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情态动词


情态动词
一. 情态动词的概述 情态动词表示说话人的语气和情态,如需要,可能,允许,愿意等,有一定 词义, 但不完整, 必须和动词原形一起构成谓语。 常用情态动词有: can , could , may , might , must , will , would , shall , should , need , have to , had better . 二. 情态

动词的特征。 1.情态动词不能单独作谓语,后接动词原形一起构成谓语。 He may be the most beautiful girl in our school . 2.情态动词除 have to 外,没有人称与数的变化。 I can swim well . He can swim well . we must work hard . He must work hard . I have to walk to school . He has to walk to school . He can swim well .

3.情态动词一般有现在时和过去时两种,除 must 外 can----could need----needed may----might will----would shall----should

have to----had to 但这些过去式并不都代表过去, 有的只表

示委婉的语气, 如:Could you tell me where the restrooms are ? / Could I use your car ? Would / Will you please open the door ? / You might be right .

4.情态动词的的否定句式,疑问句式 情态动词起助动词的作用,否定句式直接在情态动词后加 not , 疑问句式将 情 态 动 词 提 前 , can----can’t must----mustn’t should---shouldn’t could----couldn’t might----mightn’t may----mayn’t will----won’t

would---- wouldn’t need---- needn’t ,但 have to 除外, 它的否定句式和疑问句 式要借助 don’t have to , doesn’t have to , didn’t have to ,do , does , did . 三.情态动词的用法

can 和 could 的用法 (一) . ①表能力, could 是 can 的过去式, 如: My mother can use the computer now , but she could not use it three years ago . ②表请求, can 和 could 没有时

间上的差别,只是 could 的语气较委婉客气些,但回答时均用 can 回答,如: ---Could I borrow your pen ? ----Yes , you can / Of course / sure ③表许可,Can I go now ? / ----Sorry /

No , you can’t / I am afraid not .

④表推测,后可

用进行时或完成时,多用于疑问句和否定句中,用于疑问句中(can)表“可 能” , 用于否定句中 (can’t) 表十分否定的推测 “不可能” , 如: Who can the man under the tree be ? / The boy can’t be Jim. He has gone to China and hasn’t

come back . He can’t be reading books , he doesn’t like studying at all . / He can’t have gone there alone . (二). can 和 be able to 的用法比较 ① 表能力时,两者同义,如:I can play the guitar = I am able to play the guitar . / He can swim = He is able to swim . ② can 只有现在时和过去时两种时态, 但 be able to 适用于各种时态,除了现在时和过去时,还可用于将来时,完成 时等, 如: He will be able to tell you the news soon . my party ? Will you be able to come to

He hasn’t been able to finish his work in time .

must 和 have to 的用法 (一). ① 表必须时,must 表说话人的主观看法;have to 表客观需求,如:I don’t want to stay here any longer , I must leave now . / It is too late , I have to leave now . I am really tired , but there are no buses now ,I have to walk to school . ② must 只有现在时,而 have to 有过去时或将来时 (二). have to 的疑问句式和否定句式通常借助 do , does , did 来完成, 如:I

have to leave now . ----- Do you have to leave now ? ----- I don’t have to leave now . He had to walk to school yesterday .----- Did he have to walk to school

yesterday ? -----He didn’t have to walk to school yesterday . (三). ① must 的否定形式及答语,如:----Must I finish my homework now ? -----Yes , you must / No , you needn’t ( don’t have to ) . ② must 的否定形式 must not = mustn’t ,表“不准,不许可,禁止,千万不” , 如:You mustn’t play soccer on the street , it is too dangerous . / Look at the sign “NO smoking” , you mustn’t smoke here . (四).表十分肯定的推测 , 十分否定的推测用 can’t , 对现在的推测 对过去的推测 对现在正在 进行的推测 对将来正在进 行的推测 如:The book must belong to Jim , it has his name on it . / the light is on . / It must have rained last night . / need 的用法 (一).① need 作情态动词主要用于否定句(needn’t)和疑问句,后接动词原 形, 没有人称, 数和时态的变化 , 如: I need not finish my homework now . / Need I finish my homework now ? ② need 的疑问句式的答语肯定回答用 She must be at home , must + be + doing must + must + must + do

have + done be + doing

It must be raining outside .

must , 否定回答用 needn’t 或 don’t have to , 如: -----Need I finish my homework now ? ---- Yes , you must / No , you needn’t/don’t have to .

(二). need 作实义动词有人称,数和时态的变化 ,其否定句式和疑问句式分 别借助 don’t need to , doesn’t need to , didn’t need to , do , does , did , 使用结构 有:need to do sth , need sth , need doing sth ( need to be done ) , 如:He needs to finish his homework first . ----He doesn’t need to finish his homework first . ---Does he need to finish his homework first ? ---- Yes , he does / No , he doesn’t . / He is too thirsty , he needs a cup of tea . / The bike needs repairing = The bike needs to be repaired . may 和 might 的用法 ① 表 “许可 ” , 有 “可以” 的意思, 可与 can 互换, 如: You can / may go now . / May / Can I use your car ? ② 回答 may 开头的疑问句式时, 肯定回答用

yes ,

you may / can , 否定回答用 No , you mustn’t / you can’t 或 No , you had

better not , 如:-----May I spoke here ? ----- Yes , you may / can / No , you mustn’t / you had better not . ③ 用于祈使句中表祝愿, 如: May we never forget each other . ④ 表推测,might 的可能性比 may 更小些 ,might 的语气比

may 更委婉些 ,如:He may come to my party ,but I am not sure . shall 和 should 的用法 ① shall 用于第一人称 ,表将来的动作 ,如:What shall we do this evening ? / We shall go to the zoo this Sunday . ② shall 用于第一人称疑问句中 ,表征求对方意见,提建议或向对方请示 , 如:Shall we go to the park this night ? / Shall we begin our class ? will 和 would 的用法 用于疑问句中表请求或征求意见 , 如:Will you give me a piece of paper ? / Would you please open the door ? / Would you mind my opening here ?


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