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Personality


Unit Two Personality

Part I Preparation

Personality
? In a general sense, the term personality
refers to all the personal and moral characteristics that dete

rmine the way a person thinks, feels, and acts in his or her social and personal relations.

Contributing factors
? Being inherited ? Being influenced by some outside world
factors.

Words that can be used to describe a person’s personality
? kind generous warm-hearted sympathetic
broad-minded ambitious aggressive shrewd smart selfish mean patient brave optimistic pessimistic timid shy enthusiastic honest modest easy-going moody tolerant friendly adventurous clever humorous intelligent amicable careful gentle lazy cruel sly cunning affectionate independent reserved sensitive frank thoughtful considerate acute tricky eloquent sociable talkative expressive

Salesmen or Saleswomen:
? ? ? ? ? ?
persuasive hard-working enthusiastic patient shrewd boastful,tricky

Teachers
? ? ? ? ? ?
knowledgeable patient, tolerant humorous warm-hearted enthusiastic considerate

Doctors
? ? ? ? ? ?
patient skillful brave, calm confident alert, careful sympathetic

Policemen
? ? ? ? ? ?
brave alert quick watchful responsible warm-hearted

Accountants
? ? ? ? ? ?
careful, cautious honest patient responsible accurate thoughtful

Lawyers
? Persuasive, ? ? ? ? ?
expressive eloquent serious aggressive shrewd logical, calm

Tour Guides
? ? ? ? ? ?
knowledgeable easy-going sociable humorous expressive energetic

Hosts or Hostesses of a Show
? ? ? ? ? ?
humorous adaptable emotional expressive optimistic calm

Reporters
? ? ? ? ? ?
hard-working punctual smart, energetic open-minded patient adventurous, calm

Secretaries
? ? ? ? ? ?
competent careful sensitive thoughtful tolerant cooperative

Spokesmen
? ? ? ? ? ?
eloquent diplomatic intelligent talkative resourceful careful

Conclusion
? Different jobs requires different personality. ? Jobs matching your personality can make
you more efficient and successful.

Part II Listening-centered Activities

Listening I.
Sensitive, go through, independent, appreciate, owe, caring, understanding, aware

Exercise I. Directions: listen to the passage and note down the four characteristics of the speaker. 1. He is a sensitive person. 2. He is a very independent person. 3. He would be a good friend. 4. He has a love for life and people.

Listening I.
Exercise II. Directions: listen again and complete with details of the four characteristics. ? I feel everyone should be able to feel or understand what others are going through. But if you feel unhappy for people you don’t know, or for a movie that is not real, then I think that’s a little too sensitive. ? I must do things for myself. I don’t like people doing things for me not because I don’t appreciate it, but because I don’t like to feel that I owe anyone anything. ? I’m caring and understanding. People trust me with their secrets. If you need my help, all you have to do is ask. ? I find fun in almost everything I do. I love to watch people, talk to them, and be around them. I love learning and being aware of everything and everyone around me.

Listening II
Angela, Korea, immigrate, definitely, Korean, Sun-Kyung, complicated, bow Exercise I. Directions: listen to the dialogue and decide whether the following statements are true or false. Write “T” for true and “F” for false. 1. Angela immigrated from Canada to Korea. F 2. Angela is about 20 years old now. F 3. Angela had two different personalities, one at school and one at home. T 4. Sun-Kyung is Angela’s girlfriend at school. F 5. Angela agrees that culture affects personality. T

Listening II Exercise II. Directions: Listen to the dialogue again and fill in the table.
In the Canadian Culture Personal identity Greeting I was known as Angela to the outside world. I would wave hello to my teaches. I was expected to like straight in the eyes of my teachers and to talk openly with them. In the Korean Culture I was known as Sun-Kyung at home. I would bow to my parents’ Korean friends when they visited our home. I was expected to look at my feet and to be shy and silent.

Expected manner

Part III Reading-centered Activities

Cultural Background Knowledge
“Know thyself,” advised an inscription on the ancient Temple of Apollo at Delphi. But what is it that you know when you k know yourself? How do you gain this knowledge, and what should you do with it? Such questions are at the core of personality psychology, which explores both self-knowledge and knowledge of others. some personality psychologists compare everyday life to a play in which we put on different faces or play different roles for different audiences. In fact, the word personality comes form the Latin root persona, meaning “mask”. The impression we make on others ---or the mask we present to the world----determines how people feel about us. our everyday “performances” have a profound effects on our lives, so it pays to understand how others see us. But are the acts are put on for others an indication of who we really are? Do our outward behaviors reflect out true personality? A complete picture of personality includes a look at thoughts and feelings, the unconscious, genetics, and society.

In-class Reading

Cultural background knowledge.
“know thyself,” advised an inscription on the ancient Temple of Apollo at Delphi. But what is it that you know when you know yourself? How do you gain this knowledge, and what should you do with it? Such questions are at the core of personality psychology, which explores both self-knowledge and knowledge of others. Some personality psychologists compare everyday life to a play in which we put on different faces or platy different roles for different audiences. In fact, the word personality comes from the Latin root persona, meaning “mask”. The impression we make on others----on the mask we present to the world---determines how people feel about us. Our everyday “performances” have a profound effect on our lives, so it pays to understand how others see us. But are the acts are put on for others an indication of who we really are? Do our outward behaviors reflect our true personality? A complete picture of personality includes a look at thoughts and feelings, the unconscious, genetics, and society.

Vocabulary

Acquaintance. n.
A person whom one knows, esp. Through work or business, but who may not be a friend.

? He has many acquaintances/ he has a wide
acquaintance. ? We are only acquaintances. ? Acquaint v. to make familiar with ? Make sb’s acquaintance/ make the acquaintance of sb.

Assurance n.

? 1) Strong belief in one’s own ability and power.
The teacher lacked assurance in front of his class. ? 2) A trustworthy statement; promise He gave me his assurance that he would come. ? Assure v. Self-assurance. Assured a.

Contrast n.
comparison of unlike objects, esp. to show differences
? ? ? ? ? ?
The contrast of light and shade is important in photography. Contrast v. contrastive adj. In contrast with/to 于…成对比; by contrast 对比之下 His white hair was in sharp contrast to his dark skin. In contrast with her sister, she is very tall. By contrast, she was much more outspoken.

Dwell (dwelt or dwelled)

? 1) Live (formal), reside
Those two young men are dwelling with us. ? 2) Think, speak or write at length about She dwells too much upon her past. ? Dwell on/upon ? He did not dwell on the details of the matter

Excessively adv.
Much more than what is normal or necessary

? She takes an excessive interest in clothes. ? Excess n. Exceed v.

Inferior a.
lower in position, not good or less good in quality or value.

? ? ? ?

An inferior court of law His work is inferior to mine. Hi is so clever, he makes me feel inferior. Be inferior to Women are not inferior to men. ? Superior

Overcome v. (overcame, overcome)
defeat, to fight successfully against; take control of

? ? ? ?

Overcome the enemy Overcome a bad habit. Over=conquer Over=above, across, beyond. Overburden, overeat, overestimate, oversleep, overweight, overdo.

Profound a.
? 1) Deep, far blow the surface.
Strange creatures lie in the profound depth of the ocean. ? 2) Deep, complete, very strongly felt. A profound sleep, a profound sigh. There was a profound silence in the empty church. ? 3) Having, showing, or using thorough knowledge and deep understanding. He is a profound thinker; he has a profound mind.

Rejection n.

? Refusing, abandoning. ? I have had so many rejections that I have
stopped offering to help her. ? He keeps applying for jobs but constant rejections have discouraged him. ? reject

Participate in:

take part in

? Our teacher encouraged us to participate in
class discussion.

Live up to: 1) 达到预期标准,遵守, 实践(诺言,原则等). 2) 符合,不辜负(期望)

? You should live up to your promise. ? The new house did not live up to our
expectations. ? He will live up to what his parents expect of him.

Lack of

? This young man displayed a complete lack
of courtesy. ? The lack of nay answer from him gave her the answer. ? Fro lack of evidence, the prisoner was released.

Concentrate on/upon

? He concentrated on law studies. ? You will solve the problem if you
concentrate upon it.

Associate with

? We associate Egypt with the Nile. ? She associated herself with her father in
banking. ? Don’t associate with dishonest boys.

Set aside

? Try and set aside time to do some mending
jobs. ? He set all our objections aside. ? You must set some money aside for rainy days.

Come along

? Take every chance that comes along. ? Chances are always coming. The key point
is whether you are ready or not.

Difficult Sentences

All kinds of people describe themselves shy: short, tall, dull, intelligent, young, old, slim, overweight. (L. 1)
Describe as: 把…描述成, 说成. Other phrases of the same structure appeared in this text are: View….as Interpret…..as Accept….as Label….as All the people, no matter they are short or tall, dull or intelligent, young or old, slim or overweight, say themselves to be shy. 各种人, 高的, 矮的, 愚笨的, 聪明的, 年轻的,年老的,苗条的,过胖的, 都把自己描述成羞怯的.

They also find it difficult to be pleased by compliment, because they believe they are unworthy of praise. (L. 19)
? Worthy of: not deserving. ? She felt she was unworthy of the honor. ? Having low self-esteem, shy people also find that it is difficult to
accept other people’s praise and become happy, because they think they do not deserve it even if they really work well. ? 他们也发现很难因别人的赞美而高兴,因为他们认为自己不值得 赞扬.

It is clear that, while self-awareness is a healthy quality, overdoing it is detrimental, or harmful.
? While, here it means 虽然, 尽管 ? While respected, he is not liked. ? It is obvious that, although self-awareness is a good quality,
excessive self-awareness does more harm than good. ? 很明显, 尽管自我意识是一种健康的品质, 过分的自我意识 却是有害的.

Don’t feel that you must converse with everyone. (L.37)
? Converse with sb. (about/on sthg): (formal) talk with ? After a year studying at university I feel able to converse
with everyone about anything ? Don’t’ think it is necessary for you to talk with everyone. ? 不要认为你必须和每个人交谈.

Very often a disappointment becomes a turning point for a wonderful experience to come along. (L.52)
? Turning point: a point in time at which a very important change ? ? ? ?
takes place. A turning point in our country’s industrial development. There was a turning point in the negotiation yesterday. Usually a failure could be a sign indicating your bad luck has gone and a good experience will appear. 挫折往往会成为一个转机,随之而来的将是一段美妙的经历.

People who hurt you do not have your best interest at heart. (L.57)
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Have sthg. At heart: deeply interested in, care about. He has his parents’ health at heart. Best: the most Serve the best interests of the people. Devote life’s best energies to education. People who hurt you do not care about your interests at all. 伤害你的人并不关心你的利益.

…eventually you will circulate in large groups with

skill and self-assurance. (L.62)

? Circulate v. pass from one place, person, etc. to another. ? The host and hostess circulated among their guests. ? Finally, you will be self-confident and skillful in dealing
with all kinds of people in large groups.

An Abstract of the text
in general, the way people think about themselves has a profound effect on all areas of their lives. Self-confident people participate in life enthusiastically and spontaneously, while shy people are likely to be passive and easily influenced by others. Shyness is the cause of much unhappiness for many people. However, people can overcome shyness with determined and patient effort in building self-confidence. The author puts forward 10 tips of great help for you.

After-class Reading

You Are What You Think

Cultural background knowledge
The science of psychology was developed by doctors who wanted to treat the causes of mental illness. It was not long before people realized that the study of the mind could also be used to help healthy brains work better. This process could ten be applied to business as far back as the 1920s, people who wanted to succeed were urged to “think and grow rich”. Another technique was to say “every day and in every was I will become better and better” before going to bad at night.

Vocabularies

Acquire v. gain sth. by one’s ability, efforts
? She has acquired a good command of English. ? With the money earned this summer, we are able to
acquire a computer. ? Acquired a. Acquisition n.

Assume v. accept sth. as true before there is proof
? We cannot assume anything in this case. ? We must assume him to be innocent until he is proved
guilty. ? Consume, presume, resume, assumption.

Justify v. show that (sb./sth) is right, reasonable or just
? Improved production justifies an increase in
wages. ? You state of anxiety does not justify your being so rude to me. ? Just=right. Justice, injustice. Unjust.

Hold back 1) 阻止,阻拦. 2) 抑制, 隐瞒

? ? ? ?

The police held back the crowd. He felt that he was held back from further promotion. She could not hold back her tears. He was holding something back from me.

Keep track of
1) 跟上….的发展 2) 保持联系 [反]lose track of
? We should read newspapers every day to keep track of
current events. ? It is hard to keep track of all one’s old school friends. ? He keeps track of the latest achievements of linguistics through Internet.

Due to
1) 归功于,应归咎于 2) 因为,由于
? The discovery of the new law is due to Newton. ? The suffering of the people were due entirely to the
old government. ? The name was omitted due to oversight. ? His illness was due to bad food.

Difficult sentences

“Your abilities count…but the belief that you can succeed affects whether or not you will” (L.10)
? ? ? ? ?
Count v. to have value, force, or importance. Quality is what counts most. His opinions don’t count. Count for little/nothing: to be of little worth or importance. Your abilities are of importance, but your belief of tour success will have a great effect on your final result. In other words, if you firmly believe that you will succeed, more often than not, you are likely to achieve your desired goals. ? 你的能力固然重要 但你对成功的信念会影响你成功与否 你的能力固然重要,但你对成功的信念会影响你成功与否 但你对成功的信念会影响你成功与否.

When things go right, the optimist takes credit while the pessimist thinks success is due to luck. (L.27)
? Take credit (to oneself for sth.) 为某事而居功 为某事而居功. ? The engineer took credit to himself for the innovation though it is
due to collective efforts. ? I cannot take any credit; the others did all the work. ? When everything is developing as expected, the optimist believes that he has done a good job, while the pessimist only consider success is because of good luck instead of his won abilities. ? 当一切一帆风顺时 乐观的人把功劳归于自己 而悲观的人认为成 当一切一帆风顺时, 乐观的人把功劳归于自己, 功是由于运气. 功是由于运气

Let’s say something has gone wrong at work. (L.66)
? ? ? ? ? ?
Say v.假定 假设 比方说 假定,假设 比方说, 假定 假设,比方说 Let’s say that he is lying. Any country, let us say Sweden, might do the same. Well, say it were true, what then? He is, I’d say, forty. Suppose there is something wrong at work.

An abstract of the text
More than 100 studies suggest that optimism can help you to be happier, healthier, and more successful. In contrast, pessimism leads to hopelessness, sickness and failure, and is linked to depression, loneliness and painful shyness. The reason is that optimist and pessimists deal with the same challenges and disappointments in very different ways. Most people are a mix of optimism and pessimism, but are inclined in one direction or the other. Though pessimism is a hard habit to break, it can be overcome. A psychologist gives some advice for you to follow. In sum, what you expect from the world is what you are likely to get.

Two Ways of Looking at Life

Cultural Background Knowledge
You go red with anger, green with envy, and white with fright. If you’re unhappy you’re blue, and if you’re a coward, you are yellow. Whatever your feelings are you can find a color to describe them. Both colors not only describe feelings, they can also have a strong effect upon us. Everybody has noticed how you feeling in a blue room than a red room even though the rooms are at the same temperature. So colors can affect our moods. And it is also possible that our own choice of a favorite color can tell us something about ourselves. Try color quiz and see if tour favorite color tells you something about yourself.

1. Blue. The color of calm seas and clear skies. You like peace and quiet and like to feel you belong to a group of trusted friends. 2. Red It makes bulls charge and makes your blood pressure go up. You are fiercely competitive, very strong-minded and full of energy. 3. Yellow. It’s the color of brightness and light. But if this is your first choice, then you feel you need a change, and have a strong need for a bright new future. 4. Green. If green is your favorite color, you are strong-minded and determined. You do not wish to change, but you certainly wish to succeed and what’s more, you want other people to see you are successful

5. Purple It is a mixture of red and blue, and is a compromise between peaceful blue and aggressive red. You are romantic and tender and can please others. 6. Brown It is a combination of yellow and red. You like to take things easy and you enjoy all the comforts of home. 7. Grey It is halfway between white and black. This is negative color. If you chose grey, you want a very quiet life, you’re a “loner” and don’t want to join in many activities. 8. Black It is a negative color, in fact the opposite of color itself. Your choice of black shows you find life at the moment rather unpleasant. But your choice also shows that you are protesting strongly against your situation. So you are not a negative person.

Vocabularies

Attach v.
1. To fix, fasten, join e.g. Attach a label to each piece of luggage. e.g. Attached (to this letter), you will find…随函附上…, 请查收 2. Join sb./sthg. As a companion or member. e.g. I attached myself to a group of tourists entering the museum. Attached adj. 附加的,依恋的. Attach sthg to sthg: connect sthg with sthg; attribute sthg to sthg. 使…相 关联, 把…归于 e.g. Do you attach any importance to what he said? e.g. Different people attach different meaning to words.

Confine v.
1) Keep in a restricted space. e.g. After her operation, she was confined to bed for a week. 2) Restrict or keep sb./ sthg. Within certain limits.限制于…. 的范围内. e.g. Please confine your remarks to the subject we’re talking about. Confinement n. being confined, imprisonment. Confine sb. in/ to sthg.

Endure v.
1) (formal) to last e.g. He is great writer, and his books will endure for ever. 2) To bear (pain, suffering, etc) e.g. Be quiet! I can’t endure that noise a moment longer. Enduring: lasting.

Frown
1) n. 皱眉, 不悦 e.g. The schoolgirl looked at her examination paper with a frown. 2) v. 皱眉,颦额, 表示不悦. e.g. What’s wrong? Why are you frowning? Frown on/upon sthg: disapprove of sthg. e.g. Mary wanted to go to Europe by herself, but her parents frowned on the idea.

Overflow v.
1) Flow over the edges of limits of sthg. e.g. The river overflowed (its banks) 2) Filled with, be full of e.g. Her heart is overflowing with gratitude. e.g. He overflowed with learning.

Undermine v.
1. To wear away the earth beneath, removing support (破坏地 基) 损坏 e.g. The house is unsafe since the foundation were undermined by floods. 2. To weaken or destroy by stages. e.g. Many severe colds undermined the old man’s health.

Apt to. 易于…., 有….的倾向
e.g. A careless person is apt to make mistakes. e.g. This kind of shoe is apt to slip on wet ground.

Be prone to sth./to do sthg. 易于…….., 有….的倾向
e.g. He is prone to colds, especially in winter. e.g. One is more prone to make mistakes when one is tried.

Cheer up
e.g. Cheer up! The news isn’t that bad. e.g. He cheered up t once when I promised to help him. e.g. The letter cheered him up.

In the meantime
e.g. The next program starts in five minutes; in the meantime, here’s some music. e.g. I’ll call you on Sunday, but in the meantime say nothing.

Difficult sentences

He images only the worst: no hearing, no development of language his beautiful child cut off form society, locked in a soundless world. (L.40) He images only the worst thing. If his beautiful daughter has no hearing, she can not learn language. Consequently, she will be kept lonely in a silent world without any association with the outside world. 他想象的尽是最糟糕的事:没有听觉,就不能学习语言,他 美丽的孩子就要与社会隔绝开来,就要被封闭在一个无声 的世界里.

She, on the other hand, sees bad events in their least threatening light. (L.53)
In a light: from point of view. e.g. The pessimists only see things in a bad light. On the other hand, she doesn’t think much of bad events and views it a slight threaten. 相反,她从事物最不可怕的角度来审视坏事.

After a reversal, she bounces back quickly, and finds all her energy again. (L. 54)
Bounce back: recover well after a setback. e.g. She’s had many misfortunes in her life but she always bounces back. e.g. Share prices bounced back this morning. She recovers quickly after a setback and becomes as energetic as before. 遭受挫折之后,她迅速恢复原状,精力充沛.

The optimists, who are confronted with the same hard knocks of this world, think about misfortune in the opposite way. (L.60)
Confront with: bring face to face e.g. The prisoner was confronted with his accusers. e.g. When confronted with the evidence of his guilt, he confessed at once. knock n. bad luck, setback. e.g. He’s taken/ had quite a few knocks lately. When the optimists are faced with the same misfortune, they think about it in a way opposite to that of the pessimists. 乐观的人面对同样的不幸时, 他们的态度贺悲观者相反.

Twenty five years of study has convinced me that if we habitually believe, as does the pessimist, that misfortune is our fault, is enduring, and will undermine everything we do, more of it will happen to us than if we believe otherwise. (L.72) Twenty five years of study has convinced me that if we are pessimistic and have formed a habit to believe that misfortune is out fault, is lasting and will damage everything we do, much misfortune will happen to us. On the contrary, if we do not believe it, we might have less misfortune. 25年的研究使我相信如果我们像悲观者那样相信不幸是 我们的过错,是持久的, 有害于我们所作的每一件事情,那 么这样的不幸发生在我们身上的机会就会比我们不相信 它时更多.

An Abstract of the Text
one’s attitude strongly reflects one’s outlook on life. Some people see things pessimistically while others optimistically. In the example the author cited, the couple have different attitudes to their newborn child, showing what the two types of people, pessimists and optimists, are like. Years of study has suggested that the two different ways of looking at the world may have different effect on our lives. The pessimists give up more easily and get depressed more often. They will accomplish less than their potential and will even get physically sick more often. In contrast, the optimists perceive defeat as a challenge and seldom lose heart. They are more apt to be promoted. Their health is usually good and they even have long life spans. So, be an optimist and you will find a splendid world around you.


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