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Unit5 The Power of Nature Language points


Unit 5 The Power of Nature

Period 2 Learning Language

1. 短语积累 compare...with... burn to the ground fast asleep take notice of make an effort make one’s way (to...) be e

nthusiastic about be amazed at
与……比较

烧毁
熟睡 注意 努力 前往 对……充满热情;热爱 对……感到惊异

1. equipment n. [U] 设备;装备 【原句】Sometimes working outdoors, sometimes in an office, sometimes using scientific equipment and sometimes meeting local people and tourists, I am never bored. (P34) (我们)有时在室外工作,有时在办公室里,有时工作 中要用科学仪器,有时要会见当地百姓和旅游人士。 但是我从来不感到我的工作烦人。

? A computer is the most important piece of equipment you will buy.

计算机是你将要买的最重要的一件设备。

?He equipped himself with a street plan. 他随身带着一张街道平面图。 ? The course is designed to equip students for a career in nursing. 此课程旨在使学生能够胜任护理工作。

英语中有部分名词只用作不可数名词,除 equipment外,还有哪些? 【思考提示】 fun, advice, news, information,

luggage, clothing, furniture, homework, weather, progress, word(消息)等。

We aim to _____ young graduates for a competitive business environment. [2011抚顺高二检测] A. offer B. equip C. supply D. encourage

【解析】选B。句意:我们的目标是使年轻的毕业生

能够适应竞争激烈的商业环境。equip sb. for. . . 使某
人为……作好准备。

2. appoint vt. 任命;委派;安排,确定(时间、地点) 【原句】I was appointed as a volcanologist working for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) twenty years ago. (P34)

二十年前,作为一名火山学家,我被委派到夏威夷火 山观测站(HVO)工作。
appoint sb.as/to be... appoint sb. to do sth. 任命某人为?? 委派某人做某事

appoint a time/.place for sth./to do sth.
(为某事)确定(日期、场所)

? Li Xiaopeng, who was appointed head coach of China’s women’s football team in August, missed his target of at least achieving a medal at the Asian Games. 李霄鹏于8月份被任命为中国女足主教练,他未能完成 在亚运会上至少夺取一枚奖牌的目标。 ?He was appointed to the committee.

他被任命为委员会成员。
?We have not yet appointed a time for the next meeting. 我们还没安排下次会议时间。

appointment n. make an appointment with sb. keep/break an appointment

任命;约会 与某人约会 守/违约

?I’d love to go there with you, but I have an appointment with my lawyer. 我很想和你一起去那里,但我要约见我的律师。

It is said that a 23-year-old woman _____ deputy director of the state-owned properties management bureau of the city in February. A. appointed B. is appointed C. was appointed D. has been appointed 【解析】选C。句意:据说一名23岁女子于2月份被任 命为该市国资局副局长。woman 与appoint 之间为被 动关系, 再根据时间状语可知应用一般过去时的被 动语态。

3. wave n. [C]波浪;波涛; 挥手 vi. 波动;起伏; 挥手 【原句】The lava that flows slowly like a wave down the mountain causes far more damage because it buries everything in its path under the molten rock. (P34) 然而,顺着山坡往下流的像波浪一样的火山熔岩 所造成的损失却大得多,这是因为火山岩浆所流 经的地方,一切东西都被掩埋在熔岩下面。

?Huge waves were breaking on the shore. 巨浪拍打着海岸。 ?She gave a wave as she left the house. 她离家时挥了挥手。

?My mother cried when I waved goodbye to her. 我向母亲挥手告别时她哭了。 ?The policeman waved the driver to stop. 警察招手让司机把车停下来。

4. suit n. 一套外衣;套装 vt. 适合;使适宜 【原句】We had white protective suits that covered our whole body, helmets,big boots and special gloves. (P34) 我们都穿着白色的防护服,戴着头盔和特别的手套,还 穿了一双大靴子。 ? Our manager seldom wears anything other than a business suit whatever the season. 不管什么季节,我们 的经理总是穿西服,很少穿其他衣服。 ? It is almost impossible to find a time that suits everybody. 要想找到适合所有人的时间几乎是不可能的。

完成句子 waved to 1. The popular singer ___________ (向……挥手示 意)his fans. in the waves 2. Children swam and played _______________ (在 波浪中).

归纳总结:

suit n. 一套外衣;套装;vt. 适合;使适宜 suit sth. to sth.
使某物适合于另一事物

suitable adj.
be suitable to do sth.

适合的

be suitable for sb./sth. 适合于某人/某物
适合做某事

?The film is not suitable for young children. 这部电影少儿不宜。

?The trousers don’t fit him; they are too short. 这条裤子不合他的身,太短了。 ?This style of dress suits you well.

你穿这种款式的衣服很合适。
?Her clothes and hat don’t match.

她的衣服和帽子不协调。

用fit,suit,match填空 suit 1. Does this skirt _________ me? 2. Her clothes don't _________ her age. match fit 3. I tried the dress on but it didn't _______. It was too small.

Her shoes _____ her dress;they look very well together. [2008天津,13] A.suit B. fit C. compare D. match 【解析】选D。考查动词词义辨析。suit和fit均表示 “ 适 合 ” , compare 表 示 “ 比 较 , 对 照 ” , match“( 和 ……) 相 配 , ( 和 ……) 相 称 ” 。 由 句 意 “她的鞋和她的衣服相配,它们看起来很协调。” 可知应用match。

5. burn to the ground 全部焚毁

【原句】Unfortunately, we cannot move their homes out of the way, and many houses have been covered with lava or burned to the ground. (P34) 遗憾的是,我们不可能把他们的家搬离岩浆流过的地方, 因此,许多房屋被熔岩淹没,或者焚烧殆尽。
unfortunately adv. 不幸地(反) fortunately unfortunate adj. 不幸的 (反) fortunate fortune n. 运气,命运;财富,巨资 make a fortune 发财,致富 come into a fortune 继承一大笔财产

?She has no place to live in because her house has been burnt to the ground.

她无处栖身,因为她的房子被烧掉了。
?The forest was burnt to the ground. 那片森林被烧成了平地。 ?The spacecraft burned up as it entered the earth’s atmosphere. 宇宙飞船进入大气层时被烧毁了。

Don’t leave the gas on—you might _____ the house. A. cut down C. put down B. fall down D. burn down

【解析】选D。句意:不要让天然气一直开着——你 很可能把房子烧掉。burn down 烧毁,符合句意。 cut down 削减;fall down 倒塌;put down 放下。

6. make one’s way

(1)前往,向……走去(后接 to/towards+地点)
【原句】 It was not easy to walk in these suits,but we slowly made our way to the edge of the crater and looked down into the red,boiling centre. (P35)穿着这 些衣服走起路来确实不容易,但我们还是缓缓朝火山 口的边缘走去,并且向下看到了那红红的沸腾的中央。

?She made her way to her house.
她向家走去。

(2)成功;有所成就 ?So long as you work hard with a strong will, you can make your way in life. 只要你努力工作,意志坚强, 你的人生就会成功。

feel one's way
fight one‘s way Find one’s way lose one's way force one's way out push one‘s way wind one’s way

摸索着前行
打开一条血路 找到路,设法达到 迷路 挤出去;冲出去 挤过 蜿蜒前迚

(1) 看,很多孩子正往海滩走去。 Look! Many children are making their way to _________________the beach.
(2)由于在这方面没有经验,我们只能摸索着前进。 feel our way Without experience in it, we have to ________________. (3)我们在黑暗中迷了路。 lost our way We _______________ in the dark. (4)她从头至尾处理了那一堆文件。 worked her way She _________________ through the pile of documents.

Without experience on it, we have to _____ . A. feel our way B. make our way

C. push our way
【解析】选A。

D. lose our way

句意:由于在这方面没有经验,我们必须摸索着前 进。feel one’s way 摸索着前行;make one’s way 前 往;push one’s way 挤进去;lose one’s way 迷路。

7. potential (1)n. [U]潜在性;可能性;潜能 【原句】 Having studied volcanoes now for many years, I am still amazed at their beauty as well as their potential to cause great damage. (P35) 虽然我从事火山研究很多年了,但是我对火山的美以及 它那潜在的巨大破坏力至今仍然感到惊愕不已。

?He is a young singer with great potential. 他是个非常有潜力的年轻歌手。 ?As a composer, she still hasn’t realized her potential.

作为作曲家,她还没有把她的潜能发挥出来。
(2)adj. 可能的;潜在的

?This is a machine with several potential uses.
这是一台具有潜在功能的机器。

All the children should be encouraged to develop their full _____ for language in class. A. possibility B. potential C. increase D. opportunity 【解析】选B 句意:在课堂上,所有的孩子都应该被鼓励充分发挥 他们的语言潜能。potential 潜能;possibility 可能性; increase 增长;opportunity 机会。

8. She made an effort to be nice to her boss.(P37)
effort 可用做不可数名词,表“力气”。

It took a lot of effort to lift the boxes. 抬起那些箱子要花很大的力气。
effort 可用可数名词,表“费劲的事”“尝试”:

It was an effort to get up this morning.
今天早晨起床很费劲。

Despite all our efforts, we failed.
尽管我们尽了力,我们还是失败了。

拓展:
make an effort to do sth 努力做某事 make every effort to do sth. 尽一切努力做某事 spare no effort to do sth 不遗余力/极力做某事

1. I was appointed as a volcanologist working for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) twenty years ago. (P34) 二十年前,作为一名火山学家,我被委派到 夏威夷火山观测站(HVO)工作。
现在分词短语在句中作后置定语。 本句可理解为:Twenty years ago I was appointed as a volcanologist and worked for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO).

2. Having collected and evaluated the information, I help other scientists to predict where lava from the volcano will flow next and how fast. (P34) 收集和评估这些信息之后,我就帮助其他科学家一起 预测熔岩接着将往何处流,流速是多少。 evaluate vt. 评估;评价;估计

When you _____ the effectiveness of the drug, you should take the special situations into consideration. A. decide B. declare C. evaluate D. determine

【解析】选C。句意:当你在评估药物的疗效时,你应 该把一些特殊的情况考虑进去。evaluate 评价,评估; decide/determine 决定;declare 宣布。

(1)Having collected and evaluated the information 为现在分词的完成时, 在句中作时间状语,相当于 after引导的时间状语从句。where lava from the volcano will flow next and how fast为一宾语从句, 作动词predict的宾语。 (2)现在分词完成时的用法: 现在分词的完成时主要表示发生在谓语动作之前 的动作。

?Having experienced quite a few earthquakes in Hawaii already, I didn’t take mach notice.(P34) 由于在夏威夷经历了多次地震了,我就没有在意。

现在分词的完成式在句中作原因状语。本句可理解为:
I didn’t pay much attention because I had already experienced quite a few earthquakes in Hawaii. ?Having worked hard all day, I went to bed early. 已经劳累了一天,我早早上床睡觉了。

?Having been there once, quite well.

she knows the place

由于去过那儿一次,她对那地方很熟悉。 ?Having bought our tickets, theatre. 我们买好票后,就走进剧场。 we went into the

_____ there many times, I offered to introduce the history of the country to them.

A. I had been
C. Being

B. Having been
D. To be

【解析】选B。考查非谓语动词作状语的用法。句意: 由于我去过那个国家很多次了,我主动提出为他们介 绍那个国家的历史。非谓语动词动作发生在谓语动作 之前,因此此处用现在分词的完成时。

3. This is because no one lives near the top of Mount Kilauea, where the rocks fall. (P34) 这是因为在岩石下落的基拉韦厄火山顶附近无人居住。 This/That is because. . . 表示“这是/那是因为……”, because 引导表语从句。 ?She wouldn’t like to go out today; this is because she doesn’t feel well. 她今天不想出去,这是因为她觉得不舒服。

?This is why I love kids.

这就是我喜欢孩子的原因。
?I got wet all through. That’s because I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella. 我全身都淋湿了,因为我既没穿雨衣,也没带雨伞。 ?The reason why I liked the film was that it was funny.

我喜欢这部电影的原因是它很搞笑。

—My mother was ill and I had to look after her last week. —Is that _____ you had a few days off?

A. why

B. when

C. what

D. because

【解析】选A。句意:——上周我母亲生病了,我不 得不去照料她。——那就是你请了几天假的原因吗? why 表结果; because 表原因。

4. I was about to go back to sleep when suddenly my bedroom became as bright as day. (P34) 我刚要再睡,突然我的卧室亮如白昼。 “be about to . . . when. . . ” 表示“正要……这时(突 然)……”。when 在此为并列连词,意为 “ 就在这时(突然) ”。 ? I was about to go out when Tom came in. 我正要出去,这时汤姆进来了。 ? He was about to leave when the telephone rang. 他正要离开,突然电话铃响了起来。

?I was walking in the street when I saw my old friend Mary.
我正在街上走着,这时我看见了我的老朋友玛丽。

?I was about to go/on the point of going to your home to help you with your English when my uncle came.
我正要出门去你家辅导你英语,这时我叔叔来了。 ?I had just finished my work when you called me. 我刚完成工作这时你来电话了。

One Friday, we were packing to leave for a weekend away _____ my daughter heard cries for help. [2011浙江, 4] A. after B. while C. since D. when 【解析】选D。 考查时间状语从句。句意:有个星期五,我们正收拾 行囊准备外出度周末时,突然间女儿听到求救声。 “was/were doing. . . when”为固定句式,表示“正在 做……时突然……”, 所以D项正确。

5. It was not easy to walk in these suits, but we slowly made our way to the edge of the crater and looked down into the red, boiling centre. (P35) 穿着这些衣服走起路来确实不容易,但我们还是缓缓 朝火山口的边缘走去,并且向下看到了红红的沸腾的 中央。 本句可理解为:We felt it difficult to walk when we wore these suits, but we managed to get close to the edge of the crater and observed the red, boiling centre.

6. The other two climbed down into the crater to collect some lava for later study, but this being my first experience, I stayed at the top and watched them. (P35) 另外两人爬下火山口去收集供日后研究用的岩浆,因 为我是第一次经历这样的事,所以留在山顶上观察他 们。 (1)此句为并列句。而but分句中“this being my first experience” 是“代词+v.?ing”构成的独立主格结构, 在句中作原因状语,相当于原因状语从句: because this was my first experience, …

(2)独立主格结构的用法说明:
? 构成: 名词/主格代词+分词/不定式/介词短语/形容词/副词

? 功能:
其中名词戒代词起着逻辑主语的作用;另一部分表示状态、状 况戒动作。

? 特性:
独立主格结构本身不是句子(无谓语) ,但在语义上相当于一个 句子。在句子中作状语,表示时间、原因、条件、伴随等。独 立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。

?Time permitting, I will finish another lesson.

如果时间允许,我将上完另一节课。
?The teacher came in, book in hand.

老师走了进来,手里拿着书。
?Her glasses broken, she couldn’t see the words on the blackboard.

由于眼镜坏了,她看不见黑板上的字。

Bats are surprisingly long-lived creatures, some _____ a life span of around 20 years. [2011 浙江, 3] A. having C. have B. had D. to have

【解析】选A。考查独立主格结构。句意:令人吃惊 的是,蝙蝠是寿命较长的生物,有些能生存约20年。 由于题干中逗号后的分句前没有连词,应该用非谓语 动词,所以首先排除B、C项,然后分析该短语结构的 逻辑关系,some与非谓语动词存在主谓关系,所以选 A项。

The children went home from the grammar school,their lessons _______ for the day. (2007· 重庆高考) A. finishing C. had finished 解析:选 B 本 题 考 查 名 词 的 独 立 主 格 结 构 。 名 词 短 语 their lessons和动词finish之间是被动完成关系,故用过去 分词finished。 B. finished D. were finished


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