1.It’s a small world after all. this/that 2.A bird landed on the tree.It’s singing. 3.It’s a fine day,isn’t it?
4.What time is it? It’s seven o’clock. 5.The baby is crying.It migh
t be hungry.
1. It rains heavily.
天气 2. It is 20 kilometers from Granddad's house to James’. 距离 3. It is November 11, 2005. 日期 4. It is 9 o’clock at night. 时间 5.It'll be lovely in the garden tonight． 环境 6. It is bad to smoke. 形式主语 7. It is likely that he will succeed. 形式主语
The use of “it”
一、 用作人称代词, 代表前面提到的人或事物 1) Who’s it? ________ It’s me. It is a picture 2) Look at the picture. _____ of our school. 二、用于代替指示代词this 和that。
---Is this jacket yours?
it ---Yes, ______ is.
季节、环境等 1) It is half past eight now. Time 2) It’s only half an hour’s walk from here
to our school. Distance
3) I hope that it will be fine tomorrow. Weather
4) It has rained much this year. Weather 5) It’s spring now. Season 6) It’s quiet here. Circumstance
替代作主语的从句、动词不定式、 动名词, 而把真正作主语的从句、 动词不定式、动名词置于句尾。
It is clear ( obvious， true， possible， certain....) that It is said (reported，believed....) that ... It is suggested ( ordered /demanded/insisted/ commanded... ) that ...从句用虚拟语气 It is a pity ( shame/duty/fact/honor/no surprise... ) that It happens (seems， looks， appears ) that... It doesn’t matter( no wonder…)+wh-/how-clause It takes sb. ... to do sth… It is no good (use ) doing sth…
It looks ( seems ) as if ...
五、it作形式宾语 当复合宾语中的宾语是不定式、动名词宾语 从句时, 往往把宾语放在它的补足语后面， 而用it 作形式宾语, 放在宾语补足语之前。 该句型中的it 作形式宾语, 常用的动词有 think, believe, make, find, consider, feel等。
5.作形式宾语( Preparatory Subject )
为了记忆方便我们把该句型总结为"6123结构"。 6指主句中常用的动词：think,believe,make,find, consider,feel； 1指的是形式宾语it； 2指的是宾补的两种形式：形容词或名词； 3指的是真正宾语的三种形式：不定式短语，动名词短语 或从句。
We think it our duty to clean our classroom every day. He felt it important learning English well. They found it difficult that they would finish their work in two days.
I think it no use arguing with him.
I found it very interesting to study English.
He made it clear that he was not
interested in this subject.
六、用于强调句型中 It + be+被强调部分 + that/who(a person)从句 I met Tom in the park yesterday. 1) It was I who met Tom in the park yesterday. 2) It was Tom who I met in the park yesterday. 3) It was in the park that I met Tom yesterday. 4) It was yesterday that I met Tom in the park. It was five o’clock _________ when I got home. that I got home. It was at five o’clock _______
It is not until + 被强调部分 + that ...
译成汉语 “直到……才……”, 可以说是
not ... until ... 的强调形式。如: It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star. = Not until she took off her dark glasses did I realize she was a famous film star. = I didn’t realize she was a famous film star
until she took off her dark glasses.
1) It was not _____ C she took off her dark glasses ____ I realized she was a famous film star. (92) A. when, that B. until, when C. until, that D. when, then 2) It was not until ____ D that ____ to prepare his lessons. (91) A. did his father come in, the boy began B. did his father come in, did the boy begin C. his father came in, did the boy begin D. his father came in, the boy began
强调句用以强调主语, 宾语, 介词宾语以及状语。
(强调人时用that和who/whom皆可) It was she who ／that had been wrong． 是她错了。 ( 主语 ) It was the girl whom ／that I met just now．
我刚才遇见的就是这个女孩。 ( 宾语 )
It was Tom to whom the teacher had talked．
It was on Monday night that all this happened．
所有这一切就是在星期一的晚上发生的。( 状语 )
1. make it 1)在口语当中相当于succeed, 表示: 成功、
It's hard to make it to the top in show business.
2) 在口语中相当于fix the date for, 表示
—Shall we meet next week?
—OK. We just make it next Saturday.
2. take it/things easy 相当于Don’t worry or don’t hurry. 用来劝告 别人, 表示“不要慌, 别担心, 沉住气”
Take it easy！He will do it well.
3. It all depends/that all depends 在口语中,
相当于it hasn‘t been decided yet, 表示“那
—Are you going to the countryside for holiday?
—It/That all depends.
4. It's up to sb.
在口语中, 相当于it's decided by sb. 表示“由……决定, 由……负 责, 取决于……”
—Shall we go out for dinner？
—It's up to you.
特殊句型 1). It is .... since ...。 It is ( has been ) 5 years since his father died.
2). It is ... when ...。 “当．．．的时候，是．．．” It was 5 o’clock when he came here.
3). It be ... before ... 该句型主句中的 it 指时间， 主句中的时态常是一般将来时或过 去时两种时态．主句中的表语多是long， not long ， 3 days ， 2 weeks 等表示时间段的词或短语，常译为“．．．之后．．．”。 It was 3 days before he went to Beijing. It will be not long before he finishes his job.
4）. It looks ( seems ) as if ... 该句型中it无意义， as if 引导一个状语从句。常译为， “看起来好象．．．”如果与事实不相符合，则用虚拟语 气。 It looks as if he is ill.（真的病了） It looks as if he were ill. （没有生病） It seemed as if he were dying
5）. It doesn’t matter whether ( if ) ... 该句型中whether(if) 引导的从句是真正主语，该句型 常译为 “不论（是否）．．．没关系．．．。 It doesn’t matter if they are old.
6）. It的一些习惯用法 ? How is it with your study? 学习好吗？ ? That’s it . 这就对了。 ? It went hard with him. 他身遇不幸。 ? It is all over with me. 我完蛋了。 ? We must fight it out.我们必须坚持到底。 ? I can’t help it. 我没有办法。
Exercises: A when people talk with their 1. I hate ______
mouths full. A. it B. that C.these D. them C your brother 2. In which play is ______ will appear? A. that where B. this when C. it that D. it where A the harder you work, the better 3. ______ result you’ll get. A. It’s believed that B. What we believed that C. It’s fact D. What the fact is
4. Nothing can stop us, _______? B
A. can’t it B. can it C. can’t we D. can we
5. ---Can you tell us how the war was won in
the end ?
A --- I don’t know, ________.
A. It’s hard to say C. It’s no use saying D. It depends on the work B. It doesn’t matter
C matter a lot whether she 6. Does ______
will come here by bus or by taxi?
A. The thing B. that C. it D. her mother
7. ---Listen! Someone is unlocking the goods.
---_____ A must be your father coming
back from Beijing.
A. It B. There C. That D. This
8. ---Have you written a letter to her ? ---No, but I’m going to write _____ D tonight. A. it B. that C. those D. one 9. --- Are they coming to the meeting? --- ________. A A. I know so B. I am sure so C. I am sure of it D. I question it D now pretty late, we took candles 10. _______ and went upstairs. A. Being B. For C. For being D. It being
11. The teacher told the students _______. D A. why to learn English important
B. why was it important to learn English
C. why it important to learn English
D. why it was important to learn English
12. The TV sets made in China are much
B better than ______ in Japan.
A. that B. those C. them D. it
C 13. Our food and service are better than _____ used to be. A. It B. we C. they D. them 14. ---I’m looking for a flat. ---Would you like ____ C with ___ garden? A. it; the B. it; a C. one; a D. one; the B 15. _______ four years since I joined the Army. A. It was B. It is C. There is D. There was
Tell the function of “it”:
1.It’s difficult to remember all their names.
2. It’s very quiet in the café. Circumstance
3. It rained for three days. Weather 4. He made it clear that he didn’t want to speak to me. 形式宾语, 代替…… 5. It was nice to meet you. 形式主语, 代替……
6. It was on Tuesday that Smith came. 用于强调句型中
7. It’s three miles from here to the nearest
garage. Distance 8. A tall man stood up and shook hands. It was captain Lawrie. 人称代词, 代表前面提到的人 9. I hear you bought a new bike. Can you show it to me? 人称代词, 代表前面提到的物
10. It was five o’clock when we got back home
11. It was dirty and wet below the ship where the slaves were kept. Circumstance 12. It was on this coast that lots of his people disappeared. 用于强调句型 13. It was most likely that one third of them had lost their lives. 作引导词, 在句中作形式主语, 代替后面的从句
Rewrite the following sentences, using “It’s … that”. 1. I’m still fit enough to cycle 20 kilometers
in an afternoon. That is amazing. It is amazing that I am still fit enough to
cycle 20 kilometers in an afternoon.
2. My father has quit smoking. That is
It is wonderful that my father has
3. You could suffer from bad health if you keep smoking. ( It is likely). It is likely that you could suffer from bad health if you keep smoking. 4. China produces one third of the world’s cigarettes. It is reported. It is reported that China produces one third of the world’s cigarettes.
5. Bird flu (禽流感) hit China again. That is known to us. It is known to us that bird flu(禽流感) hit China again. 6. Li Yuchun got more than one million yuan for the advertisement. People say that. It is said that Li Yuchun got more than one million Yuan for the advertisement.
7. Some young people think that they look attractive when they smoke. It seems that… It seems that some young people think they look attractive when they smoke.
( 正在下雨 ) when they left the station.( rain ) ( 对他来讲很困难 ) to study two languages. ( difficult ) (和他们争论这一问题), you are simply wasting
3.It is no use time. (argue)
4.______（不要紧/没关系）whether we go together or separately.( matter)
(普遍认为)that China’s fast development in economy will benefit many countries in the world.( generally, believe ) 6.His parents manageed to (使…成为可能 ) for him to go abroad. (possible)
7. According to the witnesses, it was at two o’clock 发生 ). ( happen )
( 正是在这片耕地上 ) that the farmers produce food for the whole population of China. ( arable )
( 直到1920 年) that regular radio broadcasts began. ( until)
( 直到他们联手 ) that they achieved their goals.( join )
1.It was raining 2.It’s difficult for him 3.arguing with them about this question 4.It doean’t matter 5.It’s generally believed 6.make it possible 7.that this accident happened 8.It is on this arable land 9.was not until 1920 10.was not until they joined hands
1. 是到戒烟的时候了。(quit) It is time to quit smoking. 2. 让人惊讶的是在我这个年纪我依然 这么健康。(It is amazing that...) It is amazing that at my age I am still so fit.
3. 一旦你吸烟上了瘾, 你会发现要把它戒掉 很难。(addict... to;tough) Once you are addicted to smoking, you will find it tough to give it up.
4. 青少年要适应新的环境有点难。 (adolescent; accustom...to)
It is a little difficult for adolescents to become accustomed to a new enviroment.
1. Finish exercise 2 on page 21: Rewrite the sentences. 2. Revise and master the use of it. 3. Preview the Reading: HIV/AIDS: Are you at risk?