学术论文的主体部分由引言, 学术论文的主体部分由引言,正文和结 论构成.正文部分包括方法,结果与讨论. 论构成.正文部分包括方法,结果与讨论. 由于学术论文所涉及的学科,范围广泛,即 由于学术论文所涉及的学科,范围广泛, 使在同一学科领域内, 由于选题, 研究方法, 使在同一学科领域内, 由于选题, 研究方法, 工作进程不同, 工作进程不同 , 正文部分
的内容也不尽相 同,写作方法也就不存在统一的规定或一成 不变的模式.所以, 不变的模式.所以,本章只着重介绍写正文 部分时一些较为典型的语言现象,希望读者 部分时一些较为典型的语言现象, 能够从中寻求到一般规律. 能够从中寻求到一般规律. 7.1 描述研究方法 研究方法(Method)部分主要内容包括: 部分主要内容包括: 研究方法 部分主要内容包括 (1)研究工作具备的基本前提或条件, 研究工作具备的基本前提或条件, 研究工作具备的基本前提或条件 如 实验材料,实验场所,设备器材等. 实验材料,实验场所,设备器材等. (2)采样,实验,获取数据,并对数据进 采样, 采样 实验,获取数据, 行技术处理的方法与过程. 行技术处理的方法与过程. (3)理论分析, 理论分析, 包括理论依据, 基本原理, 理论分析 包括理论依据, 基本原理, 公式推导,数理模型等. 公式推导,数理模型等. 采样与实验过程, 采样与实验过程,要根据先后顺序或步
骤进行描述. 骤进行描述.例 1 选自描述对千屈莱这种植 物生长的采样与实验过程. 物生长的采样与实验过程. 例l Materials and Methods  In August 1994 , entire purple loosestrife( 千 屈 莱 )plants were harvested from three habitats(生长环境 : an upland 生长环境): 生长环境 1) old field in the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area in north-eastern Ohio (n=5);2) a shallow ditch along Route 261 in ; Kent, OH (n = 10); and 3) the western shoreline of East Twin Lake, Portage County, OH (n = 6). These sites represent habitats which are never inundated(淹没 淹没) 淹没 with water, are periodically inundated, or have saturated( 浸 透 ) soils, respectively. Shoot sections (嫩枝条 嫩枝条)of 5, 10, and 15 嫩枝条 cm lengths were cut from these plants and positioned in flats(平地 containing a soil 平地) 平地 mixture of perlite (珍珠岩 vermiculite ( 蛭 珍珠岩), 珍珠岩 苔泥炭) 岩 ), and peatmoss (苔泥炭 ( 1:1:1). The 苔泥炭 flats were maintained in the Department of
Biological Sciences' greenhouse where they experienced ambient meteorological conditions except for 6 seconds of mist every 3. 5 minutes between 8: 00 and 20: 00 hours daily. Shoot sections and attached leaves were examined at weekly intervals for pigment (色质 and tissue changes as 色质) 色质 well as for development of lateral shoots. After 26～28 days the sections were rinsed ～ to remove adherent material and dried at room temperature (approximately 22℃ ) ℃ for a week. The adventitious roots from each section were removed with needle-nose forceps, dried at 60℃ for 24 hours, and ℃ then weighed to determine dry biomass. One lake site 5-cm section was lost during processing. 分析: 此部分严格按照时间顺序描述实验过 段描述采样的时间, 程.第 1 段描述采样的时间,试样的来源与 数量. 的试样来自三个地带, 数量. 名叫 千屈莱" "千屈莱" 的试样来自三个地带, 分别代表三种生长环境. 分别代表三种生长环境.试样的数量分别是
5,10,6 棵.第 2 段首先描述实验基地,及 , , 段首先描述实验基地, 其环境与条件. 其环境与条件.然后客观描述实验的详细过 程与步骤.描述某一研究方法时, 程与步骤.描述某一研究方法时,要考虑读 者是否了解此方法.如果不了解, 者是否了解此方法.如果不了解,描述便需 要详细一些.这一点在农, 医学,教育, 要详细一些.这一点在农,林,医学,教育, 社会科学,环境科学等领域尤为突出. 社会科学,环境科学等领域尤为突出.例 2 中的选段描述的是一个关于生活用水和农 业用水质量" 业用水质量 " 函授培训班的教学与评估方 由于教学过程与评估方法的特殊性, 法.由于教学过程与评估方法的特殊性,读 者事先不可能对它有详细了解 不可能对它有详细了解, 者事先不可能对它有详细了解,所以文中要 描述得清楚,详细一些. 描述得清楚,详细一些. 例2 Correspondence Teaching Methods  The program evaluated in this research was a correspondence training course entitled "Quality Water for Home and Farm" developed for county extension agents( 函授部学员 The program began 函授部学员). with a one-day meeting followed by seven monthly written lessons. The program concluded with another one-day meeting. The one lesson-per-month format was
selected to allow agents to complete the assignments as part of their regular work schedule.  The program followed a simple model for identifying water quality problems and potential solutions. Step 1: Identify the beneficial uses of water (such as for drinking water, livestock water, irrigation, recreation). Step 2: Test the water to ensure that it is of sufficient quality for the beneficial use. Step 3: If water quality problems are identified, examine correction options in four categories to determine which is most affordable and appropriate. The categories are: 1. Protect the supply from the contaminant; 2. Find and eliminate the contaminant source; 3. Treat the water to remove the contaminant;
4. Find and develop a new water supply.  Steps 1 and 2 on water testing were presented to participants in the initial six-hour meeting. The first correspondence lesson also covered water testing. The six remaining correspondence lessons addressed each of the options for solving water quality problems. Water treatment was divided into three lessons; disinfection, treatment of nuisance waters, and removals of toxins. The final lesson and final meeting covered the development of new water supplies. Each written lesson contained reading material, references, teaching materials, questions, calculations, and exercises. Agents taking the water quality correspondence training were required to return assignments each month to remain enrolled in the program. Letters of encouragement were sent to delinquents. At
the end of the program, extension agents who completed the program received certificates. A list of graduates was distributed to extension administrators, faculty, and staff. Evaluation Methods The participants were tested to evaluate the extent of learning. Simple tests were constructed of true/false, multiple choice, and fill-in-the-blank questions to address the important aspects of the program using methods described by Ary et al. (1990). A written pretest was administered at the beginning of the first meeting. A post test of similar but different questions was administered at the end of the closing meeting. The purpose of the pretest was to measure the previous knowledge of the participants. The participants may also learn the subject matter from the pretest, become familiar with the testing approach and therefore be less anxious when taking
the post test.  The post tests were used to measure the increased knowledge and skills of the participants following the inservice. The post tests also served to reinforce the most important aspects of the training and helped illustrate to the participants and instructor where additional study may be required.  Acquisition of new skills was evaluated using practicum exercises and demonstrations. Following instruction in how to interpret a test report each participant was given a water test report and asked to write their interpretation. After being taught how to collect a water sample, five agents were selected at random and asked to collect a water sample for the instructor.  The teaching activity of the agents was measured through their monthly assignment reports.
分析: 分析: 例 2 比较详细地描述一个函授培训班的管 教学与评估方法. 理,教学与评估方法.第 1～4 段为管理与 ～ 教学方法. 教学方法.篇章的布局模式基本上是先后顺 序与步骤式, 序与步骤式,即按照培训班的三个主要阶段 的先后顺序来安排文章的结构. 的先后顺序来安排文章的结构. 第 5～8 段介绍培训班学习效果的评估方 ～ 共采用三种方法进行评估. 法.共采用三种方法进行评估.第 5～6 段 ～ 介绍对主要教学内容的整体评估方法, 介绍对主要教学内容的整体评估方法,也就 培训前测试)与 是将 pretest(培训前测试 与 posttest(培训后 培训前测试 培训后 测试)相结合的方法 相结合的方法. 测试 相结合的方法.第 7 段和第 8 段分别 介绍教学过程中单项技能评估方法. 介绍教学过程中单项技能评估方法. 7.1.1 描述方法时的语言特点 采用被动语态的过去式是描述实验方法 采用被动语态的过去式是描述实 验方法 与过程时最典型的句子结构特点. 与过程时最典型的句子结构特点.这并不是 科技英语写作中的什么规定或者原则, 科技英语写作中的什么规定或者原则,而是 因为在描述实验过程或方法时, 因为在描述实验过程或方法时,句子中的主 题或中心是实验材料,场地和方法本身, 题或中心是实验材料,场地和方法本身,表 做了什么" 怎么做的"之意, 达"做了什么""怎么做的"之意,而不是 , 表达"谁做了什么" 因此,在描述方法时, 表达"谁做了什么" 因此,在描述方法时, . 常将实验材料或受试者作为主语, 常将实验材料或受试者作为主语,谓语动词 自然要用被动语态. 自然要用被动语态.我们可以利用例 1 和例
2 中的句子加以说明. 中的句子加以说明. 例 3 中的句子都摘自例 1"Materials and " Methods"部分, 部分, 部分 句中的动词都用了被动语态 的过去式: 的过去式: 例3 a. … entire purple loosestrife plants were harvested … b. Shoot sections of 5, 10, and 15 cm lengths mere cut… and positioned… … … c. The flats were maintained in… … d. Shoot sections and attached leaves were examined… … e. … the sections mere rinsed to remove adherent material and dried… … f. The adventitious roots from each section were removed … dried at 60 ℃ … and then weighed 例 4 中的句子摘自例 2 中的第 5～8 段,即 ～ Evaluation Methods(评估方法 部分, 评估方法)部分 动词的 评估方法 部分, 形式也多用被动语态和过去时态. 形式也多用被动语态和过去时态.
例4 a. The participants were tested to evaluate the extent of learning. b. A written pretest was administered at the beginning of the first meeting. e. A post test of similar but different questions was administered at the end of the closing meeting … d. The post tests were used to measure the increased knowledge… … e. Acquisition of new skills was evaluated using practicum exercises… … f. Each participant was given a water test report and asked to write their interpretation. g. Five agents were selected at random and asked to collect a water sample for the instructor. h. The teaching activity of the agents was measured through their monthly assignment reports.
例 4 中的各个句子依次描述评估过程中的 各个环节. 各个环节. 表达 测验了什么" 如何测验" "测验了什么" 如何测验" , " 之意.至于谁来测验,却无关紧要. 之意.至于谁来测验,却无关紧要. 7.1.2 描述公式 在正文部分的假设,理论分析, 在正文部分的假设,理论分析,数理模型 的建立以及计算过程中; 的建立以及计算过程中;常常要推导并描述 公式, 公式,写作者必须了解并熟悉描述公式的基 本方法.下面举一个简单的例子加以说明. 本方法.下面举一个简单的例子加以说明. 例5 A premier of our analysis is that muscle strength is approximately proportional to the limb cross-section area. A verification of this premise can be obtained by referring to weight lifting data. To this end, consider that a weight lifter's own weight W is proportional to his or her volume. That is, W = α l3 , (1) where α is a constant of proportionality and l is a characteristic length. According to
our premise, however, a weight lifter's strength S is proportional to his or her limb cross-section area. That is, S=βl2, β (2) where β is a constant of proportionality. By eliminating l between equation (1) and (2), we have S = KW2/3 or S/W2/3 = K, (3) where K is the constant: β/α2/3. α Equation (3) is interpreted as saying that the ratio of a weight lifter's strength (lifting ability) is proportional to his or her own weight raised to the 2/3 power. Alternatively, the ratio of the strength to weight to the 2/3 power is constant. 分析: 分析: 可以看出, 从例 5 可以看出,写公式时应做到以下 几点: 几点: (1)每个公式占一行,位置要居中,公式 每个公式占一行, 每个公式占一行 位置要居中, 要写得清楚. 要写得清楚.
(2)在一篇文章中有两个或两个以上公 在一篇文章中有两个或两个以上公 式时,要按先后出现的顺序编号 后出现的顺序编号, 式时,要按先后出现的顺序编号,加 上圆括号,列在一行的最右端. 上圆括号,列在一行的最右端. (3)行文中 , 要将公式看做一个单词处 行文中, 行文中 也就是说, 理,也就是说,如果公式是一句话的 结束,则在公式后加句号,否则, 结束,则在公式后加句号,否则,根 据情况用合适的标点. 据情况用合适的标点. (4)公式中的符号如果是第一次出现, 公式中的符号如果是第一次出现, 公式中的符号如果是第一次出现 要 加以解释. 加以解释 . 解释时用 where 或 in which 引导,表示"在式中……"之 引导,表示"在式中……" ……"之 意.公式中的符号也作为一个单词处 理,所以符号后的谓语动词用单数形 式.如: …where K is the constant.在这种情况下, .在这种情况下, where 要顶头,且小写. 要顶头,且小写. (5) 行 文 中 涉 及 某 一 公 式 时 , 要 用 Equation(…)或 Equ. (…)表示.关于数字, 表示. …或 … 表示 关于数字, 公式与符号的问题, 公式与符号的问题,可参见第 1 章. 7.2 描述研究结果 通过研究,实验, 通过研究,实验,计算所得出的数据和 结果可以用不同的方法表示,如表格, 结果可以用不同的方法表示,如表格,示意 曲线图,流程图,照片等, 图,曲线图,流程图,照片等,并伴有文字
解说. 解说. 结果部分应客观地, 结果部分应客观地,如实地展示计算结 果和数据.除此以外, 果和数据.除此以外,作者还要对所得到的 数据进行定性或定量分析; 数据进行定性或定量分析;从结果中得出推 论或结论;说明产生某些意外现象的原因; 论或结论;说明产生某些意外现象的原因; 与他人的研究结果作比较等. 与他人的研究结果作比较等.而这些内容实 际上是在对结果进行讨论,所以, 际上是在对结果进行讨论,所以,在结果部 分往往伴有讨论的成分. 分往往伴有讨论的成分. 7.2.1 图表及文字说明 图表及文字说明 很明显,此部分的任务是将研究的结果, 很明显,此部分的任务是将研究的结果, 所得到的数据经过技术处理后公布于世. 所得到的数据经过技术处理后公布于世.为 了清楚起见, 了清楚起见,作者往往将研究结果用图表方 式表示,使读者一目了然. 式表示,使读者一目了然.图表的类型与作 用见表 7.1. . 表 7.1
主要作用 外观, 外观,形状 地点 安装步骤 工作原理 有关参数间的关系
照片或绘图(photo 照片或绘图(photo or drawing) 地图(map) 地图(map) 示意图(diagram) 示意图(diagram) 流程图(flow 流程图(flow chart) 线形图(graph) 线形图(graph)
圆形图(pie 圆形图(pie chart) 柱形图(bar 柱形图(bar chart) (ba 表格(table) 表格(table) 结构图(structured 结构图(structured diagram)
百分比 数据之间的比较 罗列数据 零件与构造
同时, 同时,图表中的内容要用文字来加以说 在文字说明中,如果提及图表, 明.在文字说明中,如果提及图表,表格用 序号" 表示, "Table+序号" 序号 表示, "Table 1 shows…" 如 …" . 其他各种类型的图都可用" 序号" 其他各种类型的图都可用 " Figure+序号" 序号 表 示 , 如 " From Figure2 we learn " . 这个词可以简缩为" "Figure"这个词可以简缩为"Fig." 但必 这个词可以简缩为 " , 须做到前后统一,如用缩写,便都用缩写. 须做到前后统一,如用缩写,便都用缩写. 文字说明的目的是: 文字说明的目的是: (1)如实描述表中的数据,通过归纳,总 如实描述表中的数据 如实描述表中的数据,通过归纳, 结,按主次依次加以陈述: 按主次依次加以陈述: (2)指出并解释意想不到的数据; 指出并解释意想不到的数据; 指出并解释意想不到的数据 (3)与他人的研究结果进行比较; 与他人的研究结果进行比较; 与他人的研究结果进行比较 (4)提出某些问题或见解, 提出某些问题或见解, 提出某些问题或见解 展望未来研究 方向. 方向. 在以上四个目的中,第一个目的是最关 在以上四个目的中, 键而且是必不可少的. 键而且是必不可少的.其他三项根据具体情 况而定. 况而定.文字说明不等于将图表中的内容或
数据重复一遍, 数据重复一遍,要对图表中的数据加以必要 的综合,提炼,强调主要结果. 的综合,提炼,强调主要结果.为了便于读 者查找, 者查找,在文字说明中必须指明图或表的序 号. 是水质量函授培训班(见例 教学效 例 6 是水质量函授培训班 见例 2)教学效 果研究的结果. 果研究的结果. 例6 Table 1 Pre/Post Test Results for 15 Graduates
Test Result Areas of Knowledge Tested
Percentage of participants who co
the questions on the pre/p Pretest ( previous knowledge) Bottled water Ponds for water supply Proper spring development Proper well construction Water supply source Nitrate removal 71 53 59 29 53 71 Post test (leamed knowledge) 29 47 24 47 35 18 100 100 83 76 88 89
Pretest ( previous knowledge ) Carbon filters Corrosion control Hydrogen sulfide removal Iron removal Water softening Disinfection alternatives Source of bacterial contamination 71 53 24 18 94 38 18 53
Post test (learned knowledge ) 12 29 47 35 6 41 53 18 6 71
83 82 71 53 100 79 71 71 100 71
Eliminate corrosion problem. 94 Elements of safe well 4 solutions to water quality problems special water test routine water test 53 59 0
Table 1 shows in two areas 94 % of the 15 participants responded correctly to the pretest questions. 2Participants showed the majority of them have previous knowledge
of the elements of a safe well and water softening. 3In six areas, fewer than 50 % answered correctly on the pretest indicating that they are important areas to cover in the training. 4Participants showed limited previous knowledge in source of bacterial problems, disinfection, iron removal, hydrogen sulfide removal, and proper well construction technique. 5None of the participants could list all four solutions to a water quality problem on the pretest. 6The post test showed that most participants learned, to a different extent, about the 18 areas while participating in the program. 7 Following the training most of the participants had a good understanding of all these topics about water quality, with the exception of iron removal technique. 8 Altogether only 53% of the participants responded correctly to the questions related in this area. 9This indicates that in later programs more work should be done to
improve the participants' iron removal technique. 分析: 分析: (1)如前所述, 如前所述, 如前所述 图表中的文字描述要说明 图或表的序号. 图或表的序号.以上文字说明中的第 1 句话 Table l shows…便是如此. …便是如此. (2)研究结果要按主次先后排列, 研究结果要按主次先后排列, 研究结果要按主次先后排列 以上文 字说明中的第 1～5 句话描述培训前的测试 ～ 结果, 结果,根据学员回答问题的好坏情况排列句 子的顺序 : 94 % (the majority)… 50 % … … limited knowledge… none….第 6—8 句话 … … — 描述培训后测试的结果. 描述培训后测试的结果.说明了哪些方面的 知识学员掌握较好,哪些方面比较欠缺. 知识学员掌握较好,哪些方面比较欠缺. (3)第 9 句话根据测试结果找出了问题 第 所在,提出以后的培训班应加强哪方面的训 练. 例7 Table 5 Strategies Used by Chinese Scientists When Writing in English
Strategy Borrow phrases from English publications Write in Chinese and translate oneself Write in Chinese and employ a translator English Write directly in English Outline in Chinese and then write in English Other strategies
Percentag 26% 20% 18% 15% 12% 9%
As is shown in Table 5, at least half of the scientists surveyed adopted writing strategies that involved the use of their first language. 2Moreover, only 15 % appear capable of writing directly in English. 3 Overall, the figures would appear to suggest that most Chinese scientists have difficulties and frustrations when preparing papers for English speaking audiences. 4 Nevertheless, all the findings need to be treated with some caution, since they are based on what scientists said they did, rather than on direct observations of their writing. 5Case studies of actual writing
practices would be one possible direction for further research. 分析: 分析: 第 1～2 句通过综合表中的数据,得出 ～ 句通过综合表中的数据, 最主要结果: 最主要结果:中国科技工作者用英语写论文 至少一半人需要借用母语作为媒介; 时,至少一半人需要借用母语作为媒介;只 的人能够直接用英语写作. 有 15%的人能够直接用英语写作. 3 句话 的人能够直接用英语写作 第 是作者根据表中数据所做的推断. 是作者根据表中数据所做的推断.第 4 句为 本次调查的局限性. 本次调查的局限性.第 5 句指出进一步研究 的方向. 的方向. 7.2.2 文字说明中的语言运用技巧 文字说明中的动词要用一般现在时态, 文字说明中的动词要用一般现在时态, 选用的动词要慎重, 选用的动词要慎重,因为不同的动词表示研 究结果的可靠性不同, 究结果的可靠性不同,同时也表示作者不同 的判断,推理和态度. 的判断,推理和态度. 例8 a . Table 1 shows the majority of the participants have previous knowledge of the elements of a safe
well. . b. Table 2 provides details of the test . results. . C. Figure 4.2 gives the results of the . experiment. . d.Both"these questions received very . " high ratings (see Table 1). . e . The results show that 92 % used information on water testing in local news outlets (Figure2). . 动词的语态可以灵活使用, 动词的语态可以灵活使用,使句型多样 上述句型也可变为被动语态, 化.上述句型也可变为被动语态,如: 例9 a.The test results are shown in Table 1. . b. It is shown from Table 1 that both of these questions received very high ratings. c. Details of the test results are provided in Table 2. d. A complete listing of response frequencies is given in Table 1.
用 于 文 字 说 明 中 的 动 词 还 有 give , present, summarize, illustrate, reveal, , , , , display,indicate,suggest,provide 等,但 , , , 在用法上和含义上这些词各有区别. 在用法上和含义上这些词各有区别.其中有 些动词后既可接名词作宾语, 些动词后既可接名词作宾语,也可接宾语从 而有些动词后只接名词作宾语, 句.而有些动词后只接名词作宾语,而不接 宾语从句. 宾语从句. 例 10 a. Table 1 gives the details of the test results. (正) 正 b. Table 1 gives that the majority of the participants have previous knowledge of the elements of a safe well. (误) 误 c. Table 1 provides information about the most common sources of pollutants. (正) 正 d. Table 1 provides that 92 % of the graduates were able to correctly collect a water sample following the training. (误) 误 e. Table 1 shows that 98 % of the graduates were able to interpret a routine test
report. (正) 正 表示图表编号时, 表示图表编号时 , 除了上述表达方法 还常用" 引导的分句 引导的分句. 外,还常用"as"引导的分句. 例 11 a.As shown in Table 1,about half the . , graduates conducted meetings in water testing. . b. As can be seen in Figure 1,80% of the , % participants correctly responded to the pretest questions. . c. As revealed by the following graph,the , defect rate has declined. . 中的句子可以看出 在用" " 从例 11 中的句子可以看出,在用"as" 引导的分句时,要选用合适的介词. 引导的分句时,要选用合适的介词.如: a.As shown in table 3… . … b. As can be seen from the data in table 1… … c. As shown by the data in table 1… … d. As described on page 24… … 7.3 讨论部分的写法
7.3.1 讨论的内容 学术论文的讨论部分介于结果(Results)与 学术论文的讨论部分介于结果 与 结论(Conclusion)之间, 但又没有明确的界 之间, 结论 之间 作者可以在描述研究结果之后, 限.作者可以在描述研究结果之后,对结果 进行一定的归纳 总结,分析,解释,比较, 一定的归纳, 进行一定的归纳,总结,分析,解释,比较, 提出自己的见解. 提出自己的见解.这样讨论也就融进了结果 之中,不需单辟一节来处理.同样, 之中,不需单辟一节来处理.同样,作者也 可将讨论融进结论部分,与结论合二为一. 可将讨论融进结论部分,与结论合二为一. 详细的讨论一般包括以下内容: 详细的讨论一般包括以下内容: (1)对研究结果进行综合,分析和归纳, 对研究结果进行综合, 对研究结果进行综合 分析和归纳, 并把研究结果上升到理论的层次进 行探讨,分析研究结果的意义; 行探讨,分析研究结果的意义; (2)指出自己的成果与他人的研究成果 指出自己的成果与他人的研究成果 有何异同; 有何异同; (3)在讨论中还可以对没有意想到的结 在讨论中还可以对没有意想到的结 果加以解释; 果加以解释; (4)指出并分析自己研究的局限性, 指出并分析自己研究的局限性, 指出并分析自己研究的局限性 提出 需要进一步研究的问题; 需要进一步研究的问题; (5)为以后的研究指明方向, 为以后的研究指明方向, 为以后的研究指明方向 并将研究成 果与实际生活应用相结合. 果与实际生活应用相结合.
如果这些内容包括在讨论中, 如果这些内容包括在讨论中,也就完全 可以当作文章的结论了. 可以当作文章的结论了. 此部分的内容相对来说有一定的灵活 写法上也没有固定不变的模式, 性.写法上也没有固定不变的模式,可以从 许多方面入手, 说明研究结果的意义, 许多方面入手,如:说明研究结果的意义, 对研究结果进行总结, 对研究结果进行总结 , 比较他人的研究结 回顾研究的目的等. 果,回顾研究的目的等. 例 12 Discussion  Decline survey and mortality data provide two alternative forms of information about the health of a forest. Decline surveys are most useful for obtaining an assessment of the current condition of a forest and are useful for long term studies monitoring forest health. Mortality data provide a current assessment of the forest conditions and may or may not be attributable to decline. Thus, we are able to examine the current health of this representative oak-hickory forest and draw
tentative conclusions about past conditions based on current structural data (McClenahen and McCarthy 1990).  Much of our data can be explained in the context of forest succession and known disease patterns. Clearly, sporadic insect out-breaks and climatic events have caused excessive mortality of certain species in certain stands. Some stands exhibited mortality as high as 40 %. However, an average of 20 % dead stems in a stand appears to be reasonable without inferring excessive mortality or decline.  Decline symptoms were not evident for the major canopy dominants. Living stems of both Quercus spp and Carya spp appeared healthy. However, these two groups had reasonably high mortality (16-17%). Whether these mortality patterns are inordinately "high" or just "average" for mature, second-growth oak-hickory vegetation is not particularly clear. 
Several studies have taken a populational approach to the examination of declining health of Ohio' s forest species. McClenahen and McCarthy (1990) determined that a significant decrease in crown vigor of Pinus rigida could be due to air pollution in the Ohio valley. Likewise a similar study indicated a possible connection between pollution and altered patterns in white oak (McClenahen and Dochinger 1985). These and other studies indicate pollution as a possible factor in decline, but, as these authors acknowledge, absolute linkage between cause and effect is often very difficult to prove. Nash et al. (1992) encountered a similar problem in examining the health of oak-hickory vegetation in central Pennsylvania.  As methods used to monitor decline are often varied, comparing results across the board can be quite difficult. Therefore, more research is needed into the best
measures of forest decline. 分析: 分析: 这段讨论比较全面. 这段讨论比较全面. 1 段讨论研究结 第 果的重要意义与作用. 果的重要意义与作用.第 2 段和第 3 段总结 主要研究结果. 主要研究结果.第 4 段将本次研究结果与他 人的研究结果作比较,发现问题所在. 人的研究结果作比较,发现问题所在.第 5 段指出本次研究的局限性, 段指出本次研究的局限性,指明今后研究的 方向. 方向. 应该指出的是, 应该指出的是, 讨论部分经常需要回顾 并提到研究结果,从研究结果中提炼出要点 并提到研究结果,从研究结果中提炼出要点 (main points).这样作者可以将每一个要点 . 分开一个一个地进行讨论. 分开一个一个地进行讨论. 7.3.2 语言运用技巧 从语言方面来看, 从语言方面来看,我们可以将它与结果部 分的语言进行比较.在结果部分, 分的语言进行比较.在结果部分,语言往往 比较具体,客观,而在讨论中, 比较具体,客观,而在讨论中,语言带有一 定概括性,同时, 定概括性,同时,可能会用一些表达主观态 度的字眼. 度的字眼. 在以下的句子中, , 在以下的句子中,a,b 两句话摘自结 果部分, 语言比较具体, 果部分, 语言比较具体, 用了具体数据 52%, %,
19%等.c 和 d 两句话摘自讨论或结论中, % 两句话摘自讨论或结论中, 用了表示概括的副词修饰语 overall. . 例 13 a. Of 62 shoot sections, 52% (n=32) exhibited pigment/necrotic changes and 19% (n = 12) died (Table 1). b. Seven shoots died after developing some necrotic tissues, five became necrotic but did not die, and five died without necrosis (Table 1 ). c. Overall, our study revealed a variety of patterns at the community and population levels, none of which seem to indicate obvious decline in southeastern Ohio's oak-hickory forests. d. The overall results indicate that the Quality Water for Home and Farm correspondence program met the objectives set for the program and was an effective method to deliver water quality and management training.
表 示 概 括 的 词 或 词 组 还 有 : on the whole, the main, in generally, majority the , , , of,most 等. , 讨论部分表示研究局限性的主要句型 如下: 如下: 例 14 a. It should be noted that this study has examined only… … b. This analysis has concentrated on… … c. The findings of this study are restricted to… … d. This study has addressed only the question of… … e. The limitations of this study are clear… … f. We should like to point out that we have not… … g. However, the findings do not imply… … h. The result of the study cannot be taken as evidence for… … i. Unfortunately, we are unable to determine from this data… … 在对研究结果进行归纳,总结,分析, 在对研究结果进行归纳,总结,分析,
推理时,措词要慎重, 推理时,措词要慎重,注意不同词的不同含 义和分量, 义和分量 , 以将自己的观点准确地表达出 技巧如下: 来.技巧如下: 技巧 1:用情态动词 : 最常用情态动词有 will,can,may,及 , , , 其过去式 would, could,might 等,这三 , , 个情态动词语气依次减弱. 个情态动词语气依次减弱.同一情态动词的 过去式比现在式语气弱. 过去式比现在式语气弱. 例 15 a. Valuable experience will be gained in class through examples given by the teacher and the type of work students do in class. b. Valuable experience can be gained in class through examples given by the teacher and the type of work students do in class. c. Valuable experience may be gained in class through examples given by the teacher and the type of work students do in class. d. More information could be obtained
through an individual evaluation of a cross section of different types of student science projects. e. Data collected by the researcher would be more reliable than data collected from many different teachers. f. These high ratings might be due to self reporting. 技巧 2:用某些形容词和副词 : 英语中, 英语中, 不同的形容词和副词可以表达 作者不同的态度和语气, 作者不同的态度和语气 , 如 certainly, of , course,absolutely,definitely,clearly 等词 , , , 用来加强语气,表示作者态度肯定; 用来加强语气,表示作者态度肯定;almost certain,probably,highly likely 次之.而 次之. , , 1ikely, unlikely, possible, possibly, perhaps , , , , 等词表示作者没有把握,语气比较弱. 等词表示作者没有把握,语气比较弱. 例 16 a. Teachers certainly hesitate to report that they do not help students with science projects through modeling. b. This forest will likely be converted to a maple-dominated forest. Evaluation of
decline symptoms in smaller size classes might provide additional useful information to be used in understanding the oak regeneration problems. c. It is likely/possible that teachers hesitate to report that they do not help students with science projects through modeling. d. Perhaps teachers hesitate to report that they do not help students with science projects through modeling. 例 17 a. It is clear that… … b. It is very unlikely that… … c. It is highly improbable that… … d. There is a strong possibility that… … e. There is a good possibility that… … f. There is a slight possibility that… … g. There is a remote possibility that… …
技巧 3:用 seem,appear,tend 等动词 : , , 这三个动词用在另一动词之前, 这三个动词用在另一动词之前, 构成 seem to+do/be/have, appear to do/be/have, / / , / / , tend to do/be/have 的结构,表示陈述的现 的结构, / 内容或观点还有进一步探讨的余地. 象,内容或观点还有进一步探讨的余地.试 比较: 比较: 例 18 a.Science projects are an important part . of science education. . (态度肯定 态度肯定) 态度肯定 b . Science projects appear to be an important part of science education.(根据某些现象, 研究或 根据某些现象, . 根据某些现象 分析而得出的结论, 分析而得出的结论,暗示还有进一步 研究的余地. 研究的余地.) c.However,an average of 20% dead . , % stems in a small stand is reasonable without inferring excessive mortality or decline.(态度肯定 态度肯定) . 态度肯定 d.However,an average of 20% dead . , % stems in a small stand seems to be reasonable without inferring
excessive mortality or decline.(态度 . 态度 不肯定, 不肯定 , 暗示还有进一步研究的余 地.) 下面的句子语气依次减弱: 下面的句子语气依次减弱: 例 19 e. Supportive help from parents and other adults also improves the effectiveness of student science projects. f. Supportive help from parents and other adults tends to improve the effectiveness of student science projects. g. Supportive help from parents and other adults appears to improve the effectiveness of student science projects. h. Supportive help from parents and other adults seems to improve the effectiveness of student science projects. i. It would appear that supportive help from parents and other adults also improve the effectiveness of student science projects. j. Overall, the figures would appear to
suggest that most Chinese scientists have difficulties and frustrations when preparing papers for English speaking audiences. 上述三个技巧都涉及到增加一些词, 如 上述三个技巧都涉及到增加一些词, 增加情态动词,增加副词;增加动词等, 增加情态动词,增加副词;增加动词等,最 后还有一种技巧则是选用不同的词以表示 不同的含义与态度. 不同的含义与态度. 技巧 4:选用不同的动词 : 在分析,综合,归纳,推理过程中, 在分析,综合,归纳,推理过程中,常 常 会 使 用 下 列 动 词 : show , prove , illustrate, reveal, suggest, indicate, support, , , , , , clarify, verify 等.这些动词含义不同,因 这些动词含义不同, , 此也可以起到加强或缓和语气的作用. 此也可以起到加强或缓和语气的作用. 例 20 a. Table 1 shows that Venezuelan scientists may need help with writing English. (强) 强 b. Table 1 suggests that Chinese scientists may need help with
writing English. (弱) 弱 c. The overall results prove that the Quality Water for Home and Farm correspondence program met the objectives set for the program and was an effective method to deliver water quality and management training. (强) 强 d. The overall results indicate that the Quality Water for Home and Farm correspondence program met the objectives set for the program and was an effective method to deliver water quality and management training. (弱) 弱 e. Overall, our study revealed a variety of patterns at the community and population levels. (强) 强 f. None of the studies indicate obvious decline in southeastern Ohio' s oak-hickory forests. (弱) 弱 g.The results given in Figure 4 validate the second hypothesis. h.The results given in Figure 4 support the
second hypothesis. i. The test results suggest that more work should be done do improve the agents management skills. (弱) 弱
一 , 根据下列各段话的内容和语言特 点,判断各段话摘自研究论文正文中的哪个 部分(Methods,Results,or Discussion)? 部分 , , 1. Male red-winged blackbirds were recorded and observed. Analog tape-recordings of vocalizations were completed and territorial behaviors were monitored for each subject during three separate 30 minute observation periods. Females were observed in each subject's territory during recording. Individual territories and perching positions were mapped for each subject. 2. From the 41 responses received, only 5 were form schools whose students only
completed team projects. 32 responses were from school whose students completed only individual projects. This is reflected in the high frequency of disagree and strongly disagree responses to question 28 (see Table1). 3. A copy of the questionnaire can be seen in Fig. 1. The questions were designed to match each of the eight goals and five methods for science as defined in this study. The questions were then examined by several professional educators in the field of science. The viewers' comments were used to develop questions for each goal. The experts' opinions were in agreement that the final version of the questionnaire was worded appropriately and that the content of the questions matched these goals for science education. 4. Science projects were rated
overwhelmingly and consistently positive on each of the eight educational goals for science. In the minds of the teachers, science projects are an effective way to address the new educational goals. The rating frequencies show that teachers think science projects are especially effective in incorporating hands-on/minds-on science. 5. The analysis shows 52 % of the graduates used their exhibits at events in their county (Fig. 4). Many graduates (64 % ) collected water samples in their county, 56 % established a water sample collection point in their county for transport to a water testing lab, and 48 % demonstrated sample collection. 6. The plants produce viable shoot sections, which are capable of growth and may serve as vegetative propagules ( 繁 殖 体 ). Development of new tissues is a clear sign of
healthy, growing shoot sections and indicates that the sections could go on to produce mature plants if left undisturbed. Under our growth conditions, 80% of shoot sections could have matured into seed-producing plants. 二,排列下列句子次序. 排列下列句子次序. 1. However, it is alarming to note that the source of nearly 30 % of viral infections cannot be determined. 2. As can be seen, in the majority of cases, the source of viral infection can be detected, with disks being brought to the work place from home being by far the most significant. 3. While it may be possible to eliminate home-to-workplace infection by requiring computer users to run antiviral software on diskettes brought from home,
businesses are still vulnerable to major data loss, especially from unidentifiable sources of infection. 4. Table 1 shows the most common modes of infection for U. S. businesses. Correct order:________________ 三,判断下面这段话摘自研究论文的哪个部 并分析其结构和每句话的作用. 分,并分析其结构和每句话的作用. 1 Table 11 shows the number of years to complete a doctoral program for both U.S. and international students at a major research university. 2As can be seen, international students on average complete doctoral programs in less time than U.S. students in all divisions. 3The difference in years to completion ranges from a relatively low 0.3 years in physical sciences/engineering and humanities/ arts to a high of 2.8 years in individual departmental programs. 4The consistent
difference in time to degree is not fully understood at present. 5However, one key factor may be motivation. 6Many international students have considerable external pressures, including sponsorship/scholarship restrictions, family obligations, and employer demands, which could influence the length of time it takes to earn a doctorate. 四,在下列句中增加或替换适当的词,以减 在下列句中增加或替换适当的词, 弱句子的语气. 弱句子的语气. 1. The experience of older students is not necessary to be more successful with a science project. 2. One explanation for these differences is that teachers who most strongly believe science projects are valuable encourage their students to work harder and encourage them to go to science fair. 3. However, additional training is needed in disinfection alternatives, iron and
hydrogen sulfide removal, and proper well construction. 4. Some fluctuation is inevitable, since only less than 20 students took the qualifying exam each year. 5. As can be seen, the pass rate fluctuated quite widely. 6. From 1989 until the end of the period covered, pass rates have steadily climbed. 7. In fact, the pass rate is cyclical. 8. Other factors are the amount of research funding, the quality of the students themselves, and the priority given to doctoral funding. 9. Even so, the fact that 10 out of 15 students passed in 1985 caused the department to try and reduce its number of doctoral students the following year. 10. The overall results prove that the Quality Water for Home and Farm correspondence program met the
objectives set for the program and was an effective method to deliver water quality and management training. 五. 从下面的方框中选择适当的词分别填入 各个句子的空格中, 各个句子的空格中, 词的形式需作相应 变化. 变化. indicate see give explain provide illustrate assume demonstrate 1. For recharging of batteries the vehicle was backed into the station, ___________in Figure7. 2. The whole facility, including the steam boilers for generating power, is___________in Figure 9. 3. An evaluation of the Decline Index _________ that several species are in moderate to severe decline.
4. Much of the data can be__________ in the context of forest succession and known disease patterns. 5. The surveys ___________two alternative forms of information about the health of plants. 6. In each of the cases_____________below, the evolution of maximum surface wind speed in the model is compared to the observed evolution. 7. It is safe to___________ that most reported wind speeds in storms are based on radar measurements within six hours of the reporting time. 8. Figure 1____________ the observed and modeled evolution of Hurricane Opal. 9. An example of the first effect is__________ in Fig. 4. 10. A complete description of the model is _________ elsewhere.
一,根据下列各段话的内容和语言特点,判 根据下列各段话的内容和语言特点, 断各段话摘自研究论文正文中的哪个部分 (Methods,Results,or Discussion)? , , 1. Methods 2. Results 3. Methods 4. Discussion 5. Results 6. Discussion 二,排列下列句子次序. 排列下列句子次序. Correct order:4-2-1—3 : — 三,判断下面这段话摘自研究论文的哪个部 并分析其结构和每句话的作用. 分,并分析其结构和每句话的作用. 部分. 这段话摘自 Results 部分. 中的主要内容. 第 1 句:概括 Table 11 中的主要内容. 概括主要结果. 第 2--3 句:概括主要结果. 解释研究结果. 第 4--6 句:解释研究结果. 四,在下列句中增加或替换适当的词,以减 在下列句中增加或替换适当的词, 弱句子的语气. 弱句子的语气.
1. The experience of older students may not be necessary to be more successful with a science project. 2. One possible explanation for these differences is that teachers who most strongly believe science projects are valuable encourage their students to work harder and encourage them to go to science fair. 3. However, additional training may be needed in disinfection alternatives, iron and hydrogen sulfide removal, and proper well construction. 4. Some fluctuation is probably inevitable, since only less than 20 students took the qualifying exam each year. 5. As can be seen, the pass rate appeared/seemed to fluctuate quite widely. 6. From 1989 until the end of the period covered, pass rates appeared/seemed to have steadily climbed.
7. In fact, the pass rate seems to be cyclical. 8. Other possible factors are the amount of research funding, the quality of the students themselves, and the priority given to doctoral funding. 9. Even so, the fact that 10 out of 15 students passed in 1985 probably caused the department to try and reduce its number of doctoral students the following year. 10. The overall results indicate that the Quality Water for Home and Farm correspondence program met the objectives set for the program and was an effective method to deliver water quality and management training. 五,从下面的方框中选择适当的词分别填入 各个句子的空格中, 各个句子的空格中 , 词的形式需作相应变 化.
1. illustrated/seen indicates/shows 4. explained 6. presented 7. assume 9. given 10. given
2. seen 5.