Three forms of words
Blending ( 单词的混合 ） Clipping （ 缩略词 ） Acronymy （首字母缩合词）
nding is the formation of new words by combining parts of two words or a word plus a part of another word. Words formed in this way are called blends or pormanteau word .
For example, flush is the combination of fl and ush.
Blending is a very productive process and many coinages resulting from blending have become well-established. Moreover, they even serve as models for new formations. Hamburger is a popular fast food originating from German seaport Hamburg. Later people mistook it as a combination of ham + burger and coined such words by analogy(类推） as beefburger, cheeseburger, shrimpburger.
Four major groups of blends
1. head + tail
autocide from (automobile + suicide motel from ( motor + hotel ) chunnel from ( channel + tunne slurb from ( slum + suburb )
2. head + head
comsat from (communication + satellite ) telex from (teleprinter + exchange ) Amerind from ( American + Indian ) sitcom from ( situation + comedy )
3. head + word
medicare from ( medical + care ) Eurasia from ( Europe + Asia ) telequiz from ( telephone + quiz ) autocamp from ( automobile + camp )
4. word + tail
lunarnaut from ( lunar + astronaut ) bookmobile from ( book +automobile ) workfare from ( work + welfare ) tourmobile from ( tour + automobile )
The overwhelming majority of blends are nouns; very fewer are verbs and adjectives are even fewer. The few verbs are: telecast from (television +broadcast ) guestimate from ( guess + estimate ) breathalyse from (breath + analyse ).
The limited use of blends
Blends are mostly used in writing related to science and technology, and to newspapers and magazines. Though many of them have already achieved currency in English, they’re still considered to be slang and informal. Don’t use such words too often, particular in formal writing.
Another common way of making a word is to shorten a longer word by cutting a part off the original and using what remains instead. This is called clipping. In modern times, people tend to be economical in writing and speech to keep up the tempo of the new life.
To save time, one is likely to clip words frequently used .
In school e.g. economics → econ gymnastics → gym mathematics → math trigonometry → trig
In catering business
e.g. luncheon → lunch hamburger → burger coca cola → coke in other aspects e.g. aeroplane → plane earthquake → quake
There are four common types of clipping
1. Front clipping
earthquake → quake helicopter → copter telescope → scope telephone → phone
2. Back clipping
memorandum → memo ( 备忘录 ） discotheque → disco （迪斯科舞厅） stereophonic → stereo （立体声的） dormitory → dorm gentleman → gent fanatic → fan
3. Front and back clipping
influenza → flu refrigerator → fridge (注意变化形式）
4. Phrase clipping
public house → pub popular music → pop zoological → zoo
Tip for some exchanges of words
In some cases, clipping gives rise to alterations in spelling and pronunciations as indicated by fridge, in which the letter d Is inserted between I and g to conform the English ways of spelling and pronunciation. Here are more examples .
e.g. bicycle → bike microphone → mike coca cola → coke perambulator → pram television → telly This change in form and sound is possibly do to convenience and casualness in speech.
Acronymy is the process of forming new words By joining the initial letter of name of social and Political organizations or special noun phrases and technical terms. Words formed in this way are called initialisms or acronymy, depending on the pronunciation of the words.
Initialisms are words pronounced letter by Letter. In case like A.D. , B.C. and C.O.D ( cash on delivery ), the letters are separated by periods ( 句号）, but most of them have no periods between letters.
1. Letters represent full words
VOA → Voice of America BBC → British Broadcasting Corporation UFO → unidentified flying object c/o → care of p.c. → postcard
2.Letters represent constituents in a compound or just parts of a word
TV → television ID → identification or identity card TB → tuberculosis GHQ→ General Headquaters （总指挥 部）
Acronyms are words formed from initial letters but pronounced as a normal word. e.g. radio detecting and ranging → radar Women Appointed for Voluntary Emergency → WAVES More examples are as follows:
CORE →Congress of Racial Equality
NATO → the North Atlantic Treaty Organization AIDS → acquired immune deficiency syndrome BASIC → beginner’s all-purpose symbolic instruction code TEFL → teaching English as a foreign language
Some acronyms are formed with the initial letter of the first word plus the whole of the second
N-bomb → nuclear bomb D-notice → Defence Notice G-man → Government man D Day → decimalization day V-Day → Victory Day
Both initialisms and acronyms have become very popular since the Second World War and Thus extremely productive. This is justified by the number of such words collected in E.T. Growley’s Acronyms and Initialisms Dictionary. The 1st edition which appeared in 1961 contains 12,000 entries; the 2nd edition that came out in 1965 lists 45,000 entries; the 3rd edition which was published in 1970 collects 80,000 entries, Almost twice the number of the second edition.
With the advance of time, some of the words may fall out of use whereas by far a greater number of words will be added. Acronymy will undoubtedly remain an important contributor to contemporary English vocabulary.
★ Definition of back-formation
Back-formation is considered to be the opposite process of suffixation. As we know, suffixation is the formation of new words by adding suffixes to the bases, and back-formation is therefore the method of creating words by removing the
the supposed suffixes
This is because many of the removed suffixes are not true suffixes but inseparable parts of the words. Back-formation usually involves the following types of words.
1. Abstract nouns
★ ★ ★ ★
diagnose → donate → enthuse → emote →
diagnosis donation enthusiasm emotion
2. Human nouns
◆ loaf → loafer ◆ sculpt → sculptor ◆ burgle → burglar ◆ beg → beggar
3. Compound nouns and others ● eavesdrop →eavesdropping ● merrymake → merry-making ● babysit → babysitter
▲ drowse → drowsy
▲ laze → lazy ▲ frivol → frivolous
Words created through backformation are mostly verbs There are only a few that can be used as nouns or both nouns and verbs. e.g. gloomy (a) → gloom (n) greedy (a) → greed (n)
Stylistically, back-formed words are largely informal and some of them have not gained public acceptance. Therefore, they should be used with care.
That ‘s all