? CDP Where: CDP E p D L CDP = = = = = = Cost of Deferred Production. Average number of critical failures per year. Probability of production reduction. Duration of production reduction. Quantity of production loss per time unit. Cost of one hour downtime per year throughout the lifetime calculated as the difference in Net Present Value between a production profile with the simulated availability and one with one hour lower availability per year.

This is a general formula that can be adjusted to different configurations where: E p = = =

λ C ? 8760 = Critical failure rate as number of failures per hour x Number of
hours in a year. 1 at configuration 1x100%. ? ( n ?1) ? λtrain ? T 1? e at a configuration with n trains and one can go down without causing production reduction. T equals average total downtime for critical failures for the component evaluated. Dependent on configuration and location in the system for the unit being evaluated. Field dependent.

L CDP

= =

5.5.6 Life cycle cost Life Cycle Cost for the system and equipment to be evaluated equals the sum of the following cost elements: ? Capital Cost. ? Operating Cost. ? Cost of Deferred Production.

NORSOK standard

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Life cycle cost for systems and equipment

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

5.5.7 Uncertainty The uncertainty of the calculations shall be assessd in relation to the confidence in input data. To get an estimate of the uncertainty involved the cost elements can be assumed independent and Normal distributed. The standard deviation σ can then be calculated as follows:

σ

T

=



σ

2 e

Where:

σ

T

= =

The total standard deviation. Standard deviation for cost element e.

σ

e

When using the above formula after evaluating two alternatives A and B and finding that A has the lowest Life Cycle Cost, the result is indicated reliable when:

LCC + σ A < LCC ? σ A B B

NORSOK standard

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Life cycle cost for systems and equipment Annex A

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

ANNEX A

ASSUMPTIONS (NORMATIVE)

THE FOLLOWING ASSUMPTIONS SHALL BE MADE AND BE INCLUDED IN THE MODEL PRIOR TO OPTIMISATION AND EVALUATION OF SYSTEM AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN PARAMETER VALUE DENOMINATION COMMENTS

Fuel gas: CO2 tax Price of sales gas Price of transport Value of alternate use Gas turbine efficiency Cost per kw hour - CO2 tax - Alternate use - Total cost

0.82

NOK/Sm NOK/Sm3 NOK/Sm3 NOK/Sm3 m3/MW Day

3

For power generation When gas sales contract is applicable When gas sales contract is applicable Equals price of sales gas minus cost of transport For power generation Calculated from CO2 tax per Sm3 and gas turbine efficiency Calculated from value of alternate use and gas turbine efficiency Equals the sum of CO2 tax and alternate use

0.273

NOK/kwh NOK/kwh NOK/kwh

Diesel fuel: Price - CO2 tax - Cost of diesel

1.30 0.82 2.12

NOK/litre NOK/litre NOK/litre

Equals the sum of CO2 tax and the cost of diesel

Manhour cost: Offshore Manhour Onshore Manhour Logistic support cost: ROV Support vessel Supply boat Cost of deferred production Annual operating hours

NOK/hour NOK/hour

NOK/day NOK/day NOK/day NOK/hour a year See clause 5.6.5 Hours/year Hours the equipment will be in operation

NORSOK standard

Page 1 of 2

Life cycle cost for systems and equipment Annex A

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

Timing: Base year Investment year Operation start-up Life of field Discounting: Discount rate Discount factor - Investment - Operating cost

See clause 5.5.2 See clause 5.5.3 The year when production starts From start of production

%

Relevant rate supplied by the Operating Company Calculated as shown in clause 5.5.3 Calculated as shown in clause 5.5.4

NORSOK standard

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Life cycle cost for systems and equipment Annex B

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

ANNEX B
CONTENTS

LIFE CYCLE COST MODEL FOR SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT (NORMATIVE)

Output forms Form 1 LCC summary Form 2 Life cycle cost elements Input forms Form 3 Form 4 Form 5 Form 6 Form 7 Form 8 Form 9 Form 10 Form 11 Capital cost Preventive maintenance cost Servicing cost Corrective maintenance cost Logistic support cost Energy consumption cost (energy consumer 1) Energy consumption cost (energy consumer 2) Energy consumption cost (energy consumer 3) Cost of deferred production

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Qualification forms Form 12 Uncertainty in the results Form 13 Basic assumptions Form 14 Calculation method

NORSOK standard

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Project XXX Design eval. LCC Evaluation Inquiry No. XXXXXX Equipment Package
Aggregated main cost elements
Cost elements CAPITAL COST OPERATING COST COST OF DEFERRED PRODUCTION LIFE CYCLE COST Delta LCC Cost elements relative to the lowest bid CAPITAL COST OPERATING COST COST OF DEFERRED PRODUCTION LIFE CYCLE COST

Output form LCC SUMMARY

Form 1

Design A Cost : Note:

Design B Cost : Note:

Baseline Cost : Note:

1

1

1

Design A Cost :

Note:

Design B Cost :

Note:

Baseline Cost :

Note:

2

2

2

Relative cost distribution
Cost elements CAPITAL COST OPERATING COST COST OF DEFERRED PRODUCTION Design A Design B Baseline

DEVIATION FROM THE LOWEST LCC

Uncertainty Result from evaluation of the uncertainty involved Furter investigation should be made to reduce the result range

Notes :
1. All costs in Base Year kNOK 2. Delta LCC based on lowest bid set to zero.

Comments :
Costs are shown pre tax.

Date : Date :

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Project XXX Design eval. LCC Evaluation Inquiry No. XXXXXX Equipment Package

Output form LIFE CYCLE COST ELEMENTS

Form 2

Design A Cost elements: Cost : Pr. year: Note: Cost :

Design B Pr. year: Note: Cost :

Baseline Pr. year: Note:

CAPITAL COST Equipment Purchase Cost Installation Cost Commisioning Cost Insurance Spares Cost Reinvestment Cost

OPERATING COST Manhour Cost Spare Parts Consumption Cost Logistic Support Cost Energy Consumption Cost

COST OF DEFERRED PRODUCTION

LIFE CYCLE COST

All costs in Base Year NOK Costs are shown pre tax.

Notes :

Comments :

Date : Date :

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Project XXX Design eval. LCC Evaluation Inquiry No. XXXXXX Equipment Package
Cost elements Year Equipment Purchase Cost Item :

Input form CAPITAL COST

Form 3

Design A Price: Item :
Total

Design B Price: Item :
Total

Baseline Price:

1995 Total

Installation Cost

1996 Total

Total

Total

Commisioning Cost

1996 Total

Total

Total

Insurance Spares Cost

1995 Total

Total

Total

Reinvestment Cost

2000 Total

Total

Total

All costs in Base Year NOK

Comments :
Reinvestment is structured under investment as a cost occuring just once. After tax calculations treat this as an operating cost according to the tax laws.

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Project XXX Input form Design eval. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE COST LCC Evaluation Inquiry No. XXXXXX Equipment Package Preventive Maintenance
Equipment : Equipment number 1 Preventive maintenance aktivities Interval [Months] Design A Manhours [h] Spares [NOK] Interval [Months] Design B Manhours [h] Spares [NOK] Interval [Months] Baseline Manhours [h]

Form 4

Spares [NOK]

Equipment number 2

Equipment number 3

Equipment number 4

Equipment number 5

Equipment number 6

Equipment number 7

Equipment number 8

Average per year

Comments :

Date : Date :

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Project XXX Design eval. LCC Evaluation Inquiry No. XXXXXX Equipment Package Servicing
Equipment : Equipment number 1 Servicing aktivities Interval [Weeks]

Input form SERVICING COST

Form 5

Design A Manhours [h]

Spares [NOK]

Interval [Weeks]

Design B Manhours [h]

Spares [NOK]

Interval [Weeks]

Baseline Manhours [h]

Spares [NOK]

Equipment number 2

Equipment number 3

Equipment number 4

Equipment number 5

Equipment number 6

Equipment number 7

Equipment number 8

Average per year

Comments :

Date : Date :

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Project XXX Input form Design eval. CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE COST LCC Evaluation Inquiry No. XXXXXX Equipment Package Corrective Maintenance
Equipment : Equipment number 1 Failure Modes Interval [Months] Design A Manhours [h] Spares [NOK] Interval [Months] Design B Manhours [h] Spares [NOK] Interval [Months] Baseline Manhours [h]

Form 6

Spares [NOK]

Equipment number 2

Equipment number 3

Equipment number 4

Equipment number 5

Equipment number 6

Equipment number 7

Equipment number 8

Average per year

Comments :

Date : Date :

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Project XXX Design eval. LCC Evaluation Inquiry No. XXXXXX Equipment Package

Input form LOGISTIC SUPPORT COST

Form 7

Support

Interval [Years]

Design A Time Period [Days]

Interval [Years]

Design B Time Period [Days]

Interval [Years]

Baseline Time Period [Days]

ROV

Supply boat

Support vessel

Average usage ROV per year Cost per year Average usage supply boat per year Cost per year Average usage support vessel per year Cost per year Annual logistic cost

Comments :

Date : Date :

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Project XXX Design eval. LCC Evaluation Inquiry No. XXXXXX Equipment Package
Power using equipment :
Energy consumer 1 Energy consumption profile : Yearly operating hours : 8760

Input form ENERGY CONSUMPTION COST

Form 8

Constant

Fraction Operation Design A Design B Baseline op. time level Power Efficiency Efficiency Power Efficiency Efficiency Power Efficiency Efficiency driver trans'n consumption driver trans'n consumption driver trans'n at level [% of max] consumption [kWh] [%] [%] [kWh] [%] [%] [kWh] [%] [%] 10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 25 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 25 % 80 % 90 % 50 % 100 % 110 % 120 % 100 % Average gross consumption Annual energy consumption cost Total energy consumption cost kWh NOK NOK kWh NOK NOK kWh NOK NOK

η

Q [m3/h]

Comments :

Date : Date :

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Project XXX Design eval. LCC Evaluation Inquiry No. XXXXXX Equipment Package
Power using equipment :
Energy consumer 2 Energy consumption profile : Yearly operating hours : 8760

Input form ENERGY CONSUMPTION COST

Form 9

Constant

Fraction Operation Design A Design B Baseline op. time level Power Efficiency Efficiency Power Efficiency Efficiency Power Efficiency Efficiency driver trans'n consumption driver trans'n consumption driver trans'n at level [% of max] consumption [kWh] [%] [%] [kWh] [%] [%] [kWh] [%] [%] 10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 25 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 25 % 80 % 90 % 50 % 100 % 110 % 120 % 100 % Average gross consumption Annual energy consumption cost Total energy consumption cost kWh NOK NOK kWh NOK NOK kWh NOK NOK

η

Q [m3/h]

Comments :

Date : Date :

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Project XXX Design eval. LCC Evaluation Inquiry No. XXXXXX Equipment Package
Power using equipment :
Energy consumer 3 Energy consumption profile : Yearly operating hours : 8760

Input form ENERGY CONSUMPTION COST

Form 10

Constant

Fraction Operation Design A Design B Baseline op. time level Power Efficiency Efficiency Power Efficiency Efficiency Power Efficiency Efficiency driver trans'n consumption driver trans'n consumption driver trans'n at level [% of max] consumption [kWh] [%] [%] [kWh] [%] [%] [kWh] [%] [%] 10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 25 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 25 % 80 % 90 % 50 % 100 % 110 % 120 % 100 % Average gross consumption Annual energy consumption cost Total energy consumption cost kWh NOK NOK kWh NOK NOK kWh NOK NOK

η

Q [m3/h]

Comments :

Energy consumer 3 Total energy consumption cost for the alternatives Cost per year Cost over the lifetime

Design A NOK

Design B NOK

Baseline NOK

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Project XXX Input form Design eval. COST OF DEFERRED PRODUCTION LCC Evaluation Inquiry No. XXXXXX Equipment Package
Base case unavailability XX % Economic impact Impact on prod. [Y/N] Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Config. MTBF c [Years] 1x100% 2x100% 2x50% 3x50% 4x25% 4x33% Design A MTTR c Prod. loss [Hours] [Prod.h] Design B MTTR c Prod. loss [Hours] [Prod.h]

Form 11

Equipment :

MTBF c [Years]

MTBF c [Years]

Baseline MTTR c Prod. loss [Hours] [Prod.h]

Equipment number 1 Equipment number 2 Equipment number 3 Equipment number 4 Equipment number 5 Equipment number 6 Equipment number 7 Equipment number 8 Estimated unavailability Economic impact over the lifetime

Definitions :
MTBF c = Mean Time Between CRITICAL Failures MTTR c = Mean Time To Repair CRITICAL Failures. The time it takes to do the job, NOT the manhours

Notes :
For equipment in a train a sligthly different formula has to be applied for calculating production loss. The probability of secondary failures are then calculated from average MTBFc and MTTRc for the train.

Comments :

Date : Date :

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Project XXX Qualification form Design eval. UNCERTAINTY IN THE RESULTS LCC Evaluation Inquiry No. XXXXXX Equipment Package
Design A Std. dev. Cost elements:
CAPITAL COST Equipment Purchase Cost Installation Cost Commisioning Cost Insurance Spares Cost Reinvestment Cost

Form 12

Design B Std. dev. Value:
Absolute Relative

Baseline Std. dev. Value:
Absolute Relative

Value:

Absolute

Relative

OPERATING COST Manhour Cost Spare Parts Consumption Cost Logistic Support Cost Energy Consumption Cost

20 % 20 % 20 % 2%

20 % 20 % 20 % 2%

20 % 20 % 20 % 2%

COST OF DEFERRED PRODUCTION

4%

4%

4%

LIFE CYCLE COST HIGH MED. LOW

Notes:
1. The above analysis is performed to quantify the uncertainty in the LCC-evaluation 2. The above is based on variation with baseline data. 3. The different cost elements are based on Normal Distribution.

Comments :

Date : Date :

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Project XXX Design eval. LCC Evaluation Inquiry No. XXXXXX Equipment Package
Parameter
Fuel gas: CO2 - tax Price sales gas Price transport Alt. use Gas turbine efficiency Cost pr. kWh: CO2 - tax Alt. use gas Total cost per kWh Diesel: Price CO2 - tax Cost of diesel Manhour cost offshore Manhour cost onshore ROV Supply boat Support vessel Cost of deferred prod. Yearly operational hours Base year Investment year Operation from year Life of the field Discount rate Discouting factors : Discouting factor investments Discounting factor operating costs Option for calculation Ordinary income tax Extra offshore tax Free income

Qualification form BASIC ASSUMPTIONS

Form 13

Value

Denom.

Origin

Comment
For power generation

82 ?re/Sm3 " " N/A " 8000 m3 per MW per day 0,273 NOK/kWh N/A " 0,273 "

When sales gas contract is applicable When sales gas contract is applicable The price of sales gas minus cost of transp. For power generation From CO2-tax per Sm3 and gas turbine effic From value of alt. use and gas turbine efficie The sum of CO2-tax and alt. use

130 ?re/litre 82 " 212 " NOK/hour NOK/hour NOK/day NOK/day NOK/day NOK/hour a year 8 760 hours 1995 1995 1998 20 years 7,0% 1,0000 9,2532 Pre tax 28 % 50 % 5%

The sum of CO2-tax and the cost of diesel

See clause 5.6.6 Hours the equipment will be in operation See clause 5.5.2 See clause 5.5.3 The year when production starts From start of operation Relevant rate supplied by the operator Calculated as shown in clause 5.5.2 Calculated as shown in clause 5.5.3 Calculated as shown in clause 5.5.4

Norwegian tax regulations " "

Of ordinary income Of ordinary income minus free income Of one years investment over five years

Comments :

Date : Date :

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Project XXX Design eval. LCC Evaluation Inquiry No. XXXXXX Equipment Package

Qualification form CALCULATION METHOD

Form 14

General The calculations are based on the formulas outlined in NORSOK Standard P-CR-002 Common Requirements Life Cycle Cost Discounting For all cost the time value of money is taken into account by discouting them back to the value at the base year for evaluation. Tax calculations For capital cost the Norwegian tax laws give : After tax cost = Investment - [( Σ Investments the last 6 years / 6)x( Ordinary income tax + Extra offshore tax ) + ( Σ Investments the last 6 years ) x Tax free income x Extra offshore tax ] For operating costs the equations are : After tax cost = Pre tax cost x [ 1 - ( Ordinary income tax + Extra offshore tax ) ] Cost of deferred production Mean Downtime (MDT) is for this calculations equal to Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) for corrective failures, i.e. waiting time and start up time are assumed zero.

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Life cycle cost for systems and equipment Annex C

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

ANNEX C
CONTENTS

USER GUIDE LCC MODEL FOR SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT (NORMATIVE)

1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Calculating LCC 1.2 Description 1.3 Installation 1.4 Adjustment to screen 2 MAIN STRUCTURE 2.1 Summary of calculation procedures 3 INPUT OF DATA 3.1 General input 3.2 Capital cost 3.3 Preventive maintenance cost 3.4 Servicing cost 3.5 Corrective maintenance cost 3.6 Logistic support cost 3.7 Energy consumption cost 3.8 Cost of deferred production 4 QUALIFICATION 4.1 Basic assumptions 4.2 Uncertainty in the results 4.3 Calculation method 5 RESULTS 5.1 LCC summary 5.2 Life cycle cost elements 5.3 Costs over the years evaluated 6 PRINTOUTS 6.1 Print report 6.2 Print costs over life 7 PROBLEM SOLVING 7.1 Locked cells 7.2 Slow operation 7.3 Number not shown

2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10

NORSOK standard

Page 1 of 10

Life cycle cost for systems and equipment Annex C

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Calculating LCC LCC-calculations are done to aid a decision making process. In many cases it is not necessary to perform a complete LCC-analysis. It is often enough to estimate the differences between alternatives for the major cost elements. The LCC-model provides input functions/ cells for the different cost elements. You, as the user, can perform a complete analysis and generate reports or choose to use only some of them at an aggregated level. The diskette also contains a small spreadsheet (LCC-calc.xls) that can be used at an aggregated level for calculating the time value of money. 1.2 Description The LCC-model (LCC.xlw ) is made as a workbook in Excel 4.0. The workbook contains a spreadsheet and a hidden macro-file. The macro-file is the software (program) that controls and helps using the spreadsheet and should not be changed. The spreadsheet is a protected document. This implicates that you are only allowed to enter values in the input cells. Formulas are then protected against accidental overwriting. If you want to change the content in a cell that are protected, you can unprotect the document and change the content in the cell. After doing this the document should be protected again. 1.3 Installation For the model to be able to operate at an adequate speed, the workbook should be copied from the diskette to the hard disk. The name of the file is LCC.xlw. The small spreadsheet for aggregated calculations, LCC-calc.xls, should also be copied. 1.4 Adjustment to screen The spreadsheet is adjusted to a 17" screen. For other screen sizes it may be advantageous to adjust the zooming to fit the page to the screen.

2

MAIN STRUCTURE

Based on the input data there will be generated a report that consists of: (Output form) ? LCC Summary (Output form) ? Life Cycle Cost Elements (Input form ) ? Capital Cost (Input form ) ? Preventive Maintenance Cost (Input form ) ? Servicing Cost (Input form ) ? Corrective Maintenance Cost (Input form ) ? Logistic Support Cost (Input form ) ? Energy Consumption Cost (Input form ) ? Cost of Deferred Production (Qualification form) ? Uncertainty in the Results (Qualification form) ? Basic Assumptions (Qualification form) ? Calculation Method NORSOK standard Page 2 of 10

Life cycle cost for systems and equipment Annex C

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

In addition there can be created a report that shows the cost elements for the different alternatives per year pre tax and after tax. The above elements correspond to the buttons at the top of the spreadsheet and the different forms are thus found by clicking the respective button as shown below.

Figure 1 2.1 Summary of calculation procedures Use of the LCC-model contains the following steps: 1. Fill in the field and company specific data in the Assumptions form. 2. Fill in what is to be evaluated in the General Input form. 3. Fill in the rest (or relevant) cost element input forms. 4. Qualify the calculations through the following qualification forms; Assumptions, Uncertainty and Calculation. 5. The results are shown aggregated, per cost element and per year. 6. Print LCC-report or cost distribution over life.

3

INPUT OF DATA

All input data for the alternatives to be evaluated are entered into the relevant input form. There are eight different input forms. Field and company specific data like economic parameters and field life are entered in the form; Basic Assumptions. 3.1 General input The opening input window is shown in page 2. The window contains information on what is to be evaluated. Only the yellow fields shall be filled in. Heading Project, discipline and evaluating objects are written here. This will be the heading on each side of the report. Alternatives to be evaluated Number of alternatives to be evaluated are entered through clicking the button and choosing from the dialogue box.

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Life cycle cost for systems and equipment Annex C

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

Figure 2 The model allows for two or three alternatives. The names of the alternatives can also be entered. Energy consumption Number of energy consuming units are entered by clicking the button and choosing from the dialogue box.

Figure 3 The model allows for one to three different power consuming units. Then equipment information are entered. Equipment Here the different equipment/ units in the system/ equipment to be evaluated are listed. The other evaluation alternatives like pre/ after tax calculations, discount rate and field life time are entered under Assumptions. 3.2 Capital cost Capital cost is split into the following cost elements: ? Equipment purchase cost. ? Installation cost. ? Commissioning cost. ? Insurance spares cost. ? Reinvestment cost. NORSOK standard Page 4 of 10

Life cycle cost for systems and equipment Annex C

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

For each element, the year when the expenditure occurs, have to be entered. The elements can be split into a lower (more detailed) level and entered with name and cost of the various items for the different alternatives. Reinvestment cost is entered under capital cost, even though it is treated as an operating cost for tax calculations 3.3 Preventive maintenance cost The equipment listed under General Input are shown as default equipment. This can be changed by overwriting. For each alternative, different maintenance activities associated with the equipment can be listed, such as maintenance intervals, workload in man-hours and spare part consumption. Manhour rates are specified under assumptions. 3.4 Servicing cost Service cost is entered the same way as the preventive maintenance cost. Intervals between servicing activities are counted in weeks. 3.5 Corrective maintenance cost Corrective maintenance cost is entered the same way as the preventive maintenance cost. Interval between failures are counted in years. 3.6 Logistic support cost Logistic support cost covers: ? ROV. ? Supply boat. ? Support vessel. For each 3 different intervals with time period each time can be entered for the different alternatives. The unit costs are given under assumptions 3.7 Energy consumption cost This cost element has up to three forms dependent on what number of power consuming units were specified under General Input. Energy consumption can be specified as constant through the lifetime or as varying. This is done by clicking the button and choosing from the dialogue box.

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Life cycle cost for systems and equipment Annex C

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

Figure 4 Constant Yearly operating hours for this equipment must be entered. For the different operation levels (denominated as percentages of maximum) the percentage of time the equipment is running at this levels are entered. This is to get a good representation of how the equipment efficiency curve fits to the operation. In the example shown below the equipment is run at 50% of max. for 25% of the time, at 70% for 50% of the time and at 100% for 25% of the time.

Figure 5 For these levels power consumption is entered. There is a possibility to include efficiency losses i.e. in driver and transmission. Varies over time For this table operating hours have to be filled in for each year. Average quantum per hour to be handled by the equipment will vary from year to year. For each alternative there are three columns to make it possible to get three points on the efficiency curves. The cells for operation level as percentage of average quantum per hour and for percentage of operation at that level must be filled in. One can choose to use only one column, but percentage of operation at level must then be 100% and operation level will then be the annual average.

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Life cycle cost for systems and equipment Annex C

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

The energy consumption forms are all the same. To switch between the forms press the button with the unit number. When the message shown below appears there are not specified that many power consuming units. To change this go to the General Input form.

Figure 6 3.8 Cost of deferred production The equipment given under General Input is listed, but can be altered. For the different equipment, impact on production is answered by Y/N. For the equipment with production impact configuration is chosen by clicking the respective button and selecting from the dialogue box.

Figure 7 Further, the mean time between critical failures (MTBFc) and mean time to repair critical failures (MTTRc) are entered. When evaluating alternatives with different configurations one can use different lines and fill in MTBFc and MTTRc only for the respective alternatives.

4

QUALIFICATION

4.1 Basic assumptions This form contains all the economic assumptions and field data. For calculating the cost of energy the cost of fuel gas and the gas turbine efficiency must be entered. Cost of deferred production is given as the cost of one hour downtime per year. This is found by calculating the difference between the Net Present Value of two slightly different production profiles. NORSOK standard Page 7 of 10

Life cycle cost for systems and equipment Annex C

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

Base year for evaluation is normally the present year. Life of field is from start of operation. Under option for calculation, clicking the alternatives button gives the choice of pre tax or after tax calculation.

Figure 8 4.2 Uncertainty in the results In this form the uncertainty involved is calculated based on the assumption that the cost elements are independent and Normal distributed. Input is given as the relative standard deviation for the different cost elements, e.g. +/-10%. 4.3 Calculation method This form outlines the calculation method. See also the standard Common Requirements Life Cycle Cost.

5

RESULTS

5.1 LCC summary The LCC Summary form shows the aggregated cost, delta LCC and relative cost distribution for the main cost elements: ? Capital cost. ? Operating cost. ? Cost of deferred production. Aggregated main cost elements are a summary of the Life Cycle Cost Elements form. Delta LCC sets the lowest cost among the alternatives to zero and show how much higher the other alternatives are. This is done for the main cost elements and for the total LCC. Relative cost distribution shows the distribution of the main cost elements within the alternatives. Deviation from the lowest LCC sets the lowest alternative to zero and shows the relative difference for the others. This is the main result number from the calculations. Uncertainty Based on the results from evaluating the uncertainty there will come up a message "Uncertainty involved is acceptable" if the lowest alternative plus its standard deviation is lower than the second NORSOK standard Page 8 of 10

Life cycle cost for systems and equipment Annex C

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

best alternative minus its standard deviation. If this is not the case the message "Further investigation should be made to reduce the result range" will appear. 5.2 Life cycle cost elements This form shows the total cost and cost per year for the different cost elements. For capital cost the cost per year equals the investment. If investments are done in the base year for evaluation, cost per year and total cost will be equal. 5.3 Costs over the years evaluated By clicking this button one gets access to a number of forms showing the cost elements per year pre tax and after tax for the different alternatives.

6

PRINTOUTS

6.1 Print report By pressing this button there will be printed a report corresponding to the forms in the model as shown in appendix B. 6.2 Print costs over life By pressing this button there will be printed a report of the different cost elements for the different alternatives for each year pre tax and after tax as shown in appendix B.

7
7.1

PROBLEM SOLVING
Locked cells

Figure 9 Locked cells are not supposed to be changed. If this still is desirable it can be done through Options / Unprotect document. When the changes are done the document should be protected again through Options / Protect document. The spreadsheet is protected to ensure that formulas are not overwritten by accident. 7.2 Slow operation Due to the size of the model it can give a relatively long responding time. This can be improved by using a faster computer with a larger memory. The smaller spreadsheet LCC-calc.xls will operate much faster, but cannot handle detailed calculations like the big LCC-model.

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Life cycle cost for systems and equipment Annex C

O-CR-001 Rev. 1, April 1996

7.3 Number not shown When the numbers are shown just as ######### this can be solved by expanding the column with. The document must then first be unprotected. Expanding too much can cause a problem when printing the reports.

NORSOK standard

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