英语一句话只能有一个主谓结构 如果出现更多动词： ? 加连词（and / but / so…） ? 放入从句 ? 变为非谓语动词 主语、宾语、定语、状语、补语 The famous doctor helped the pregnant woman to give birth to a baby last Friday. (分析句子成分) 非谓语动词 不定式 to + v 将要发生
的 动词的 v-ing 同时发生 过去分词 v-ed 被动 hope, expect, intend, want, plan, promise, ask, refuse, decide, determine, learn, prepare + to do admit, finish, appreciate, miss + -ing stop/remember/forget/go on/regret ? to do 去做... -ing 正在做... She reached the top of the hill and stopped _ on a big rock to see the rising sun. A. to have rested B. resting C. to rest D. rest You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting. Well, now I regret _ that. A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having done see, watch, hear, feel, notice -ing 主动, 正在做... do 主动, 动作过程 done 被动 ? They knew her very well. They had seen her _ up from childhood. A. grow B. grew C. was growing D. to grow ? I’ve heard him _ about you often. A. talked B. talks C. talk ? mean
D. to talk
to do 打算做 doing 意味着 If you think that treating a woman well means always _ her permission for things, think again. (06 湖南) A. gets B. got C. to get D. getting 判定题目是否考察非谓语 非谓语动词题目三步走： ? 谓语动词/句型的要求 ? 主被动关系 ? 时间先后顺序 ? He walked down the hills, _ softly to himself.
A. sing B. sings C. singing D. was singing ? He walked down the hills, and _ softly to himself. A. sing B. sings C. singing D. was singing ? Stop running and you will feel your heart _ faster than ever. A. beat B. beating C. beaten D. was beating Having passed all the tests, she felt a great weight _ off her mind. A. taking B. taken C. take D. to be taken 非谓语动词的 9 种形式
一般式 主动 被动 to do -ing done
完成式 主动 被动
to do 和 to have done ? I am sorry to hear that. ? I am sorry to have heard that. ? I am sorry to have said that. ? I am sorry to say that. -ing 和-ed 形容词 ? 单个-ed/-ed, 前置 -ing+名词：表示用途 a swimming pool=a pool for swimming a reading room=a room for reading ? 后置定语相当于省略的定语从句 ? The girl (who is) sitting in the corner is adorable. ? We visited a temple (which was) built 200 years ago. ? ■ The vegetables( which are) sold in this shop are grown without chemicals. The houses (which are) being built are for the survivors in the quake. ■ The girl who has passed the exam is my gf. The girl having passed the exam is my gf.(错) 错(完成式不能作定语) -ing/-ed 形容词： ? –ing: 主动； ? -ed: 被动； a moving film the moved audience a satisfied smile -ing 形容词多修饰物 -ed 形容词多修饰人或与人有关的物
frightened/frightening ? He is_________. ? He has a _________ look on his face. ? Everyone was _____ by the ______ story. (move) He was _______ with the ________ person. (annoy) Did you enjoy yourself at the party? Yes. I’ve never been to _ one before. (06 四川) A. a more excited B. the most excited C. a more exciting D. the most exciting Poor boy! His _ looks and _hands suggested he was very afraid. A. frightening; trembling B. frightened; trembled C. frightening; trembled D. frightened; trembling The problems _ at the meeting tomorrow are really hard to solve. A. discussed B. to discuss C. to be discussed D. discussing The flowers __ sweet in the garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature. (2004 上海) A. to smell B. smelling C. smelt D. to be smelt Mr. Green stood up in defense of the 16-year-old boy, saying that he was not the one __. (2006 安 徽) A. blamed B. blaming C. to blame D. to be blamed 主动表被动: 感官动词 smell/sound/taste... blame/worth/worthy/worthwhile 作宾语 I love you. I love walking along the seaside with you. I love to walk along the seaside with you. ? 常用 to do 作宾语的动词 ? 常用-ing 作宾语的动词 -ing/to do 作宾语的变形 (一般（被动）式 完成（被动）式 ) The squirrel (松鼠) was lucky that it just missed _. A. catching B. to be caught C. being caught D. to catch Police are now searching for a woman who is reported to _ since the flood hit the area last Friday. (06 山东) A. have been missing B. have got lost C. be missing D. get lost
see watch do 被动句还原 to hear + sb./sth. + doing feel done notice I saw two boys fight with each other. Two boys were seen to fight with each other. do doing done to do doing done
have/make/let + sth./sb.
get/leave + sth./sb. doing keep sb./sth done
? A cook will be fired if he is found __ in the kitchen. ? A. smoke B. smoking C. to smoke My mother makes me learn English every day. I am made to learn English every day. ? to do 作状语可句首可句尾， 但在句尾不可用逗号分开, only to 除外 We eat to live, but not live to eat. To live we eat. We eat, to live. (错) We eat, only to live. (表示出乎意料的结果) The news reporters hurried to the airport, only _ the film stars had left. (04 福建) A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told He hurried to the booking office, only _ that all the tickets had been sold out. (06 陕西) A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told He was busy writing a story, only __ once in a while to smoke a cigarette. (08 辽宁) A. to stop B. stopping C. to have stopped D. having stopped -ing 作状语 4 种形式 （与谓语比时间先后） （和主语比主被动） ? We sat on the high hillock and listened to the old story. ? We sat on the high hillock, listening to the old story. ? As soon as we heard the news, all Chinese people got excited. ? Hearing the news, all Chinese people got excited. ? He had broken up with his gf. He dated with another girl. Having broken up with his gf, he dated with another girl. His gf dumped him. He dated with another girl.
Having been dumped by his gf, he dated with another girl. If you work hard, you’ll succeed. Working hard, you’ll succeed. If you look from the hill, you’ll find the city looks like an ant. Looking from the hill, you’ll find the city looks like an ant. _ the letter, he went out to post it. A. Writing B. Being written C. Having written D. Written _ full preparations, we decided to put off the meeting till next week. A. We had not made B. Having not made C. Not made D. Not having made done 作状语 ? 被动关系 ? 不强调时间先后 _ in a red skirt in the opening ceremony of the 2008 Olympic Games, the little girlLin Miaoke won the hearts of the people all over the world. A. Dressed B. Worn C. Dressing D. Wearing ? “穿戴”：wear/put on/dress wear 状态, “穿着”, put on 动作,“穿上”, dress 动作, “给…穿衣” dress sb. 状态, sb. be dressed in… ? “坐”：sit/seat sb. sit, I sit here. sb. be seated, I am seated here. sit=be seated When I arrived, I found the boy _. A. seating B. seated C. is seating D. sits I found the boy was seated I found the boy was sitting. ? 作定语完成式禁用 ? 作状语 to do 在句末不能用逗号隔开 only to 表出乎意料结果除外 ? I’m happy for your telling me the truth. ? I’m angry for your not telling me the truth. my/your... 人/物’s +ing The discovery of new evidence led to _. A. the thief having caught B. catch the thief C. the thief’s being caught D. the thief to be caught
__ the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. A. The president will attend B. The president to attend C. The president attended D. The president’s attending 独立主格结构 ? leaves falling here and there, I suddenly notice autumn is drawing upon. ? task completed, we’ll have a global traveling. The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent __ at the end of last March.(2007 山东) A. has been launched B. having been launched C. being launched D. to be launched The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons _ for the day. (07 重庆) A. finishing B. finished C. had finished D. were finished It is +adj.+ of sb. to do sth. for of, for 区别： 当 adj 是修饰 sb 时用 of 当 adj 是修饰 sth 时用 for ? It is very kind __ you to help us. ? It is difficult __ us to learn English well. 作主语视为单数 To go to bed early and to get up early _ a good habit for us. A are B is C was D were 眼见为实。 Seeing is believing. 对等原则，主语和表语形式一致 To see is to believe. Give me where to stand, and I’ll move the world.