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Language points3 (2)

Language points

重点词汇 1.mark vt. 标志(着);表明;评分 n.标记;符号;分数 ①This speech may mark a change in the government policy. 这篇演讲表明政府的政策可能会有变化。 ②I spent at least six hours a week marking papers. 我每周至少要花六个小时批阅试卷。 ③It is dangerous to swim beyond this mark. 超出这个标志游泳是危险的。

图解助记 mark的一词多义:

搭配 be marked with 被做上??的标记 The book was marked with his name and address. 书上标有他的名字和地址。

即学即用 Please make a________where you think there are mistakes in the composition. A.sign C.mark B.signal D.remark


2.hide v. 掩藏;躲藏;隐瞒 ①My husband never hides anything from me. 我丈夫从不对我隐瞒什么。 ②Where did you hide it? 你把它藏到哪儿了? ③I ran swiftly up the stairs and hid behind my bed. 我快速跑上楼,躲在了我的床后面。

知识拓展 hideandseek n. 捉迷藏游戏 hiding n. 隐匿;隐藏 hiding place n. 藏身处

即学即用 I found my bike________in the dark room. A.hide C.hiding B.to be hidden D.hidden


3.mean vt.(meant, meant, meaning) 1)意指,意味(接名词或从句) ①I mean you eat too much food, but you don't take enough exercise. 我是说你吃得太多,而运动量又不够。 ②What do you mean by“quake”? 你说quake是什么意思?

2)意味着(接名词、从句或动名词) That means that in about 600 years, there will be standing room only in the earth. 这就意味着大约600年后,地球上只剩下站位了。 3)意欲,打算(多接不定式) I meant to tell you yesterday, but you were not in your office. 我原来打算昨天就通知你,但是你不在办公室。

即学即用 In some parts of London, missing a bus means ________for another hour. A.waiting C.wait

B.to wait D.to be waiting

4.extend v. 延长;延伸 ①We extended the meeting another 20 minutes. 我们将会议又延长了20分钟。 ②My garden extends as far as the river. 我的花园一直延伸到河边。

词语辨析:extend, expand,enlarge,increase

即学即用 用extend/expand/enlarge填空 (1)Can't you ________ your visit for a few days? (2)I want to use this design to ________ the space of our kitchen. (3)In ancient times,many emperors wanted to ________ their land and invaded other small countries.




5.pretend v. 装作;假装(后跟不定式或从句) ①He closed his eyes and pretended to be asleep. 他闭上眼睛假装睡着了。 ②She pretended(that) she was not at home when we rang the bell. 我们按门铃时,她假装不在家。

图解助记 pretend的构词:

pre(??之前)+tend(伸出,展现):展现出假面貌→ pretend假装

知识拓展 ?to do sth. 假装做某事 ? pretend?to be doing sth. 假装正在做某事 ?to have done sth. 假装做过某事 ? ①He pretends to be a teacher. (现在) ②When I came in, he pretended to be reading. (正在进行) ③He pretends to have read the book.(完成)

即学即用 Tom pretended ________ it; but in fact, he knew it very well. A.not to listen to B.not to hear about C.not to have heard about D.not to be listening to


6.book v. 登记;预订 ①I'd like to book a table for 8'clock tonight. 我想订一张今晚8点的餐桌。 ②Please book a double room for me. 请给我预订一间双人间。 ③After booking a ticket through to New York, she went on reading her book. 预订了一张直达纽约的票后,她继续读书。

词语辨析:book, order book用于订票、房间、座位等。 order则用于订货物、饭菜、衣服等。 ①Book early if you want to be sure of seat. 要想十拿九稳有个座位,那就早订座。 ②He ordered himself three shirts. 他定做了三件衬衫。

即学即用 “Have you ________ yet, sir?” asked the hotel waiter in the telephone. A.booked C.bought B.ordered D.asked


7.wander vi 1)漫步;闲逛;流浪 ①We wandered in the woods admiring the beautiful nature. 我们在树林里漫步,欣赏着美丽的大自然。 ②Before liberation, I was always wandering with my family from place to place. 解放前,我一直和家人到处流浪。

2) 走神,开小差 Don't let your mind wander during the class. 上课时不要让自己的思想开小差。

一言辨异 巧记wander“漫步,闲逛;开小差”和wonder“惊讶, 想知道”: I wandered around the streets, wondering how to tell my parents. 我在街上徘徊,琢磨怎样告诉我的父母。

即学即用 I felt tired and in no ________ to listen to the lesson, and my attention began to ________. A.mind; wonder C.interest; switch B.mood; wander D.feeling; set



1.come out 1)显露;泄露 ①It was several weeks before the truth came out. 几个星期以后才真相大白。 ②The news came out that the mayor had had a heart attack. 有消息说市长心脏病发作。

2)出版;发行 When does his new book come out? 他的新书什么时候出版? 3)(花)开放 The flowers come out in spring. 春天花儿开放。

知识拓展 come about 发生;造成 come across 偶然碰到;被理解 come to 总计;达到 come up 走进;被提出

即学即用 —How did it________that you made such a silly mistake. —I myself haven't figured it out yet. A.come out C.come across B.come about D.come on


2.dress up

①I just love the fun of dressing up in ancient clothing. 我只是喜欢穿古装的那种情趣。 ②My uncle was poor but liked fashion, so he would often dress up as a rich man. 我的叔叔很穷但喜欢时尚,因此他经常打扮得像个有钱 人。

联想 be dressed in 穿?? She is always dressed in black. 她总是穿黑色的衣服。

图解助记 “穿”的动作和状态:

即学即用 He________in his old clothes, while his wife________a very beautiful skirt. A.dressed; was wearing B.was dressed; was having on C.was dressed; was wearing D.was wearing; was dressed


3.on end 连续地;不断地;直立地 ①We studied for final exams for hours on end. 我们连续学习了好几个小时准备期末考试。 ②The frightening noise set her hair on end. 恐怖的声音让她头发都竖起来了。

知识拓展 at the end of 在??末端

in the end 最后 come to an end 结束 put/bring an end to 使??终止 make ends meet 使收支相抵 The sports meet will be held at the end of this month. 本月底将举行运动会。

即学即用 He sat there for hours ________. A.in the end C.on end B.come to an end D.put an end to


4.date back to/from 起始于;追溯到(=go back to) dates back to ? ? ? ? The castle?goes back to ? the 14th century. ? ?dates from ? ? 这个城堡建于14世纪。

The history of their family dated from 300 years ago. 他们家族的历史起源于300年前。

联想 date/go back 追溯,上溯 The history of their family dates back hundreds of years, and the house where they live in dates back to the 18th century. 他们的家族已有几百年的历史,而他们住的房子始建于 18世纪。

即学即用 The old tower________the Ming Dynasty remains in good condition. A.dates from C.dating back

B.dating back to D.dates back to

5.put sb. into prison(=send sb. to prison=throw sb. into prison)关进监狱;把??送进监狱 ①The pickpocket was sent to prison for a year. 那个小偷被判处一年监禁。 ②They'll probably put him into prison for a long time. 他们将把他关在监狱很长时间。 ③Helen was thrown into prison for attacking a man with a knife. 由于海伦用刀攻击一个人,所以被投进了监狱。 注意:在上面的短语中prison前面不用冠词。

知识拓展 go to prison 入狱(表示动作) be in prison 在服刑(表状态) be out of prison 出狱(表状态)

即学即用 He has________for 5 years, and will be set free next year. A.been in prison C.gone to the prison B.been put into prison D.been punished to prison


6.up to 1)达到??(数量) If you try your best, your vocabulary can be up to 5,000. 如果你努力的话,你的词汇量可以达到5,000。 2)直到 ①They walked along up to the knees in water. 水都达到膝盖了,他们还继续走。 ②We went swimming up to breakfast time. 我们游泳一直到吃早饭时间。

3)打算做 I didn't know what tricks he might be up to. 我不知道他可能玩什么诡计。 4)合格做??;有资格做?? My German isn't up to translating that letter. 我的德语还不行,不够水平翻译那封信。

5)该由??负责;在于?? —Shall we go out? ——我们出去好吗? —It's up to you. ——那要你决定了。

即学即用 —Shall we go to the art exhibition right away? —________. A.It's your opinion B.I don't mind C.It's all up to you D.That's your decision


7.take off 1)脱下,脱去 Take your coat off. 把你的外衣脱掉吧。 2)升空,起飞 The flight will take off in one hour. 航班一小时后起飞。

3)休假,歇假 I'm taking Thursday off because I'm moving house. 我星期四休假,因为我要搬家。 4)开始成名 It was at this point that her acting career really took off. 正是从这个时候起,她的表演生涯真正开始迈向成功 了。

知识拓展 take in 吸收;理解 take back 收回(所说的话) take apart 拆开;拆散 take on 开始雇用;呈现(新面貌等) take over 接管,接任 take up 开始从事

即学即用 He________his raincoat and took out the key. A.took up C.took down B.took off D.took over



1.Think of carnival,and you think of crowds, costumes,and confusion. 想到狂欢节,你自然就会想到人群,各式各样的服装和 热闹非凡的场面。 此句是“祈使句+and+陈述句”结构,前面相当于一个 条件句,后面是在前面的基础上出现的结果。本句等于: If you think of carnival,you will think of crowds,costumes, and confusion.

①Give me five more minutes and I will finish the task. 再给我五分钟的时间,我就会完成这项任务。 ②Come early and you will catch the first bus. 早点来你就会赶上第一班公交车。

知识拓展 此结构还有另外两种用法: 1)祈使句+or+陈述句(if...not...+主句) 2)名词短语+and+陈述句 ①Hurry up or you will be late for the meeting. 快点,否则你开会就要迟到了。 ②A minute earlier and you will see him. 早一分钟来,你就会见到他了。

即学即用 —I've got a headache again! —Sorry to hear that.Walk to work every day ________ you'll get well soon. A.but C.or B.and D.so


2.People saw Carnival as a last chance to have fun at the end of the winter season. 他们把狂欢节作为冬天结束前最后一次玩乐的机会。 see...as... 把??看做?? Wawu Mountain of Sichuan is seen as the Baimuda Triangle of China. 四川的瓦屋山被看做是中国的百慕大三角洲。

知识拓展 表示“把??看做??;认为??是??”的短语有: consider...as...; look on...as...; regard...as...; view...as...; take... as...; treat...as...;think of...as...

即学即用 Can you really ________ Mike as the new headmaster? A.see C.hear

B.look D.think

3.As time passed, however, the carnival period was extended, so that it began just after Christmas. 随着时间的推移,庆祝狂欢节的时间长了,圣诞节一过 狂欢节就开始了。 1)as time passed为as引导的时间状语从句。as time

passed=as time went by/on=with time passing=with time going on/by, with的复合结构在句子中作状语。 With time going on, they have known each other better. 随着时间的推移,他们彼此更加了解了。

2)so that在本句中引导结果状语从句。 This box is very heavy so that nobody can lift it. 这个箱子太重以至于没人能够拿得动。 注意:so 目的状语从句。 He raised his hand high so that he might be seen. 他高举起手,为了他能被看见。 that除了引导结果状语从句以外,还可以引导

即学即用 There is so big a stone in the middle of the road, ________ no one moves it away. A.in order C.so that

B.as D.that

4.Many crimes went unpunished. 很多罪行都逃脱了惩处。 go在此句中作系动词,相当于be或become,后面常接形 容词作表语。 ①Something has gone wrong with my car. 我的车出了毛病。

②He went almost mad when he heard the news. 他听到这个消息几乎发疯了。 ③Police are worried that many crimes go unreported. 令警方感到不安的是,许多罪行发生后无人报案。

知识拓展 go bad 变坏 go white 变白 go hungry 挨饿 go pale 变苍白 go crazy 变疯 go green 变绿 go blind 变瞎

词语辨析 go/turn/become/get/keep/stay/remain 1)遇到颜色的变化,多用go或turn。 The traffic lights went red just as he was driving to the crossings. 他刚开到交叉路口时,交通信号灯就变成了红色。 2)表示从好的状态变成坏的状态时,多用go,come, fall。 Her buttons have come loose. 她的纽扣变松了。

3)指人的情绪或身体状况的变化、天气的变化或社会的 变化,多用become与get。 Hearing what he said, the teacher got angry. 听到他所说的话,老师生气了。 4)表示身份的变化时,用become或turn,不过turn后面 接抽象名词作表语。 He finally became a famous director. 他最终成了一位著名的导演。


stay, remain。

The weather will stay fine until next weekend. 到下个周末将会一直是晴天。

即学即用 On hearing the news of the mine accident, she ________ pale. A.got C.went B.changed D.appeared


5.Their use was limited by laws,the first of which dates back to the fourteenth century. 于是制定了限用面具的法律条文,这最早可以追溯到 14 世纪。 the first of which dates back to the fourteenth century 是 “代词/名词/数量词/形容词的比较级或最高级+介词+关系 代词”引导的非限制性定语从句。

①I have tried on three caps,none of which fits me well. 我试戴了三顶帽子,没有一顶合适。 ②A compass has a needle,the ends of which always point north and south. 指南针有根指针,它的两端总是指向南北。

知识拓展 在“介词+关系词”引导的定语从句中, ①介词后面的关系词不能省略。 ②that前不能有介词。 ③某些在从句中充当时间、地点或原因状语的“介词+ 关系词”结构有时可以同关系副词when, where, why互换。

? ?This ? ? ?This ? ?Do ? ? ?Do

is the house in which I lived two years ago. is the house where I lived two years ago.

you remember the day on which you joined our club? you remember the day when you joined our club?

即学即用 We went through a period________communications were very difficult in the rural areas. A.which C.in which B.whose D.with which



Ⅰ.用适当的介词或副词填空 1.The boys wandered ________ the town with nothing to do. 2.For many centuries people have been wondering about the origin ________ human beings. 3.Electric cars are good ________ driving around town. 4.If you try your best,your vocabulary can be _______ ________ 5000.

5.Tradition is a way of doing things passed on ________ generation ________ generation. 6.If the masks come ________,the magic is lost. 7.The old man buried his money ________ secret and no one knew where it was. 8.When they got there,they were told that the meeting had come ________ an end.
答案:1.around 6.off 7.in 8.to 2.of 3.for 4.up to 5.from;to

Ⅱ.单项填空 1.Prices ________ on the goods,that is,the goods are marked ________ prices. A.mark;by B.are marking;on

C.are marked;with D.were marked;for
答案:C mark“做标记”,是及物动词,根据句意排

除A、B两项,价格标于商品上是一个状态,故用一般现在 时;同时也要注意“在某物上面标注名称、日期及价格等” 用介词with。

2.She actually heard about it,but she pretended _____. A.not to C.to have not

B.not to have D.not having


有听说过。pretend后面常接动词不定式。根据语境,动词 hear发生在pretend之前,故要用不定式的完成式形式,即: not to have heard about it。

3.He didn't ________ to take a taxi but he had to because he was late. A.assume C.mean

B.suppose D.hope


坐,因为他迟到了。mean to do sth.“打算做某事”;mean doing sth.“意味着做某事”。根据句意可知选C项。

4.When water turns into ice,its volume will ________. A.extend C.larger

B.expand D.lengthen

表示“胀大;膨胀”;extend则表示“延伸;伸长”; lengthen表示“变长”。

5.At a Christmas evening party.Kate ________ to play Cinderella. A.was dressed up C.was picked up

B.was dressed in D.took up

dress up“装扮;打扮”;be dressed in...“穿

着??”;pick up“拾起;收听;用车接某人”;take up “从事;占据(时间,空间等)”。

6.He telephoned the travel agency to ________ three air tickets to London. A.order C.take B.arrange D.book

答案:D 考查固定搭配。book 思,故选D项。


7.________ the website of the Fire Department in your city,and you will learn a lot about firefighting. A.Having searched C.Searching

B.To search D.Search



8.It is reported that the two schools,________are being built in my hometown,will open next year. A.they both C.both of them

B.which both D.both of which


A、C两项,此处如果用并列句也应该加连词。根据句意可知 空格处的关系词代替schools,故选择both of which。

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