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非谓语动词


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学科: 英语 姓名 教学课题 任课教师: 年级 授课日期: 2014 授课时间段 年 月 日 (星期 )

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非谓语动词
【非谓语动词】
构成:(to)+动词原形 动词不定式 非 谓 语 动 词 构成:V. -ing / V.-ed(规则变化) 分词 用法(表、补、定、状) (一)

动名词 一、动名词的构成:动名词一般由“动词原形+ing”构成 二、动名词的句法功能 功能 主语 宾语 动词宾语 介词宾语 表语 定语 例句 Eating too much is bad for your health. 吃得太多对你的健康有害。 I like playing basketball very much.我非常喜欢打篮 球。 Stamps are used for sending letters.邮票是被用来寄信 的。 His hobby is collecting stamps. =Collecting stamps is his hobby. She is in the reading room.她在阅览室。 We should improve our teaching methods.我们应该改 进教学方法。 多数情况下,动名词作表语可 转化成作主语。 只表明它所修饰的词的用途、 所属关系等。置于所修饰词之 前。 表示一般的习惯或抽象行为或 经常性的动作。 说明 谓语动词用单数形式。 动名词 用法(主、宾、表、定) 在句中的作用(除谓语动词外的任何成分) 构成:V.-ing

注意:英语中有一些词后面常跟动名词作宾语。我们初中阶段常见的有: finish, mind, be worth, be busy, practice, have fun, have trouble/problem(in), spend...(in), feel like, be used to(习惯于), give up, keep on, consider, suggest, can't help。我们可按下面的顺口溜记忆这些词。 完成实践值得忙(finish, practice, be worth, be busy) 继续习惯别放弃(keep on, be used to, give up)
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考虑建议不禁想(consider, suggest, can't help, feel like) 喜欢思念要介意(enjoy, miss, mind) (二)动词不定式 一、动词不定时的构成 不定时的基本形式为:to+动词原形,有时可以不用 to,这里的 to 是不定式符号,本身无词义, 动词不定式的否定形式是 not+(to+)动词原形。 二、动词不定式的句法功能 功能 主语 表语 宾语 宾补 定语 例句 To speak English is not easy for us=It is not easy for us to speak English. 讲英语对我们来说不容易。 My work is to clean the room everyday.=To clean the room every day is my work. 我的工作就是每天打扫这间屋子。 —What sports does he like to play?他喜欢做什么运动? —He likes to play basketball.他喜欢打篮球。 My mother made me play the piano all the time. 我妈妈让我一直弹钢琴。 Have you got anything to say? 你有要说的吗? I'm sorry to trouble you.(表原因)很抱歉,给你添麻烦 状语 了。 I went to the library to study English.(表目的) 1. 不定式作主语 动词不定式作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语,而将真正的主语放在句末 其结构为: It+be+adj.(+ for/ of sb.)+动词不定式 如:To learn English well is useful.→ It is useful to learn English well. It’s important for us to protect the environment. 注意:在 kind,good,nice,clever 等表示人的品质的形容词后,不用 for 而用 of。如: It's very kind of you to help me. 你帮助我真是太好啦。 It's very clever of you to do like that. 你那样做真是太聪明啦。 2. 不定式作宾语 ① 有些谓语动词后只能用不定式作宾语,常见的这类词是表示命令、打算或希望的,如: would like, like, want, wish, hope, decide, plan, expect 等。如: Would you like to see a film this evening? 你今晚想去看电影吗? ②在 find, think 后跟不定式作宾语时,常用 it 代替,而将真正的宾语放在后面。如: I find it easy to read English every day. ③常见的一些不带 to 的动词不定式 Why not do..., Why don't you do..., had better(not)do..., would rather do, could/would/will you please(not)do... I would rather stay in the room.我宁愿待在房间里。 3. 不定式作宾语补足语
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说明 作主语用的不定式,常常用 it 作形式主 语,而把不定式放在后面。 多数情况下,不定式作表语,可转换作为 主语。 只能做某些动词的宾语,一般不作介词的 宾语。 在 make,let,see,hear,watch 等使役、 感官动词后,不定式省略 to。 不定式作定语,要放在所修饰词的后面。 不定式作状语,其逻辑主语要和句子的主 语一致。

不定式作宾语补足语时与宾语有逻辑上的主谓关系。如: Lucy asked him to turn down the radio. 露西让他关小收音机。 tell, ask, want, allow, get, would like, encourage 后常跟动词不定式作宾语补足语。如: My mother encourages me to learn Japanese. 我妈妈鼓励我学日语。 注意:还有一些使役动词和感官动词也用不定式作宾补,这时不定式要省略 to。这些动词有: 一感 (feel) 、二听 (hear, listen to) 、三让 (let, make, have) 、四看 (look at, see, watch, notice) 。 但变被动语态时,必须加上 to 。如: My friends were made to work the whole night by the boss. 老板让我的朋友们工作了一整夜。 4. 不定式作定语 ①不定式作定语时,应放在名词之后。它与名词有逻辑上的动宾关系。 ②如果是不及物动词,且与所修饰的词之间有动宾关系,要在不定式后加上适当的介词。 There is nothing to worry about. 没有什么可担心的。 5.不定式常和疑问词 what, which, when, where, how 连用,相当于一个宾语从句。如: The teacher is telling the students what to do. 老师正告诉学生们做什么。 He didn't know where to go. 他不知道去哪里。

例题
( ( ( ( ( ( )1. Tom's mother told him _______ eating too much meat. A: stopping A: what to do A: help A: drive A: to have fun B: to stop B: to do what B: helping B: driving B: have fun C: stops C: whether to do C: to help C: to drive C: having fun D: to have a fun D: stopped D: to do whether D: helps )2. We don't know ________ it next. Let's go and ask Mr. Li. )3. How kind you are! You always do what you can _______me. )4 Drivers shouldn't be allowed ________after drinking, or they will break the law. )5. Water Park is a good place________. )6. Take time to relax by listening to music, reading a book or just spending some time alone. Relaxing allows you _______to your studies with more energy. A: return ( ( A: not to wear B: to return B: not wear C: returning C: wearing not D: not wearing )7. Nick, would you mind ________those old jeans? They look terrible. )8. —_______ a volunteer is great. —I think so. Some of us want _______volunteers for the London Olympics. A: Being;being ( —Thanks. I won't. A: bring ( B: to bring C: bringing )10.—What about _______a rest? —OK. Let's go out and have a walk. A: to take B: takes C: taking
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B: To be;being

C: Being;to be

D: To be;to be

)9.—Don't forget ______your history and politics books tomorrow morning.

练习
( ( ( )1. Granny often tells us ________water in our daily life. A: save A: write B: saving B: to write C: to save C: writing D: saves D: wrote )2. Richard turned off the computer after he had finished ________the email. )3.—We can use QQ to chat with each other on the Internet. —Really? Will you please show me ______it? A: how to use ( B: what to use C: how can I use D: what can I use )4.—Where's your brother now,Bob? —I saw him ________ in the street a moment ago and I told him _______. A: playing;don't do so ( B: playing;not to do so C: play;to do so )5. As teenagers, we're old enough _______with housework. We can help set the table, wash the dishes and clean our own rooms. A: to help ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( A: read A: write A: cry; to cry A: don't spend A: served A. to join; to speak A. to let A. played B: helping B: to read B: to write B: to cry; cry B: not to spend B: to serve B. join; speaking B. to tell B. to play C: reads C: written , but yesterday he was made C:cry; cry C: to not spend C: serve C. join; to speak C. to allow C. playing D: writing by his sister. D: to cry; to cry D: not spend D: serves D. to join; speaking D. to ask C: helped )6. Nancy is really a hard-working student. We often see her _______books in the classroom. )7 Mrs. Smith made her students _______the compositions three times a week. )8.Tom often makes his sister

)9. You'd better _______ too much time playing computer games. )10. More and more young people are trying to do something _______the old. )11. Why not _______ an English club to practice _______ English? )12. When we came to the gate, he stopped _________ me go in first. )13. She saw some boys _________ soccer on the playground when she was on the way to the classroom. )14. —How about going shopping this weekend, Peter? —Sorry, I prefer _________ rather than _________. A. to stay at home; go out C. staying at home; go out B. to go out; stay at home D. Going out; stay at home B. to stay up late C. to make much noise D. to too much

(

)15. It's a good habit _________ every day. A. to keep doing exercise

实战演练(一) 1. I’m thirsty. Will you get me something ____? A. drink B. to drink C. eat D. eating
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2. It was great fun _____ a picnic on the hill. A. to have B. of having C. have D. had 3. It’s bad for your eyes ____ computer games for a long time. A. plays B. to play C. play D. played 4. ----Do you often hear John ____ in his room? ----Yes. Listen! Now we can hear him ____ in his room. A. sing; to sing B. singing; singing C. sing; singing D. to sing; singing 5. Why not ____? A. let him to go home B. to let him go home C. let him go home D. to let him to go home 6. They were made ____ fourteen hours a day. A. work B. working C. worked D. to work 7. Is it always easier ____ friends than to keep them? A. making B. make C. to make D. made 8. It ____ Jack twenty minutes ____ the math problem yesterday. A. took; to work out B. takes; worked out C. has taken; work out D. is taking; working out 9. When you leave, don’t forget ____ off the light. A. to turn B. turning C. turn D. turned 10. Who do you think you’d like ____? A. to make friends B. make friends C. to make friends with D. make friends with 11. Although Jeff loves KFC, he tries ____ it too often. A. to eat B. not eat C. to not eat D. not to eat 12. ----Hi, Betty. Shall we go swimming this Sunday? ----This Sunday? I am sorry, I have a lot of homework ____ this Sunday. A. to do B. done C. do D. to be done 13. Sally had no pen ____ yesterday morning. A. to write B. to write with C. writing D. writing with 14. John asked David how ____ Christmas. A. celebrating B. to celebrate C. to be celebrated D. celebrate 15. We all considered Mr Zhao ____ teacher. A. be the best B. to be the best C. being best D. being the best 16. It’s very kind ____ you to ____ me ____ the heavy bag. A. for; tell; to take B. of; thank; for C. to; speak; to have D. of; help; carry 17. Have you decided ____? A. to go with whom B. whom to go with C. whom go with D. with whom to go 18. Her hope ____ a gold medal in the 2008 Olympic Games. A. to win B. is to win C. winning D. will win 19. The meeting room is big enough ____ one hundred people.
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A. holding B. hold C. to hold D. holds 20. Would you please pass me the knife ____? A. to cut the watermelon with B. to cut the watermelon C. cutting the watermelon D. cutting the watermelon with 21. It is better to teach a man to fish than ____ him fish. A. giving B. to give C. gives D. gave 22. The policeman warned the young man____ after drinking. A. never to drive B. to never drive C. never driving D. never drive 23. What do you think is the best way ____the wild animals? A. protecting B. to protect C. protected D. protect 24. I’d rather ____ on the land ____ in a factory. A. work; than work B. work; work C. to work; than to work D. to work; to work 25. My grandfather is used ____ a hat in winter. A. to wear B. for wearing C. wearing D. to wearing 26. I’m sorry ____ you enough help. A. have given B. of not giving C. not to have given D. to have given 27. Some students from Grade 9 ____ do some ____ for the old. A. volunteered to; clean B. volunteered; cleaning C. volunteered to; cleaning D. volunteered; clean 28. The young man was often seen ____ by the lake. A. to draw B. to drawing C. draw D. drew 29. Tom is ____ to make a living by himself. A. very old B. too young C. too big D. too strong 30. I find ____ him all about it. A. necessary to tell B. that necessary to C. necessary it to tell D. it necessary to tell 31. The old man seems ____ in a great hurry. A. be B. to be C. being D. to being 32. I ____ the same neighborhood with the lovely girl. A. happened living in B. happened to live in C. was happening living in D. was happening to live 33. It’s time for supper now. Let’s ______ it. A. stop to have B. stop having C. to stop to have D. to stop having 34. You are not expected ____ such long hours. A. to work B. working C. worked D. work 35. His father agreed ____ $ 4,000 for the car. A. with paying B. to paying C. to pay D. on paying 36. The man pretended ____ when we saw him. A. to be eaten B. eating C. being eating D. to be eating 37. He doesn’t know _____.
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A. when to do B. what to do C. how to do D. where to do 38. Today we use machines _____ us do most of our work. A. to help B. help C. helping D. helped 39. She preferred me _____ there. A. to stay B. would stay C. I stay D. stay 40. We’re going to help _____ the trees. A. watered B. watering C. to watering D. water 实战演练(三) 1. Paul doesn’t have to be made _______. He always works hard. A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning 2. You can’t have the horse ______ all the way. It’s too hot. A. run B. to run C. running D. to be running 3. When I came back, I found the house ______ and everything _____. A. was broken; took away B. broken into; taken away C. had been broken; taken D. break into; take away 4. The house they _____ in the floods must be rebuilt before winter comes. A. had washed away B. had to wash away C. had them washed away D. had washed them away 5. I was fortunate to pick up a wallet ____ on the ground on the way back home, but unfortunately for me, I found my color TV set ____when I got home. A. lying; stolen B. laying; stealing C. lay; stolen D. lying; stealing 6 –Did you hear her ______ this pop song this time the other day? --Yes, and I heard this song ______ in English. A. sing; singing B. sung; sung C. sung; singing D. singing; sung 7. The money collected should be made good use _____ the people in South Asia who suffered a lot in the killer earthquake and tsunami. A. of help B. to help C. to helping D. of to help 8. When I came home last night, I saw my little kid _____ on the bed, with his whole attention ______ upon the book about Harry Porter. A. lying; fixing B. lay; fixed C. sitting; to fix D. seated; fixed 9. Laws that punish parents for their little children’s actions against the laws get parents _____. A. worried B. to worry C. worrying D. worry 10. On my way home; I saw a thief _____ money from a lady by the police. A. being caught B. having caught C. caught stealing D. have caught to stealing 11. Mrs. Brown was much disappointed to see the washing machine she had had ____ went wrong again. A. it B. it repaired C. repaired D. to be repaired 12. The result of the entrance exams was not made _______ to the public until last Thursday. A. knowing B. known C. to know D. to be known 13. The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ______ next year. A. carry out B. carrying out C. carried out D. to carry out
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14. He'd like to get it ______ today while they are at it. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled 15. I've had my radio _____ so soon because my father had me _____ it. A. repair; done B. repaired; do C repairing; do D. repaired; done 16.China is a_____________ country. A. developed B. developing C. to develop D. develops 17. __________ a new pair of glasses, she can read easily. A. to wear B. worn C. wear D. wearing 18.The story is ____________________. A. interest B. interested C. interesting D. to interest 19. Damin sits on the side of the river, __________ the meal for himself. A. cooked B. cooks C. to cook D. cooking 20.The entertainment building ___________ will be completed next year. A. being built B. built C. be built D. to build 一.根据句意,用所给动词的适当形式填空。 1. Is it necessary ____________(learn) a foreign language? 2. He is good at _____________(swim). 3. Do you have anything ____________(say) for yourself? 4. It’s spring now. it’s time _____________(plant) trees. 5. Don’t keep me _______(wait) for a long time. 6. The policeman told the boys not ____________(play) in the street. 7. Her son is too young __________(dress) himself. 8. Let’s __________(have) a rest, shall we? 9. The speaker spoke too quickly for us ____________(understand). 10. The little boy is not old enough________(read). 11. I asked him __________(show) me his new pen. 12. Knives are used for ______________(cut) things. 13. I really don’t know what __________(do) next. 14. I often hear people _________(say) “__________(see) is____________(believe)”. 15. You’d better _________(try) this medicine. 16. They said they had nothing _________(worry) about. 17. Can you finish ___________(read) the book in three days? 18. The doctor was busy ____________(operate) on the boy at that time. 19. ______(tell) you the truth, I dislike making friends with him. 20. Stop ___________(talk) and listen to me carefully. 21. Thank you very much for ____________(help) us. 22. Granny is very ill and she doesn’t feel like ___________(eat) anything. 23. Would you like __________(climb) the mountain with me? 24. The girl enjoys ___________(listen) to light music. 25.We couldn’t help ________(laugh) after we heard the funny story.
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26. What about _________(go) out for a walk? II.选择填空。 1. Would you please ____ the door for me? a. holding b. not to hold c. hold d. held 2. Seeing an old man getting off the train, she hurried over ____ things for him. a carrying b. to carry c. carried d. for carrying 3. We’d really like you ____ to the party tonight. a. come b. to come c. will come d. should come 4. We can do nothing but ____ the experiment. a. to repeat b. repeat c. repeating d. repeated 5. Have you got any thing ____ about this matter? a. saying b. to say c. said d. say 6. He was not ____ try it again. a. such a fool as to b. so a fool as to c. a fool such as to d. a fool so as to 7. He was too excited ____. a. to go to sleeping b. to slept c. to go to sleep d. going to sleep 8. We can’t have him ____ like that all day. a. to work b. working c. to be worked d. work 9.She were often heard ____ this song when she was happy. a. sang b. singing c. sung d. to be singing 10.The train was seen ____ at a very high speed toward the industrial center. a. travel b. travels c. traveled d. traveling 11..We’ll soon have a person ____ with us. a. to work b. working c. worked d. works 12.____ has not been decided yet. 18. To start when b. Why to start c. When to start d. Start to where 13. Do you think it difficult ____? a. for me to do so b. for my to do so c. for I to do so d. for me doing so 14. She keeps telling us ____. a. what to do b. doing what c. what is doing d. do what 15. ____ is not known. a. Whom to begin the running test b. When to begin the running test c. When the running test begin d. How begin to the running test 16. ____ the job alone is impossible. a. To him to do b. For him doing c. For him to do d. For he to do 17. ____ it should be made clear. a What to do b. Why to do c. Whom to do d. When can do 18.Our house needs ____ before the rainy season arrives. a. to repair b. to be repair c. repaired d. repairing 19.I haven’t decided which hotel ____. a. to stay b. is to stay at c. to stay at d. is for staying
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20.I was almost asleep when I heard someone ____ at the door. a. knock b. to knock c. knocked d. being knocked 21.I often spent much money ____ books. a. to buy b. buying c. on buying d. for buying 22.If you practice ____ English whenever you can, you will soon speak well. a. talking b. going speak c. speaking d. to speak 23.We are tired of ____ the same problem all the time. a. discussing b. to discuss c. discussing for d. discuss 24.She usually forgets ____ the door, but she remembered ____ it yesterday. a. to shut…to shut b. shutting…shutting c. to shut…shutting d. shutting…to shut 25.I ____ a bus to school when it was raining. a. am used to take b. used to taking c. use to take d. was used to taking 26. I’m thirsty. Will you get me something ____? A. drink B. to drink C. eat D. eating 27. It was great fun _____ a picnic on the hill. A. to have B. of having C. have D. had 28. Lily, keep the window ____. The sandstorm hasn’t stopped yet. A. close B. closed C. open D. opened 29. A policeman saw two thieves ___ a girl’s mobile phone on a bus and he caught them at once. A. to steal B. stealing C. stole D. stolen 30. It’s bad for your eyes ____ computer games for a long time. A. plays B. to play C. play D. played 31. They were made ____ fourteen hours a day. A. work B. working C. worked D. to work 32. Is it always easier ____ friends than to keep them? A. making B. make C. to make D. made 33. He stood there for two hours ____ the game. A. watched B. watching C. is watching D. was watching 34. It ____ Jack twenty minutes ____ the math problem yesterday. A. took; to work out B. takes; worked out C. has taken; work out D. is taking; working out 35. When you leave, don’t forget ____ off the light. A. to turn B. turning C. turn D. turned 36. Who do you think you’d like ____? A. to make friends B. make friends C. to make friends with D. make friends with 37. Although Jeff loves KFC, he tries ____ it too often. A. to eat B. not eat C. to not eat D. not to eat

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