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外研版高中英语练习2.4


Ⅰ.单项填空
1.(2012·湖南岳阳质量检测二, 23) the problem for many years, he announced that we are now facing the biggest environmental problem of our time. A.Having observed B.Observing C.To have obser

ved D.Observed 解析: observe 在此句中作状语,意为“观察”,与主语 he 是主动关系,且该状语发生在谓语动词 announced 之前, 故用 having observed 表示“主动和完成”。 答案: A 2.(2012·安徽合肥第三次质量检测, 27)The parking rules in public places should be strictly, otherwise you will get a ticket. A.realized B.recognized C.consulted D.observed 解析: 句意是:公共场合停车应当严格遵守规定,要不然的话,你会接到罚单的。realize“意识到”;recognize“认出; 承认”;consult“向……请教”;observe“观察;遵守”。 答案: D 3.(2012·山西第四次四校联考, 30)Vitamin C helps our bodies make a special chemical, which affects our brains, making us feel happy. A.in all B.in turn C.in advance D.in short 解析: 句意是:维生素 C 有助于身体产出一种特别的化学物质,这种化学物质反过来影响我们的大脑,使得我们 觉得愉快。in all“总共”;in turn“反过来”;in advance“提前”;in short“简言之”。 答案: B 4.(2012·江西师大附中 5 月模拟, 21)What Smith lacked in experience, he for in enthusiasm. A.made out B.made into C.made up D.made off 解析: 句意是:史密斯在经验方面所缺乏的,他在热情方面弥补过来了。make out“理解;辨认出”;make into“制 成”;make up“弥补”;make off“离开;逃走”。 答案: C 5.(2012·江西重点中学协作体第三次联考, 25) to be old enough to live alone, Mary was sent abroad to study by her parents. A.Considered B.To consider C.Considering D.Being considered 解析: consider 作状语,意为“认为是”,与主语 Mary 之间是被动关系,且发生在谓语之前,故用过去分词形式。 being considered“正在被考虑”,在时间上不对。 答案: A 6.(2012·上海十三校第二次联考, 37)I heard that you really had a wonderful time at John?s birthday party, ? A.didn?t I B.didn?t you C.hadn?t you D.did I 解析: 主句 I heard that...要求反意疑问句与宾语从句中的主语和谓语保持一致,即:didn?t you。 答案: B 7. at improving the taste of life, this fashion manual has been popular with youngsters. A.Aimed B.Aiming C.Having been aimed D.To be aimed 解析: 句意是:这本时尚小册子旨在改进生活的品味,所以很受年轻人的欢迎。aim 与主语 this fashion manual 之间是被动关系,所以要用过去分词作原因状语。 答案: A 8.The sports meet will be till next week because of the bad weather. A.put off B.put away C.put up D.put down 解析: 句意:“因为天气不好,运动会将被 到下一周。”应该用 put off 表示“推迟到”。put away“存放;收拾 起来”;put up“举起;建起;支起”;put down“控制;记下;放下”。 答案: A 9.(2011·云南昆明检测,2)The door may fall down any time.We will have it A.fixed B.built .

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C.made D.painted 解析: 句意是:门随时都可能塌下来,我们要让人修理一下。fix “修补”;build“建造”;make“使;制造”;paint“粉刷; 画”。 答案: A 10.(2011·安徽安庆二模,25)Though it is 30 years we last met,I still remember the scene we got separated on a rainy day. A.since;where B.before;which C.since;when D.before;where 解析: 根据 It is+30 years(时间段)可知,后面用 since,表示“自从我们上一次见面以来已有 30 年了。”;scene 作先 行词时,定语从句的引导词作状语应用 where。 答案: A 11.(2012·湖南浏阳一中月考,20)With so many people around her,the girl felt very nervous and grasped her mother?s hand tightly. A.standing B.having stood C.stood D.stand 解析: “with so many people around her”一般认为是“with+宾语+宾补”,我们需要填入的是宾补,stand 与 宾语 people 是主动关系,故用现在分词形式。having stood 表示已完成的动作,不合题意。 答案: A 12.(2011·浙江卷,2)Experts think that recently discovered painting may be Picasso. A.the;/ B.a;the C.a;/ D.the;a 解析: 此题考查冠词。句意是;专家们认为,这幅最近发现的绘画作品可能是毕加索的一幅作品。第一个空用 定冠词特指是最近发现的那一幅;第二个空用 a Picasso 表示“一幅毕加索的作品”,再如:a Beethoven (一首贝多芬 的乐曲)。 答案: D 13.(2011·浙江绍兴质量调测,18)—Which of the ways shall I take to the museum? — way as you please.All seem to be equal in distance. A.None B.Either C.Neither D.Any 解析: 答句后半句的意思是“所有的路看起来距离都一样”,故用 any 表示“任何一条道路都可以。” 答案: D 14.We still remember once round the famous tower when we were young. A.having taken B.to be taken C.to have taken D.having been taken 解析: 这是说以前做过的事情现在还记得,故用动名词形式,由于是“被带往”,故用其被动形式。 答案: D 15.—Why have you decided to stop your present job? —I can?t working as long as 10 hours a day. A.consider B.support C.afford D.stand 解析: 答句句意是:我受不了一天长达十个小时的工作。 答案: D

Ⅱ.阅读理解
A The planet that killed Pluto

There used to be nine planets in our solar system.In 2006 that number became eight,when Pluto (冥王星)was reclassified as a dwarf planet (矮行星). In fact,the category of “dwarf planet” didn?t exist until the discovery of Eris (阋神星),a large object in the outer solar system,in 2005.This discovery was part of the reason for creating the new category—and for downgrading Pluto. For years,astronomers had been trying to measure the size of Eris but this was proving very difficult because of its small size and the fact that it is about three times further away from the sun than Pluto.

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So astronomers waited for what is known as a stellar occultation (恒星掩星),when an object crosses the path of a star,casting a shadow over the Earth.The amount of starlight blocked by the object allows scientists to calculate the object?s size. Finally,in November 2010,Eris passed in front of a star and cast a shadow over the Earth.This provided astronomers with the clearest view of Eris since it was first identified. The results were published in the journal Nature on October 27.Eris is nearly the same size as Pluto,about 2,326 kilometers in diameter (直径).Besides its size,astronomers were also able to figure out a lot of other facts about Eris from last year?s observations.These included its highly reflective ,icy surface,its mass,and its surface temperature. The occultation of Eris doesn?t happen very often and is difficult to see.Therefore,scientists must be in the right place at exactly the right time.“Observing occultations(掩星现象)by the tiny bodies beyond Neptune (海王星)in the solar system requires great precision and very careful planning.Th is is the best way to measure Eris? size,” explained Bruno Sicardy,the team?s lead astronomer.Sicardy is a planetary scientist at Pierre and Marie Curie University and Observatory in Paris. To observe the occultation,Sicardy?s team asked telescope operators at 26 different sites around the world to make observations.Only three telescopes at two of those sites,both in Chile,managed to catch the event. 【文篇导读】 这是一篇科普报道,主要介绍了科学家发现和测量阋神星的过程。 1.What is the main topic of the article? A.The characteristics of dwarf planets. B.The connection between Eris and Pluto. C.Why Pluto was reclassified as a dwarf planet. D.How astronomers measured the size of Eris. 解析: 主旨归纳题。本文主要讲述了阋神星的发现以及天文学家如何测量到它的大小,所以选 D 项。 答案: D 2.What makes it hard for astronomers to measure the size of Eris? A.Eris? big size. B.Eris? distance from the sun. C.Eris? highly reflective surface. D.The fact that Eris never passes the Earth. 解析: 细节信息题。由第三段的“this was proving very difficult because of its small size and the fact that it is about three times further away from the sun than Pluto”可知 B 项正确。 答案: B 3.Why is a stellar occultation important for astronomers? A.It can absorb starlight when it crosses the path of a star. B.It can record an object?s orbit when it travels into outer space. C.It allows astronomers to calculate its size by the amount of starlight it blocks. D.It enables people across the world to observe an object using just a telescope. 解析: 细节信息题。由第四段“The amount of starlight blocked by the object allows scientists to calculate the object?s size.”可知 C 项正确。 答案: C 4.Which of the following statements about Eris is TRUE according to the article? A.It was discovered in the outer Solar System by astronomers in 2006. B.Its discovery led to the creation of a new class of dwarf planets. C.It is considered to be the biggest dwarf planet,about twice the size of Pluto. D.Chile is regarded as the best place from which to make detailed observations of Eris. 解析: 细节信息题。由第二段第一句“In fact,the category of ?dwarf planet? didn?t exist until the discovery of Eris (阋神星),a large object in the outer solar system,in 2005.”可知 B 项正确,A 项的 2006 不对。由第六段第一句“The results were published in the journal Nature on October 27.Eris is nearly the same size as Pluto,about 2,326 kilometers in diameter (直径).”可知 C 项不对;文中提到了上次观测时,在智利的两个位置观测到了掩星现象,但这 并不等同于说每次智利都是观察阋神星的最佳位置,所以 D 项不对。 答案: B B We all know that money can?t buy happiness ,but many times we act as if we?d be happier with a bit more money.We are conditioned to want to be rich (when we know the rich aren?t happy either);we are trained to want the latest gadget or style that television tells us to want;we want to earn more money because then we?ll have the good life. But none of that will bring us happiness.No matter how much we earn,no matter how much we have in the bank,no matter how nice our clothing or cars or toys,none of it will make us happier.And the sad thing is that it could take us decades of pursuing wealth and luxury items before we realize this. So what will bring us happiness?Luckily,it?s three things that don?t cost a thing.These three things have been proven by research-surveys of hundreds of thousands of people about what they have,what their lives are like,and how happy they are.

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Here they are,the Three Secrets to Happiness: 1.Good relationships.We have a human need to be close,to be intimate,with other human beings.Having good,supportive friendships,a strong marriage or close and loving relationships with our family members will make us much more likely to be happy. Action steps:Take time,today,to spend time with your loved ones,to tell them what they mean to you,to listen to them,and develop your relationship with them. 2.Positive thinking.I?m obviously a big proponent of positive thinking as the best way to achieve your goals ,but it turns out that it can lead to happiness too.Optimism and self-esteem are some of the best indicators of people who lead happy lives.Happy people feel empowered,in control of their lives,and have a positive outlook on life. Action steps:Make positive thinking a habit.In fact,this should be one of the first habits you develop.Get into the habit of squashing all negative thoughts and replacing them with positive ones.Instead of “I can?t” think “I can”.It may sound silly,but it has worked for me,every time. 3.Flow.This is a popular concept on the Internet these days—the state we enter when we are completely focused on the work or task before us.We are so buried in our task that we lose track of time.Having work and leisure that gets you in this state of flow will almost undoubtedly lead to happiness. People find greatest enjoyment not when they?re passively mindless ,but when they?re absorbed in a mindful challenge. Action steps:Find work that you?re passionate about.Seriously—this is an extremely important step.Find hobbies that you?re passionate about.Turn off the TV—this is the opposite of flow—and get outside and do something that truly engages you. You?ve been given the Three Secrets to Happiness.Don?t waste them! 【文篇导读】 本文是一篇议论文。作者阐述了金钱和财富不会带来幸福的观点,同时就如何得到幸福这个 问题给我们提出了三个秘诀。 5.Which of the following is the most proper title of this passage? A.The secrets to happiness B.What is happiness? C.Money vs Happiness D.Who are happy? 解析: 主旨归纳题。本文第三段中的第一句“So what will bring us happiness?”已点明了主题,最后一段中的 “You?ve been given the Three Secrets to Happiness.”又归纳了这个主题。 答案: A 6.The writer expresses his attitude over money and wealth. A.negative B.supportive C.objective D.respective 解析: 作者态度推断题。根据第一段和第二段的内容可知,作者认为金钱和财富不会给我们带来幸福,更糟糕 的是,追求金钱和财富几十年后才认识到这一点。A 项“否定的”;B 项“支持的”;C 项“客观的”;D 项“尊敬的”。 答案: A 7.Which of the following doesn?t belong to the advice given by the writer? A.Watching TV. B.Having good relationship with others. C.Being engaged in what you are interested in. D.Being optimistic about your life 解析: 细节理解题。B、C 和 D 项与作者给出的三个忠告正好相符,A 项是作者反对的。 答案: A 8.The underlined word “ squashing” can be replaced by . A.removing B.scolding C.repairing D.reducing 解析: 词义猜测题。根据这一段的意思可知,作者劝我们养成积极思考的习惯,摒弃消极的态度,故 squashing 的 意思应该是“removing”。 答案: A 【挑战长难句】 1.And the sad thing is that it could take us decades of pursuing wealth and luxury items before we realize this. 『语句结构』 that it could take us decades of pursuing wealth and luxury items before we realize this 是表语从句,其中还套有 一个 before we realize this 时间状语从句。这个表语从句使用了“it takes sb.+时间”句式。 『语句翻译』 令人感到伤心的是,我们追逐了财富和奢侈几十年以后才认识到这个真相。

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2.Having good,supportive friendships,a strong marriage or close and loving relationships with our family members will make us much more likely to be happy. 『语句结构』 Having good,supportive friendships,a strong marriage or close and loving relationships with our family members 是动名词短语,作主语。 『语句翻译』 拥有美好的、支持性的友谊,有一个稳固的婚姻关系或者与家人有密切、忠诚的关系,这会使得我们更有可 能幸福。 【写作素材集锦】 『高级词汇』 act as if 表现得好像是…… be conditioned to do 习惯于做某事 self-esteem 自尊 be buried in 埋头于做某事 lose track of 失去了……的踪迹 be absorbed in 专心做某事 『精彩语句』 1.No matter how much we earn,no matter how much we have in the bank,no matter how nice our clothing or cars or toys,none of it will make us happier.不管我们挣多少钱,不管我们在银行存有多少钱,不管我们的穿着、汽车或 者玩具有多么漂亮,它们都不能使我们更加幸福。该句中的三个 no matter how...是让步状语从句,形成排比句, 使表述遒劲有力。 2.Luckily,it?s three things that don?t cost a thing.幸运的是,正是这三件事情,不会让你花一分钱。这是一个 it is...that...强调句式,用来突出所讲之事的重要性。

Ⅲ.补全对话
(2012·四川卷) —What seems to be the problem? — 1 —How long have you been like this? —Since Saturday night. — 2 —Yes,I also feel lightheaded. —Can you think of anything you ate Saturday that might have caused it? —All I can think of is the fish I had.It didn?t taste quite right. — 3 Now I?ll give you some medicine.Take it and you should be feeling better soon. — 4 —I also suggest that you follow a special diet. — 5 —You should stick to eating lighter foods. A.What?s that? B.That might be it. C.Thank you,doctor. D.Any other problems? E.I have a running nose. F.Have you seen a doctor? G.I have a terrible stomachache. 答案: 1~5 GDBCA

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