Unit 5 The lesson in a lab
Reading and Vocabulary
What apparatus do we see in a lab?
Look at the pictures collected by our classmates. Do you
know the name of these equipment？
beaker & glass rod
Since you are interested in doing scientific experiments, now let’s get to know some vocabulary and knowledge related to science and experiment.
What can it be used for?
Let’s get to know more! How about the following metals?
Calcium(钙) Magnesium (镁)
Let’s go on getting to know more metals
⒈ Do you want to know more about these metals? ⒉ And do you know how we can use these metals better? Well, this is what we’ll study very soon. Now, let’s come to see how these metals react with other substances.
At first please read through the passage A with the tape
of it very quickly and try to catch its main idea. Then
finish Activity 2 on page 44 and give your reasons.
What is the passage A about? The different uses of metals.
The reaction of metals.
The reaction of metals with oxygen.
Put the following metals in the right order according to Passage A.
1. zinc 2. sodium 4. magnesium 6. aluminium 3. copper 5. potassium 7. calcium
Decide whether these statements are true or false according to Passage A .
1. Different metals have different uses. T 2. The reaction of metals with different substances is the same. F 3. Magnesium can form an oxide when heated in oxygen. T 4. Iron reacts with cold water. F 5. Copper reacts most when heated in oxygen. F
Please read passage A very carefully to find out the answers to the following questions
⒈ Which of the metals in the tables reacts
the most with oxygen and water? Potassium, calcium and sodium. _____________________________ ⒉ What happens when you heat calcium In oxygen? It burns to form an oxide. _______________________
3. Which metals react with steam? ______________________________ Magnesium, aluminium and zinc. ⒋ Does iron have a slow or fast reaction with steam?
____________________ It has a slow reaction.
⒌ Does copper react with water? ______________ No, it doesn’t.
From passage A we can see : how interesting the experiment about the reaction of metals is!
But do you know :
How we can carry out a chemical experiment in a lab successfully? And what is the correct order to describe a scientific experiment? aim __________ ___________ conclusion
Passage B:A Simple Scientific Experiment
The nails haven’t rusted
The nails do not rust.
The nails rust.
Conclusion: Iron rusts in ordinary water.
fill/boil/put fill/add /add/leave /leave
Please read Passage B quickly to find out the answers to the questions.
1. What is there on the surface of the water in the test tube? There is oil on the surface of the water in this test tube. 2. What is the use of the oil? The oil can keep air out of water. 3. What is the use of the cotton wool in the test tube? The cotton wool can keep air dry. 4. Why are the nails in the test tube with ordinary water rusty? Iron reacts with water and forms rust.
Exercise in class: Finish the following sentences
1. In the first part of the experiment, the ______ is dry, not wet. air 2. It shows that iron _____________ does not rust
when the air is dry.
3. In the second part of the experiment, you boil must _______ the water to make sure there is no _______ in it. air some oil ⒋ You add ________ to the water because this air keeps ________ out of it. ⒌ It shows that ________ does not rust in water nail
that has no ______ in it air
StepⅤ. Fill in the blanks. Below is a description of a simple scientific __________, which shows us how ____ iron experiment reacts with air and with water. The aim of ___ the experiment is to find out if iron ____ rusts in dry air; in ________ water, in ________ air-free ordinary water. After the different stages of the conclusion experiment, we can reach a __________ that iron does not rust in dry air or air-free water, but rusts in ordinary water.
If you want to do scientific experiments well, what qualities (品质) should you have in your opinion? Possible answers: We should be careful / serious / diligent /patient /thoughtful/ etc.
1. For example, steel is used in cars, and iron is used in electrical equipment. be used to do sth. 用来做某事 be used to doing sth. 习惯于做某事 used to do sth. 过去常常做某事 eg. 刀可以用来切东西。 A knife can be used to cut things. 你很快会习惯居住在这儿的。 You will soon be used to living here. 人们曾经以为太阳围绕着地球转。 People used to think the sun traveled round the earth.
2. Here is a table with the metals that react most at the top, and the metals that react least at the bottom. (1) at the top of 在……顶部 树的顶部有一只鸟。 There is a bird at the top of the tree. 孩子们放开嗓门大叫起来。 The children were shouting at the top of their voices.
(2) on top of 在……上面 把唱片（record) 放在最上面。 Put the record on top of the others. at the top of 指在某事物的顶部,不超过它; on top of 指超过某事物的顶端,在其上面 (3) at the bottom of 在底部,在底层 这一页的下面有一张图。 There is a picture at the bottom of the page.
3. When we use metals, it is important to know how they react with different substances, … react with 意为“对……起反应”。如： 铁与水和空气起化学反应而生锈。 Iron reacts with water and air to produce rust. 此外，react 还可以同其他介词搭配, 表示不同的意思。如：
react on sth 对某事物有影响；使某 事物产生变化。如： 酸对金属起什么反应？ How do acids react on metals? react against 反对；反抗 如： 有朝一日人民会起来反抗这个独裁 者吗？ Will the people ever react against the dictator?
4. The reaction of metals with these substances can be put in order. in order意为“井然有序的；整理好 的”。如： 她把房间整理得很好。 She keeps the room in order. 我把自己的房间整理好。 I put my room in order.
此外，in order 还有“依照次
序; (机器等）情况良好”的意 思。 如：请依照次序叫名字。 Call the names in order. 我的自行车情况良好。 My bicycle is in order. 含有order的其他短语：
以便……能…… in order for … to do 很快地 in short order 已订购 on order 与……相似的；（数量等）约……的 on the order of 不整齐的；杂乱的；出毛病；顺序紊乱 out of order 如：
他讲得很慢以便每个人都能听懂他的话。 He spoke slowly in order for everybody to understand him. 那本书已订购。 The book is on order. 教室里乱七八糟。 Everything was out of order in the classroom. 他的肝脏出了毛病。 His liver is out of order.
5. Add some oil to the water. add sth. to sth. 意为“加；增加”。 如： 他在请愿书上签上了自己的名字。
He added his signature to the petition. 这本词典的这一版里新增加了很多词。 Many words have been added to this edition of the dictionary.
add to sth 增加某事物 add (sth) up (两个或两个以上的数或量） 加起来 add up to sth 总计共达; 相当于某事物， 意为某事物 俚语： add fuel to the flames 火上浇油 add insult to injury (伤害之外又加侮辱)使关 系更糟
这种坏天气更增加了我们的困难。 The bad weather only added to our difficulties. 把我应付你的钱都加在一起。 Add up all the money I owe you. 这些数目合计为一百。 These numbers add up to 100. 这些线索没什么实际意义。 These clues don’t really add up to very much. =give us very little information.
6. This will keep air out of the water.
keep sb./sth. out of 意为“不让某人/某物进
别让那条狗进我的书房。 Keep that dog out of my study. 她戴着帽子摭阳, 保护眼睛。 She wore a hat to keep the sun out of her
keep out (of sth.)不进入某处；留在外边 keep up with sb. 保持与某人的联系
keep up with sth. 知悉(消息);跟上
keep up (with sb./sth.) 跟上某人/某事物
keep off 不接近或不接触某人/某事物
C Try your best to ___________ their quarrel. A. keep out B. keep away C. keep out of D. keep from 不接近，使不接近 阻止……做某事…… 继续保持 持续不停（尤指天气） keep way keep ...from keep sth up keep up
1. Before you go to bed you’d better close the out doors and windows to ____ thieves ___. keep 2. The fire is dangerous so you should ____ the keep child off the fire. __ 3. I had to walk faster than before so that I could ___________ him. keep up with 4. In winter we usually put on more clothes in keep order to ____ the cold ___. out
7. Iron does not rust in air-free water.
carefree adj. 无忧无虑的; 无牵挂的;
duty-free adj. & adv. 免税的 disease-free adj. 无病的 worry-free adj. 无忧无愁的
8. Half-fill a test tube with water… fill …with 意为“使……满；填满”。 他把瓶子装满水。 He filled the bottle with water. 她热泪盈眶。 Her eyes were filled with tears. 这样的结果使他心中充满失望。 The result filled his heart with despair.
9. Leave the tube for one week. leave意为“放置, 不去动某物, 使……处于某种状态” 。如： 这孩子随他去，别去惹他。 Leave the child as he is. 谁没关灯？ Who left the lights on? 在极冷的天把一盆水放在室外, 水很快会 结冰。 Leave a basin of water outside in the freezing weather, and it will soon freeze.
10. burn vi & vt.
The house is burning. We’d better
Coal is burned to warm the house in
(2) (使)烧焦、(使)晒黑 她的皮肤很容易晒黑。 Her skin burns easily. 这棵小树可能会被阳光晒坏。 The little tree may be burnt by the sun. burn up 烧掉、烧光 burn down 烧毁
11. electricity [u] 电、电流、电力 conduct electricity 导电
generate electricity 发电
cut off electricity 断电 turn on electricity 打开电源 这台机器用电驱动。 The machine is driven/ run by electricity.
There was no electricity in the house in the past.
electrical 表示与电有关的人或 事物, “电的,电气的” an electrical engineer electric 电子的
an electric fan/ lamp / fire/ clock
12. balance v.保持平衡，使平衡；n. 平衡，天平秤 收支相抵。 The expenses balance the receipts. 你得权衡一下住在乡下的好处和坏处。 You have to balance the advantages of living in the country against the disadvantages. 总的来说，他的建议被证明是有用的。 His suggestion has, on balance, proved useful. 扩展：keep one’s balance 保持身体平衡，保持 直立结冰的路面上保持平衡很难。 I found it hard to keep my balance on the icy path.
13. think of think about
think aloud think over
自言自语 仔细考虑 想出 再三考虑 想出,设计出,发明出 把……看作
think highly of 对……评价高
14. The same +n + as /that 结构中as引导
This is the same wallet as I lost the other day. (同类非同一个)
This is the same wallet that I lost the other
at 1. Aimed ________ attending college, students all make every effort to study. with 2. The flat is well-equipped _______ a lot of furniture. in 3. His plan satisfied our need ____ substance.
4. He couldn’t learn English well _____ the early at
5. ____ conclusion, we cannot be successful without In
effort and hard work .
Fill in blanks with the following words
reaction electrical equipment react potassium sodium calcium magnesium aluminium zinc partial copper oxide rust boil ordinary steam float form dissolve
1. A chemical________ is a process in which reaction two substances combine together chemically to form another substance. 2. ___________ means all the special tools, Equipment machines, clothes etc that you need for a particular activity. 3. When one chemical substance______ with reacts another, or when two chemical substances react _____, they combine chemically to form another substance. 4. You use______ to refer to something that is partial not complete or whole.
rusts 5. When a metal object_______, it becomes covered with rust and often loses its strength. 6. When a hot liquid_______or when boils you______ it, bubbles appear in it and it starts boil to change into steam. 7._________ people or things are normal and Ordinary not special or different in any way. 8. Something that______ lies on or just below floats the surface of a liquid when it is put in it and does not sink.
dissolves 9. If a substance__________ in a
liquid or if you_________ it, it dissolve
becomes mixed with the liquid and
Writing: Since we have known how to do a scientific experiment , please write out a complete scientific experiment report in simple English.