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精益制造名词解释(中文)


5 Why's/5 个 Why 5S

精益制造名词解释 一种简单有效的用于分析和解决问题的方法,通过持续问五次“为什么”,或 者更多次只到找到根本原因。 来源于日本,现场管理来消除浪费。 5S(日本):整理、整顿、清扫、清洁、素养 5S(DPS):整理、整顿、整洁、维持、素养 丰田七大浪费指:品质不良、过量生产、过多流程、库存、不必要动作、运输 及等

待 八大浪费(DPS)增加了忽视创意 丰田用 A3 尺寸的文件格式来解决问题、 原因分析及纠正预防措施制定的一个 工具。 能够清楚并快速采取行动来矫正异常(来自标准作业),这是标准化与目视管 理的目标。

7 Wastes/8 Wastes 7 大浪费/8 大浪费 A3 Report/A3 报告 Abnormality Management /异常管理 Activity Based Costing ABC/基于活动成本 Agile Manufacturing/敏 捷制造术 Andon/按灯 Automatic Time/机器时 间 Autonomation/自働化 Back Flushing/反冲

一种会计管理系统,它根据执行流程所需要的资源将成本分配给每个产品。

敏捷制造者必须识别变革的易变性,并且采取机制来处理它。

目视管理工具,来源于日语“灯泡”。通常,按灯放置在机器或生产线旁来指 示生产状态。 指人机在完全分离情况下机器自动运行的时间,在标准作业中用 MCT 显示。 当发现一个不良产品时自働停止生产线。 指只有当产品出货时才根据 BOM 来倒冲人力与物料的消耗, 而不是通过物料 领用或卡片就直接消耗。反冲系统的目的是减少非增值的事务性流程。

Balance on Hand (BOH) 零件的库存水平 /均衡库存 Balanced Plant/均衡化工 一个所有资源与市场需要完全平衡的工厂。 厂 Balanced production/均 所有动作或生产线以同样节拍来生产。在均衡化系统中,CT 应小于 TT。 衡化生产 Batch Manufacturing/批 以一个批量的方式在工序与工序之间来生产半制品 量制造 Batch-and-Queue/批量 序列 Bill of Activities /活动清 单 以批量方式生产然后转移到下一工序

Benchmarking/标杆比较 与其他类似与相关企业来比较关键绩效指标。 生产一个产品或提供一项服务所有的活动清单。.

Bill of Materials (BoM)/物 生产一个产品或提供一项服务所有的物料清单 料清单

Black Belt /黑带 Blitz/闪电

在组织内部实施过程改善的六西格玛团队领导 S 一种快速和聚集的流程用于改进业务单元, 一条生产线、 一台机器或者一个流 程。 利用跨功能团队和快速解决问题方法, 集中制定解决方案来达成较好的目 标! 生产能力小于或等于需求的任何资源 组织的“伸展性目标”,代表卓越的改变。

Bottleneck/瓶颈 Breakthrough Objectives/突破目标 Capacity Constraint Resources (CCR)/产能 限制资源 Catch-Ball/接球 Cause and Effect Diagram/因果图

一系列非瓶颈流程作为限制条件影响产能

一系列经理与其员工在数据、主意、分析等方面的讨论就像传接球一样。这种 开放的、有效率的对话充斥在整个公司。 一种用于识别原因与结果间关系的问题解决工具。 (也称为鱼骨图、 鱼刺图等)

Cellular manufacturing / 不同类型的机器布置以严格的步骤来处理多个流程,一般是 U 形线,单件流 和柔性的人员配置。 单元化生产 Chaku-Chaku/上料-上料 一种运行单件流的方法,操作工的操作仅为“下料、上料、启动”然后到第二 台设备进行同样过程。 Change Agent 变革促进者 The catalytic force moving firms and value streams out of the world of inward-looking batch-and-queue. 推动企业和其价值流脱离传统批量生产方式的催化力量。

Change Management/变 在组织中进行计划、准备、教育、资源分配与执行的流程,用于管理变革 革管理 Changeover/换模时间 Cloud /云状思考 从第一个产品的最后一个合格品到第二个产品的第一个合格品出来所包含的 所有时间称为换模时间。 This is the thinking process used to precisely define a problem, to surface the underlying assumptions and to enable the identification of the direction of a solution that will remove this problem. 一种给问题精确定义、 发现潜在的假设以及能够为解决问题的方法指明方向的 思考过程。

Concurrent Engineering Designing a product (or service), its production process, the supporting 并行工程 information flow, and its delivery mechanism at the same time.并行工程是指 在设计产品(或服务)、生产过程时在同一时间提供信息流以及传递机制。 Constraint/限制 Anything that limits a system from achieving higher performance, or throughput. 限制系统实现更高性能或产量的因素。

Continuous flow/连续流 A concept where items are processed and moved directly from one processing step to the next, one piece at a time. Also referred to as "one piece flow" and "single piece flow." 连续流就是物品从一个工序处理并迅速转移至下一个工序时每次都是整体的

一种理念。同样也叫做“单件流” Continuous Improvement/持续改进 The never-ending pursuit of waste elimination by creating a better workplace, better products, and greater value to society. 要不断地消除浪费, 就要通过创造一个更好的工作场所, 更好的产品以及对社 会更大的价值。 A statistical problem solving tool that indicates control of a process within established limits. 控制图就是一个统计问题解决工具,标示了在限定范围内对过程的控制。

Control Chart/控制图

Control Element/控制元 Any specific process variable that must be controlled. The measurement of 素 a control element indicates whether the process is operating under stable conditions. 任何具体的过程变量必须被控制。 控制元素的大小表示过程在稳定状态下是否 运转。 Core Problem (CP) /关键 The constraint of a system where it is not a physical resource, it may be: a 问题 policy, or the belief in a false assumption, out dated measures or ineffective behaviours. 一个系统的限制并非是指物质资源, 它可以是政策方针, 或者是相信一个错误 臆断或过时的措施,也可以是无效的行为。 Cost of Quality/质量成本 Costs associated with supplying a quality product. Categories of cost include prevention, appraisal, and failure. 成本与供应的优质产品有关。 成本的种类包括 PAF:预防成本,鉴定成本和损失成本。 Counterclockwise Flow/ A basic principle of Lean manufacturing cell layout is that the flow of material 逆时针流 and the motion of people should be from right to left, or counterclockwise. The origin of this idea came from the design of lathes and machine tools with the chucks on the left side, making it easier for right-handed people to load from right to left. 精益生产单元布局的一个基本原则就是原料与人的动作的方向应该从右到左, 或者说是逆时针。 这个想法来源于车床和机床上放置在左边的夹头, 它能够让 一直使用右手操作的人更方便的从右到左进行装载。 Critical Capacity A CCR is a resource that may prevent the system moving closer towards its Resource (CCR) /关键产 goal. 能资源 关键产能资源是指可能妨碍系统完成目标的资源。 Critical Chain /关键链 This is the longest dependent chain of events in a project plan when both resource dependency and task dependency are taken into account. 这是当资源依赖与任务相关性都被预计时,计划项目中最长的依赖链。

Critical Chain See Project Buffer. Completion Buffer 见项目缓冲 (CCCB) 关键链完整缓冲 See Feeder Buffer. Critical Chain Feeder Buffer (CCFB) 关键链直 见直属缓冲 属缓冲

Critical Path /关键路径

A Critical Path is the longest path of dependent tasks in a project network not taking resource dependency into account. (From Goldratt 在一个没有把资源依赖列入预计的项目网络中, 相关任务的最长路径就是关键 路径。 The TOC Thinking Process diagram that shows through solid logic how the UnDesirable Effects are linked together. The CRT is used to pin point where improvement actions can have the greatest leverage. TOC(约束理论)的思维过程图通过严密的逻辑证明了不良反应都是接连发 生的。当前可信度树就是用来指示改善行动可以在哪里发挥重大作用。

Current Reality Tree (CRT) /当前可信度树

Current State Map/现状 Helps visualize the current production process and identify sources of 图 waste. 用来显示目前生产工艺和废物来源的图就是现状图。 Cycle time/周期时间 The time required to complete one cycle of an operation. If cycle time for every operation in a complete process can be reduced to equal takt time, products can be made in single-piece flow. 完成一个操作步骤单周期的时间就是周期时间。 如果一个完整过程中每个步骤 的周期时间能够减少到平等的节拍时间,那么产品生产能够引入单件流。

Days Supply of Total number of days (if the production level equals zero) that it would take Inventory (DSI)/库存天数 to deplete finished goods inventory for the specified product line. (如果生产水平为零) 能够消耗完指定生产线上的成品数量的总天数就是库存 天数。 Demand Flow /需求流 The concept of demand flow is to pull raw materials and products through the process strictly according to the dictates of customer demand. 需求流就是通过严格遵守客户要求决定原材料及产品。 Unable to do without. In TOC it is usually referring to two tasks or actions where one is a prerequisite for the other. 在 TOC(约束理论)中通常是指两个任务或行动中作为先决条件的任务。

Dependency /依赖度

Design for Design for Manufacturing is an approach to design that fosters simultaneous Manufacturing (DFM)/制 involvement of product design, process design, and manufacturing. 造设计 制造设计是一种同时参与产品设计,工艺流程设计和制造的方法。 Design of Experiments (DOE)/正交试验设计 Planning and conducting experiments and evaluating the results. The outcome of a design of experiment includes a mathematical equation predicting the interaction of the factors influencing a process and the relevant output characteristics of the process. 对结果进行计划,试验并评估。正交试验设计的结果包括一个数学方程式,用 于预测工程中影响因素之间的关联以及有关过程的输出特性。 The Drum refers to the CCR that is used to build the schedule around in an operation. 节点指的是用于制定围绕项目计划的 CCR(关键产能资源)。 Applying the principles of mass production, large batch sizes, and consolidated control strategies to achieve minimum unit processing costs. 适用于大规模、 大批量生产的原则, 并且能够加强统一控制最小单位成本的策

Drum/节点

Economies of Scale/经 济批量

略。 Elements of Work/工作 元素 Empowerment /授权 Error proofing/防错 工作元素是:增值工作、非增值工作及浪费 A series of actions designed to give employees greater control over their working lives. 更好的控制雇员工作生活的一系列行动。 A process used to prevent errors from occurring or to immediately point out a defect as it occurs. See "poka-yoke." 用于防止错误发生或在错误发生时能 够立即指出的一项工序。见“poka-yoke 防呆防错”

Evaporating Clouds /蒸 A method used in Theory of Constraints. Same as Conflict Resolution.一种 发云 在约束论中使用的方法,与解决冲突相同。 External Set Up/外部设 当机器仍然运作时可以做的所有设置动作。 置 Failure Modes and A structured approach to determining the seriousness of potential failures Effects Analysis and for identifying the sources of each potential failure.一种结构方法,用于确 (FMEA)/故障模式及危害 定潜在故障的严重性以及确定每种潜在故障的根本原因。 性分析 Feeder Buffer /直属缓冲 The time buffer that is placed on the end of non critical chains that feed into 区 the critical chain. Sometimes referred to as Critical Chain Feeder Buffer (CCFB). 位于非关键链末尾与关键链之间的时间缓冲,有时会被称为关键链直属缓冲 区。 Feeder lines/反馈线 A series of special assembly lines that allow assemblers to perform preassembly tasks off the main production line.反馈线就是一个特殊的装配 生产线,它允许装配工在主生产线之外执行装配任务。

First In First Out (FIFO)/ Processing orders in a pure sequential flow. 先进先出 在单纯的顺序流中处理订单。 Flexible Manufacturing An integrated manufacturing capability to produce small numbers of a great System /柔性化制造系统 variety of items at low unit cost; an FMS is also characterized by low changeover time and rapid response time. 一种集成的制造能力, 以低单位成本生产少量多种类的物品。 柔性化制造系统 还有一个特点就是转换时间短,响应时间迅速。 Flow/流动 A main objective of the lean production effort, and one of the important concepts that passed directly from Henry Ford to Toyota. Ford recognized that, ideally, production should flow continuously all the way from raw material to the customer and envisioned realizing that ideal through a production system that acted as one long conveyor. 流动是精益生产的主要目的,也是亨利福特直接传递给丰田的重要概念之一。 福特意识到: 理论上说产品应该从原材料到客户一直不间断的保持流动, 可以 通过一个作为长输送带的上产系统来实现这个理想。 A problem solving tool that maps out the steps in a process visually. The flow (or lack thereof) becomes evident and the wastes and redundancies

Flow Chart/流动图

are identified. 通过画出过程步骤达到可视化来解决问题的一种工具。流程变 得简单,浪费与过剩都被标识出来。 Flow Production/流动生 A way of doing things in small quantities in sequential steps, rather than in 产 large batches, lots or mass processing. 少量的连续生产。 Functional Layout/功能 性布置 Future Reality Tree (FRT) /将来可性度树 The practice of grouping machines or activities by type of operation performed. 根据操作类型对机械或步骤进行编排组合的实验 The TOC Thinking Process diagram that describes how the the agreed direction for a solution unavoidable through solid logic leads to the desired results or benefits. 约束理论的思维过程图描述了一个解决方案被通过的过程, 都不可避免的要经 过严密的逻辑实现想要的结果或者利益。

Future State Map/未来图 The vision of a future optimal process, which forms the basis of your implementation plan by helping to design how the process should operate. 未来最佳工艺的蓝图,通过帮助设计流程的运作形成实施计划的基础。 Gemba/现场 Gembutsu/现物 Genjitsu/现实 Green Belt /绿带 日语“实际地点”或“创造价值的地点” 日语“真实事物”或“真实产品” 日语“事实”或“现实” Someone who has been trained on the improvement methodology of Six Sigma who will lead a process improvement or quality improvement team. 经过六西格玛改进方法培训的人领导一个流程或质量改进小组。 A new production facility where lean principles are designed into manufacturing and management systems from the beginning. 从一开始就在生产管理系统中引入精益原则的新型工业企业。 自动退料系统 A method of leveling production at the final assembly line that makes just-in-time production possible. 在最后的装配线上均衡生产的方法,使即时生产成为可能。 A problem solving tool that displays data graphically in distribution. 一种用图表表示数据的解决问题的工具。

Green Field/绿地

Hanedashi/自动退料 Heijunka/平准化

Histogram/直方图

Horizontal Handling/水平 When tasks are assigned to a person in such a way that the focus is on 传递 maximizing a certain skill set or use of certain types equipment. 把工作分配到个人时,重点在于最大限度的发挥设备技能或其使用功能。 Hoshin Kanri /战略计划 A strategic planning approach that integrates the practices of leadership with the practices of management. 使领导层与管理层做法相结合的一种战略计划。 Hoshin Planning (HP)/方 A means by which goals are established and measures are created to 针计划 ensure progress toward those goals. 一种手段,目标是建立和创建措施,以确保对这些目标的进展情况。

Informative Inspection/ 信息检验

A form of inspection used to determine non-conforming product. 一种检查的形式,用于确定不合格产品。

Integration Point /整合点 Common term in a project to describe where two or more tasks join together. 常用来描述一个项目中合并的两个或更多的任务。 Intermediate Objective (IO) /中间目标 The milestone that must be reached in order to overcome an obstacle to an ambitious target or injection. 为了克服障碍完成最终目标而必须达到的里程碑。

Internal Setup (IED) /内 仅在机器停下来可以执行的动作 部设置 Inventory/库存 Jidoka /自働化 所有原材料、外购件、在制品及未卖给客户的成品 不良品产生时自动停止生产线。

Judgment Inspection/判 A form of inspection used to determine non-conforming product. 断检验 一种检查形式,用于确定不合格产品。 Just in Time (JIT)/准时化 Making what the customer needs when the customer needs it in the quantity the customer needs, using minimal resources of manpower, material, and machinery. 使用最少的人力、材料、机械,在客户需要时生产并提供给他所需的数量。 Jutsu /艺术 Kai-aku/改恶 Kaikaku/变革性改善 Kaizen/改善 To talk, or 'the art of' (i.e., 'leanjutsu: the art of lean production'). …的艺 术.(比如, leanjutsu: 精益生产的艺术) Kaizen 改善的反义词,变差 Radical improvements or reform that affect the future value stream. 激进的改进或改革,影响未来的价值流。 Japanese for 'change for the better' or 'improvement'. “好转”、“改善”的日语

Kaizen Event /改善活动 Any action whose output is intended to be an improvement to an existing process. 旨在改进现有工序的所有行动。 Kaizen Newspaper/改善 A tool for visually managing continuous improvement suggestions. 新闻 一种工具,在可视化管理中持续改进的建议。 Kanban /看板 Japanese term which means card signal. Kanban is the information signal used to indicate the need for material replenishment in a pull production process. 日语,意思是信号卡。看板就是一份信息表,用于显示拉动的生产过程中需要 补充材料信息。

Kano Methods /卡诺方法 A model using three types of product requirements which influence customer satisfaction in different ways. 一种模型,根据三种产品要求,以不同方式影响客户满意度。 Karoshi /过劳死 Kitting/成套用品 Death from overwork. 过度工作导致的死亡 A process in which assemblers are supplied with kits of parts, fittings and

tools. 为装配工提供零件包、配件和工具的工序。 Knowledge The management of knowledge, especially innovative knowledge, that is Management /知识管理 critical to business sustainability. 对知识的管理,尤其是对业务的持续发展有关键作用的创新知识。 Last In First Out (LIFO)/ The result of a typical material or information flow system without FIFO, 后进先出 resulting in earlier orders being perpetually delayed by new orders arriving on top of them. 一个典型的材料或信息流系统不按先进先出顺序的后果就是: 早期的订单永远 被新订单延迟 Lead time/订货至交货时 The total time a customer must wait to receive a product after placing an 间 order. 客户从下订单直至收到产品所必须等待的总时间。 Lean/精益 A business practice characterized by the endless pursuit of waste elimination. 一种商业业务,特点是追求无止境的消除浪费。

Lean Transformation/精 Developing a culture that is intolerant to waste in all of its forms. 所发展的文化就是无法容忍其所有形式中存在浪费。 益转变 Leveling/平准 Smoothing out the production schedule by averaging out both the volume and mix of products. 通过平均数量和产品结构,理顺生产计划。 The process of evenly distributing both the quantity and variety of work across available work time, avoiding overburden and underuse of resources. This eliminates bottlenecks and downtime, which translates into shorter flow time. 整个过程中可用工作时间内, 数量和品种均匀分布的工作; 避免资源的过度使 用或未充分利用。线平衡消除了瓶颈和停机时间,将之转换为更短的时间流。 Equalizing cycle times for relatively small units of the manufacturing process. 在制造过程中相对较小的单位就是均衡的周期时间。 A method of conducting single-piece flow, where the operator proceeds form machine to machine, taking the part form one machine and loading it into the next. 一种进行单件流的方法,从机器到机器的运作形式,从一台机器下料,然后装 载到下一台机器上。(下料-上料)

Line Balancing /线平衡

Line Balancing /生产线 平衡 Load-Load/装载-装载

Machine Cycle Time/机 The time it takes for a machine to produce one unit. 器周期时间 一台机器生产一个单位产品的时间。 Machine Work/机器工作 Work that is done by a machine. 由机器完成的工作。 Manual Work/手动工作 Work that is done by people. 由人完成的工作。

Manufacturing Resources Planning (MRP II) /物料需求计划 MRP

A second generation MRP system that provides additional control linkages such as automatic purchase order generation, capacity planning, and accounts payable transactions. 第二代物料需求计划增加了额外的控制联系, 如采购订单自动生成, 容量计划, 以及应付账款业务。

Master Black Belt /黑带 Master Black Belts are Six Sigma Quality experts that are responsible for 大师 the strategic implementations within an organization. 黑带大师是为组织实现战略负责的六西格玛质量专家。 Materials Requirements A computerized information system that calculates materials requirements Planning (MRP) /物料需 based on a master production schedule. 求计划 计算机管理系统,计算主要生产计划中的物料需求。 Mistake Proofing/错误预 Any change to an operation that helps the operator reduce or eliminate 防 mistakes. 帮助减少或消除行动中出现错误的任何改变。 Mixed Model Production Capability to produce a variety of models, that in fact differ in labor and material content, on the same production line. /混合模式生产 生产各种各样模型的能力,在同样的生产线上用不同的劳动力和材料内容。 Mokeru /工业工程 Monument/纪念碑 Japanese term for industrial engineering. 日语,工程管理学。 Any design, scheduling or production technology with scale requirements necessitating that designs, orders and products be brought to the machine to wait in queue for processing. The opposite of a right-sized machine.
也称为“线外加工” ,在群组外有一台设备,用适量的产品进行衔接。

Muda/浪费

Japanese for 'waste'. Any activity that adds cost without adding value to the product. 日语中的浪费。没有增加产品价值却增加了成本的所有行为。

Multi Machine Handling/ When a machine operator is running more than one machine of a certain 多机操作 type. 操作员能够操作两种以上的机器。 Multi Process Handling/ When a machine operator is doing tasks for multiple processes sequentially, 多流程操作 and this is contributing to the flow of material. 操作员连续操作多个进程,能够促进材料的流动。 Multi Tasking/多任务 Breaking into one activity before it is complete to move onto at least one other task before returning complete the original task. 在一项活动完全回到原任务之前,将之分解为转换到另一任务之前的活动。 Variations and variability in work method or the output of a process. 工作方法或进程输出的变化和可变性。

Mura/变异的浪费

Muri/费力、 过度工作的浪 Exertion, overworking (a person or machine), unreasonableness. 费 劳累,超负荷工作(人或机器),不合理 Nagara/纳加拉 Accomplishing more than one task in one motion or function. Japanese for 'while doing something'.

在一项议案或一项功能的情况下完成两种或两种以上的任务。日语的意思是 “当在做什么的时候” Nagara System/长柄系 统 Negative Branch (Nbr) Ninjutsu /忍术 Non-Value Added/非增 值 A production system where seemingly unrelated tasks can be produced by the same operator simultaneously. 一个生产系统,即看似无关的任务可以由同一个操作员同时完成。 Ideas or solutions greeted with negative responses or concerns. 以消极的反应或疑虑对待思路或解决方案。 The art of invisibility. 隐形的艺术。 Activities or actions taken that add no real value to the product or service, making such activities or action a form of waste. 活动或采取的行动, 添加没有实际价值的产品或服务, 这种活动或行动就是一 种浪费的形式。 Any significant thing that will block the achievement of an ambitious target or an injection. 妨碍远大目标完成的任何事物。

Obstacle (Obs) /障碍

One Piece Flow /单件流 Producing one unit at a time, as opposed to producing in large lots. (From Advanced Manufacturing) 相对于许多大型生产的生产方式,每次都生产一个单件。 One-Touch Exchange of The reduction of die set-up where die setting is reduced to a single step. Dies (OTED)/单键切换 模具设置的减少,就是在设置模具时减少到单个步骤。 Open Room Effect/开放 This common practice in Japanese offices involves taking down the walls 效果 and cubicles of an office and laying all of the desks out into one big 'open room'. 日本办公室墙和隔间的惯例,铺设的桌子大到成为一个大的“开放式 空间”。 Operator Cycle Time/操 The time it takes for a worker or machine operator to complete a sequence 作员周期时间 of operations, including loading and unloading, but not including waiting time. 一个工人或操作员完成一系列操作的时间, 包括上下料, 但不包含等待的时间。 Overall Equipment Calculated as Availability x Performance x Quality to determine how much of Effectiveness (OEE)/整 the time a piece of equipment is being used while it is actually making good 体设备效率 parts at an appropriate speed. 计算公式为:可用率*效能比率*品质合格率。用于确定一台设备在正常使用情 况下生产出良品的时间。 Overproduction/过量生 产 Pacemaker/节拍器 Pareto /柏拉图 Producing more, sooner or faster than is required by the next process or customer. 比下道工序或比客户需求的量生产更多或更快。 A device or technique use to set the pace of production and maintain takt time.一台设备或一项技术,用来确定生产节奏和节拍时间。 A bar chart that displays by frequency, in descending order, the most important defects. 一个条形图,通过频率显示,依次为最重要的缺陷。

Path /路径

Any series of linked (dependent) tasks in a project plan. 一个项目计划中一系列连接或相关的任务。

PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, This is a basic principle followed for effective problem solving during kaizen. Act)/PDCA 在改善过程中,这是一项遵循有效解决问题的基本原则。 Performance Management/绩效管理 PERT /项目资源评价工 程 Using a set of tools and approaches to measure, improve, monitor and sustain the key indicators of a business. 使用一套工具和方法来衡量、改善、监测和维持企业的主要指标。 Project Resource Evaluation Technique 项目资源评价技术。

Physical Transformation The task of taking a specific product from raw materials to a finished product Task/物理转移工作 in the hands of the customer. 从原材料到交付给客户的成品,搬运特定产品的任务 Pitch/间距 Point of Use/使用点 The pace and flow of a product. 产品的间隔和循环。 Keeping all items needed for the job at the location of use in a neat and organized manner. 在一个整洁,有规划的位置存放所有工作需要的项目。 Japanese word that refers to a mistake-proofing device or procedure used to prevent a defect during the production process. 日语,指的是一个错误打样设备或程序,用来防止生产过程中的缺陷。

Poka-yoke/防呆防错

Policy Deployment /战略 The selection of goals, projects to achieve the goals, designation of people 部署 and resources for project completion, and establishment of project metrics. 战略部署包括:目标的确定,实现目标的项目,为完成项目而指定人和资源, 项目统计的建立。 PQPR/产品数量与工艺 路线 Product Quantity Process Routing Analysis. The PQ (Product Quantity) refers to Pareto analysis to determine the 80/20 rule of the top products or services that make up 80% of work volume. The PR (Process Routing) refers to the Parts-Process Matrix analysis to determine product families by grouping of products with similar process flows. 产品数量及工艺过程路线分析。PQ(产品数量)指的是柏拉图分析用来定义 80/20 法则中主要产品或服务占到了 80%的工作内容。PR(工艺路线)指的 是零部件加工矩阵分析中通过接近的流程分类产品来定义产品族。

Prerequisite Tree (TrT)/ The TOC thinking process used to break the injections needed in the 先决树 solution down into smaller logical steps. TOC 的思维过程用来分解方案所需要的步骤,使之成为更小的逻辑步骤。 Problem Solving Task/问 The task of taking a specific product from concept through detailed design 题解决方法 and engineering to production launch. 通过详细设计和工程,使特定产品从概念到投产的工作, Process /过程 A series of activities that collectively accomplish a distinct objective. 集体完成一个明确目标的一系列活动。

Process Capacity Table/ A chart primarily used in machining processes that compares set-up and 制程产能表 machine load times to available capacity.

在加工工艺中以图表为主,与可用功率比较设备和记载时间。 Process Hierarchy/过程 A hierarchical decomposition from core business processes to the task level. 层次 从核心业务流程到任务级别的层次分解。 Process Kaizen /过程改 Continuous improvement through incremental improvements. 善 通过渐进改善达到持续改善。 Process Segment /过程 A series of activities that define a subset of a process. 分割 定义一个过程子过程的一系列活动。 Processing Time/过程时 The time a product is actually being worked on in a machine or work area. 间 一个产品在机器上或工作区制作的时间 Product Delivery Process /产品出货流程 Production Preparation Process (3P)/生产准备 流程 The stream of activities required to produce a product or service. 生产一种产品或服务的一系列活动。 The production preparation process is a tool used for designing lean manufacturing environments. It is a highly disciplined, standardized model. 3P results in the development of an improved production process where low waste levels are achieved at low capital cost. 生产准备流程是一种用来定义精益生产环境的工具。 这是一个非常严格的标准 化模式。3P 能在较低资本成本和低浪费水平的基础上带来生产过程的再次改 进。 Keeping total manufacturing volume as constant as possible. 尽可能的保持总生产量不变。

Production Smoothing/ 生产平滑

Project Buffer /项目缓冲 The time buffer placed at the end of the critical chain to protect the customer from the fluctuations and disruptions that occur in the Critical Chain. Sometimes called Critical Chain Completion Buffer (CCCB). 时间缓冲出现在关键链的末尾, 用来避免发生在关键链中的波动和干扰影响客 户。有时被称为关键链完整缓冲(CCCB) Protective Capacity/保护 Protective capacity describes the amount of installed capacity that is 能力 necessary to overcome disruptions. 保护能力说的是需要用于克服干扰的装机量 Pull production/拉动生产 Products are made only when the customer has requested or "pulled" it, and not before. 只有当客户需要时才生产产品,而不是在客户需要之前。 Push System/推系统 Product is pushed into a process, regardless of whether it is needed. 不论是否需要,产品都被推到生产线上。

QCD (Quality, Cost, and Key customer satisfaction metrics that determine if a company is Delivery)/品质、成本、交 competitive. 期 关键客户满意度调查标志着一家公司的竞争力。 QCDSM (Quality, Cost, A set of performance management measures that includes employee satisfaction (safety & morale) as well as customer satisfaction. Delivery - Safety & Morale)/品质、成本、交 一套绩效管理措施除客户满意度外还包括了员工满意度(安全和士气)。 期、安全与士气

Quality/品质

Meeting expectation and requirements, stated and un-stated, of the customer. 客户申明或不申明的期望和要求。

Quality Function Using a cross-functional team to reach consensus that final engineering Deployment (QFD)/质量 specification of a product are in accord with the voice of the customer. 功能展开 利用跨功能团队达成共识:对一个产品的最终设计规格需要与客户达成一致。 Queue Time/排队时间 The time a product spends in a line awaiting the next design, order processing, or fabrication step. 一个产品花费在等待下一个工序,订单处理或制作步骤上的时间。

Quick Changeover/快速 The ability to change tooling and fixtures rapidly (usually minutes), so 切换 multiple products can be run on the same machine. 快速换工具或夹具的能力,使得多种产品可以在同一台机器上运行。 Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM) / 快速反应制造 Real Value/真正价值 A methodology and system allowing rapid response to changing customer requirements. 一种方法和系统,可以快速响应不断变化的客户需求。 Attributes and features of a product or service that, in the eyes of customers, are worth paying for. 在客户眼中是值得买单的产品或服务的属性或功能。

Reengineering/业务流程 Improving fundamental business processes. 再设计 提高基本的业务流程。 Resource Activation/资 源激化 Resource Utilization/资 源再利用 Right-size/合适尺寸 Root Cause/根本原因 Sanitizing/清洁 Sensi/外部精益专家 Using a resource regardless of whether throughput is increased. 使用资源,不论其吞吐量是否增加。 Using a resource in a way that increases throughput. 使用资源,在某种程度上提高吞吐量 Matching tooling and equipment to the job and space requirements. 与工作、空间要求相配的工具和设备。 The most basic underlying reason for an event or condition. 事件或情况的最根本的原因。 The act of cleaning the work area. 清理工作区域的行为。 An outside master or teacher that assists in implementing lean practices. 在外的主管或老师,协助实施精益实践。

Sequential Changeover/ When changeover times are within Takt time, changeovers can be 最小换模时间 performed one after another in a flow line. Sequential changeover assures that the lost time for each process in the line is minimized to one Takt beat. 当转换时间在节拍时间之内, 换模能在流水线上实现。 连续换模能够确保此线 上每个进程的丢失时间最小化到一个节拍跳动。 Set Up Reduction/设置 减少 Reducing the amount of time a machine or a process is down during changeover from the last good piece to the first good piece of the next product. 在换模制作下一个产品合格品之前,减少关闭一个机器或过程时间量。

Shipping Buffer /航运缓 The time buffer that is placed before the customer to protect them from 冲区 disruptions. 客户收到产品之前的时间缓冲。 Shojinka Continually optimizing the number of workers in a work center to meet the type and volume of demand imposed on the work center. 不断优化员工数目,满足工作所需的员工种类和数量。 The leader of the team whose job is to design and engineer a new product and it into production. 团队的领导者,设计新产品并将之投入生产。 Screening through unnecessary materials and simplifying the work environment. 筛选不必要的材料,简化工作环境。 3D technique used to balance the line.三维技术用于平衡生产线

Shusa

Sifting/筛选

Simulation/仿真,模拟

Single Minute Exchange A series of techniques designed for changeovers of production machinery in of Dies (SMED)/快速换 less than ten minutes. 专门为生产机械设计的一系列技术,转换时间少于 10 分钟。 模 Single-piece flow/单件流 A process in which products proceed, one complete product at a time, through various operations in design, order-taking and production without interruptions, backflows or scrap. 一种产品生产中每次生产出完整单品的工艺, 需要通过设计各种没有中断的操 作、没有回流的订单和零报废的生产。 Six Sigma A methodology and set of tools used to improve quality to than 3.4 defects per million or better. 一种用来提高质量的方法和工具,每百万出现 3.4 缺陷或者更低。 Organizing essential materials. 组织重要物资。

Sorting/挑选

Standard Work/标准工作 Specifying tasks to the best way to get the job done in the amount of time available while ensuring the job is done right the first time, every time. 在确保工作的现有时间内完成工作的最好方法就是每次都第一时间完成。 Standard Work A document detailing the sequence of production steps assigned to a single Combination Sheet worker performing Standard Work. (SWCS)/标准工作组合表 一份文件,详细介绍了分配给一个工人执行的标准工作生产步骤顺序。 Standard Work Sheet (SWS)/标准工作表 Statistical Fluctuations/ 统计起伏 Shows the work sequence, takt time, standard working process, and layout of the cell or workstation. 显示工作顺序,节拍时间,标准工作流程,以及单件流的布局格式。 Information that cannot be precisely predicted. 不能精确预测的信息。

Strategic Planning/战略 Developing short and long-term competitive strategies using tools such as 计划 SWOT Analysis to assess the current situation, develop missions and goals, and create an implementation plan. 要发展短期和长期的竞争策略,就要使用 SWOT 分析法分析当前的形势,发

展任务和目标并创建一个执行计划。 Student Syndrome /学员 One of the common behaviours in a project that lead to tasks being later 证 than they need be. 项目中的共同行为之一,导致任务晚于其需要的时候出现。 Sub- Optimization/次优 化 A condition where gains made in one activity are offset by losses in another activity or activities, created by the same actions creating gains in the first activity. 当一个活动取得的成效被其他活动的损失抵消, Any expenditure that has already taken place and can not be undone. 任何已经花费不可撤销的费用。 A tool of the pull system that helps signal demand for the product. In a supermarket, a fixed amount of raw material, work in process, or finished material is kept as a buffer to schedule variability or an incapable process. 拉系统中帮助发出产品需求信号的工具。 固定数额的原材料、 工作过程或者是 成品材料存放在超市里,被当做用来应对变化的缓冲区。 The continuation of sifting, sweeping, sorting and sanitizing. 继续进行筛选,清扫,整理,消毒。 Collecting nonessential goods and removing them from the work area. 收集不必要的商品并将之转移出工作区域。 The bringing together of materials information and anything else needed in a coordinated manner such that no part is waiting long for another 将材料信息和其他任何需要的协调方法进行同步, 所以每个部分都不需要长时 间等待其他部分。 Daily production number required to meet orders in hand divided into the number of working hours in the day. 每日生产数量要求达到订单上的数量, 将之分解到一天的工作时间中就是节拍 时间。

Sunk Cost/沉淀成本 Supermarket/超市

Sustaining/维持 Sweeping/清扫 Synchronization /同步

Takt Time/节拍时间

Target Costing/目标成本 A way of establishing a cost goal for a product or service in the design phase. 在设计阶段为产品或服务建立成本目标的一种方法。 Tebanare/人机分离 Japanese for 'hands-free'. The goal of tebanare is to use low cost automation on manual machines to allow people to do work that is more valuable that only a person can do. 日语,即“免提”。人机分离的目标就是在手动机上用低成本的自动化,让所 做的工作更有价值。 A proposal, proposition, or suggestion. A teian system can be likened to a system which allows and encourages workers to actively propose process and product improvements. 一项提案, 提议或建议。 一个泰扬系统就是允许并鼓励员工积极对过程和产品 改进提出建议。 A management philosophy that stresses removal of constraints to increase

Teian /泰扬

Theory of Constraints

(TOC)/约束论 Throughput/生产量

throughput while decreasing inventory and operating expenses. 一种管理哲学,强调取消限制提高吞吐量,同时减少库存和运营的费用。 The rate the system generates money through sales.

Throughput Time/吞吐时 The time required for a product to proceed from concept to launch, order to 间 delivery, or raw materials into the hands of the customer. 一个产品从概念到投产, 从订单到交付, 或是从原材料变为客户手中成品的时 间。 Time Buffer /时间缓冲 A key part of the TOC applications that protects against disruptions 约束论应用的关键部分,用于避免损坏。

Time-Based Strategy/时 Driving improvement activity through focus on time and its relation to quality, 间战略 cost, delivery, safety, and morale. 通过关注时间与质量、成本、交货期、安全和士气的关系,推进改进活动。 Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)/全 员生产维护 Maximizing equipment effectiveness and uptime throughout the entire life of the equipment. 最大限度的提高整个设备的效能和设备有效使用时间内的正常运行时间。

Toyota Production A methodology that resulted from over 50 years of Kaizen at Toyota. TPS is System (TPS)/丰田生产 built on a foundation of Leveling, with the supporting pillars of Just-in-Time 系统 and Jidoka. 由丰田 50 多年改善总结出的一种方法。丰田生产系统建立在一个以准时化和 自动化为主要支撑的水平基础上。 Transition Tree (TrT) /过 A TOC process used to construct the actions needed to achieve an intermediate objective. 渡树 约束论的一个过程,用于明确行动以达到中间目标。 Tsurube/ A way to keep product flow continuous even when there are interruptions such as outside processing or batch operations. 当遇到像境外加工或批量操作之类的中断时,连续保持产品流的一种方法,

Two-Bin System/两箱系 An example of both visual management and the pull system, whereby two 统 bins or containers are used trigger reorder of parts or materials. 可视化管理和拉系统的一个例子,凭借两箱触发重新排序的零件或材料。 UnDesirable Effect /不良 These are the negative things the problems that are visible and caused by 影响(UDE) the thing (Core Problem) that must be changed. 这些不良的影响都是可见的,由核心问题引起必须改变。 Value/价值 A capability provided to a customer at the right time at an appropriate price, as defined by the customer. 由客户要求,在合适的时间以合理的价格提供给客户的一种功能。

Value Analysis/价值分析 Analyzing the value stream to identify value added and non-value added activities. 价值流的分析,鉴别出增值或非增值的活动。 Value Chain/价值链 Activities outside of your organization that add value to your final product, such as the value adding activities of your suppliers. 为最终产品增值的组织外的活动,与供应商的增值活动相同。

Value Engineering/价值 Optimizing products or processes to improve value to the customer. 工程 优化产品或工艺来改善对客户的价值。 Value Stream/价值流 A value stream is a series of all actions required to fulfill a customer's request, both value added and not. 价值流就是必须符合客户要求的一切行为,包括增值和非增值。

Value stream mapping/ The process of directly observing the flows of information and materials as 价值流图 they now occur, summarizing them visually, and then envisioning a future state with much better performance. 直接观察信息流和材料的过程,就像它们正在发生,用可视化概括,以更好的 表现展望未来。 Value-Added Work/增值 Work that the customer is willing to pay for. A transformation of the shape or 工作 function of the material/information in a way that the customer will pay for. 客户愿意为之买单的工作。 在某种程度上, 客户愿意花费在材料和信息的形态 或功能的转变。 Vertical Handling/垂直处 When tasks are assigned in such a way that the materials processes are being progressively worked towards completion, this is vertical handling. 置 This in contrast to horizontal handling which only focuses on the output of a specific process. 以材料过程一步步接近完成来分配任务,这就是垂直处理。 Visual Control/目视控制 The placement in plain view of all tools, parts, production activities, and indicators of production system performance so everyone involved can understand the status of the system at a glance. 安置在视线内的工具,零件,生产活动和生产系统的性能指标,能让每个人都 能一眼看明白系统的地位。 Visual Management/目 视管理 Waste/浪费 Simple visual tools are used to identify the target state, and any deviance is met with corrective action. 简单的可视化工具用于确定目标状态,任何偏差都能及时采取纠正措施。 Anything that uses resources, but does not add real value to the product or service. 使用资源但是没有对产品或服务增值的任何东西。 A skilled and well-trained person who makes the rounds supplying parts, assisting with changeover, providing tools and materials. 一个熟练并训练有素的人,使零件供应循环,协助转换,提供工具和材料。 A logical and productive grouping of machinery, tooling, and personnel which produces a family of similar products. 具有逻辑性和多产性分组的机械,工具和员工,生产一个产品族。

Water Spider/水蜘蛛

Work Cell /工作单元

Work in Process (WIP)/ Product or inventory in various stages of completion throughout the plant, 在制品 from raw material to completed product. 从原料到成品,产品或库存在整个工厂不同的完成阶段。 Work Sequence/工作顺 The defined steps and activities that need to be performed in order for the work to be completed. 序 为了使工作得以完成,需要执行明确的步骤和活动。

Yamazumi/负荷平衡图

A bar graph typically showing the balance of workloads as operator cycle times. 一个典型的条形图,显示了循环时间内操作工的工作负荷的平衡状态。 Produced product related to scheduled product. 生产与计划产品相关的产品。

Yield/产出


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