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高中语法之形容词和副词的综合


什么是形容词?

表示人和事物的特征,对名词起修饰和 描绘作用。e.g. long, empty, cheap, hungry, etc.
在句中作定语、表语、宾语补足语等 成分.

作定语 He is a good student. I have something important to tell you. 当形容词修饰

由some-,any-,no-,every构成的不定代词时,形容词要放在这些 不定代词的之后. e.g. Is there anything interesting in today’s newspaper ?

The trees turn green in spring. We are alone on the island.
只能作表语,不能作定语的形容词 你能说出几个? alone afraid awake asleep alive able

形容词和宾语一起构成复合宾语.

We must keep the classroom clean.
He made us happy. Colour it green.

Attention : 有些单词以-ly结尾,但却是形容词而非副 词: lively、lonely、lovely、deadly、friendly、 ugly、silly、likely、 timely 、 brotherly sisterly motherly fatherly 等。

有关形容词的用法辨析
(1) whole与all: ① the whole + 名词; ②all (of) the + 名词。 He was busy the whole morning. He can remember all the words he learns. (2) real与true: real一般指东西的真假,译为“真的”; true则指事情或消息的可靠性,译为“真实的”: This is a real diamond。 --Is that true? -- Yes. I heard it with my own ears.

(3) tall与high: Tall 指身高的高度,用于人和动物, 反义词为 short He is very short/tall. High 指物体的高度,另可形容价格,质量等, 反 义词为low The kite is flying very high.
Tall和high都可用来指tree, building, tower等, 但mountain只能用high形容。

? (4) too much与much too: ? too much表示“太多的”,修饰事物数量; ? much too表示“太过,过分”,修饰形容词或副词: I am full because I have had too much rice. That coat is much too dear.
? (5) lonely与alone: ? lonely是表示心理活动的形容词,“孤独的,寂寞的”, 作定语或表语; ? alone “独自的,单独的”,指无人陪伴,仅作表语,(作 为副词的alone可作状语): He lives alone but he doesn’t feel lonely.

? ? ? ?

quick、fast与soon: quick往往指反应速度快, fast往往指运动速度快, soon则表示时间上很快即将发生: After a quick breakfast, he hurried to school. A train is much faster than a bus. His father will be back to China very soon.

系动词+ 形容词作表语

1.This dish smells well.

well

good well bad serious

2.He is not feeling good today. good
3.She felt badly at the news. badly

4.He looks very seriously. seriously good是形容词,well是副词

Let’s fill in the blanks

tallest 比较 最高 hardest 化 taller harder 原级 larger wider largest widest 级 biggest 级 bigger hard tall hotter 单音节词在词尾加-er(比较级)或hottest fattest fatter wetter est(最高级)以字母e接尾的词加-r或- large wide wettest happiest st
词 尾 变

happier drier driest earliest big hot thin 以重读闭音节结尾的词末尾只有一 earlier 个辅音字母应双写辅音字母再加er fat wet narrowest 或est most difficult narrower cleverest 以辅音字母+y结尾的词变为i再加-er, happy dry popular most early morecleverer difficult 或-est most slowly more popular narrow 少数以-er,-ow结尾的双音节 clever more slowly 词可加-er或-est
多音节词和多数双音节词在其前面 加more 和most
difficult popular slowly

原级 good well bad ill many much little far old

比较级

最高级

better worse more less farther/further older/elder

best

worst
most

least farthest/furthest oldest/eldest

巧记: 特殊形式比较级 共有三对二合一 坏病两多并两好 little意思不是小 一分为二有两个 一是老来二是远

as+形容词原形+as Tom is as tall as Mike. Tom is three times as old as Mike. There are as many students in our school as yours.

否定 not as+形容词原形+as “和… 不一样” 或 not so+形容词原形+as “不及/不如…
Tom is not as tall as Mike. Tom is not so tall as Mike.

so+ 形容词原级+that丛句 such+名词+that丛句 He is so big that he can’t enter the room by the door .

… too+原级+ to do sth.
He is too young to join the army. 形容词原级+ enough to do sth. This truck is big enough to carry 5 tons.

比较级+than…
Our school is larger than theirs. This bridge is longer than that one.

表示两者之间的选择,可使用 “Which is+ 比较级,…or…?”
Which is longer, this one or that? 表示不及另一方时,使用“less+原级 +than…” This park is less beautiful than that one.

“The+比较级…,the+比较级…”
The smaller the house is, the less it will cost us the heat.

“…比较级+and+比较级…” In spring, the days are getting longer and longer.

可修饰比较级的词

a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even等

注意 no/ not + 比较 级 + than 的特殊含义

A is no more careful than B. A和B两人都不仔细。 A is not more careful than B. A不如B仔细。

more…. than…与其说…倒不如说 It is more like a wall than a spear. They are more like father and son than teacher and student. more than + n. / num. / adj. There are more than fifty students in our class. He is more than a teacher; he is our friend. She is more than kind to us all.

many,old 和 far
1) 如果后接名词时, much more + 不可数名词

many more + 可数名词复数 2) old有两种比较级和最高级形式: older / oldest 和elder / eldest 。 elder,eldest 只用于兄弟姐妹的长幼关系。 My elder brother is an engineer. Mary is the eldest of the three sisters. 3) far有两种比较级: farther,further 它们在英语中都可指距离。 在美语中,farther 表示距离,further则表示进一步。 I have nothing further to say.

…one of the+最高级+名词复数 Lu Xun is one of the greatest writers last century.
…最高级+of (in)… Of all the movie stars, I think Zhang Ziyi is the best. This is/ was the最高级+名词+that定语从句 This is the worst film that I have seen these years.

倍数的表达
A is twice / three times … as+big / tall / high / wide / long +as B A is twice / three times … bigger / taller / higher / wider/ longer … than B A is twice / three times … the size / height / width / length …of B

用来修饰动词、形容词、其它副词、 全句或名词词组及句子的词。
very, early, out, soon, quickly, etc.

四、副词的分类
时间副词 地点副词 方式副词 程度副词 疑问副词 now, then, today, tomorrow, ago, lately, soon, immediately, often, usually, early outside, upstairs, anywhere, up, forward, here, there, away, in, back, off simply, quickly, happily, loudly, suddenly, luckily, again, once, easily, together very, quite, rather, extremely, completely, widely, partly, perfectly, badly, too when, where, why, how

关系副词
连接副词 其他

when, where, why (引导定语从句)
when, where, why, how (引导名词性从句和副词性从 句) surely, certainly, really, however, therefore, perhaps, moreover, yes, no

副词的比较级和最高级的构成和形容词 的比较级和最高级的构成基本相同.e.g.
fast-faster-fastest slowly- more slowly –most slowly 形容词的最高级前要用定冠词the,副词 的最高级前可用可不用定冠词the. Mount Qomolangma is the highest in the world. Jim jumped (the) highest of the all.

频度副词放在动词前,情态动词和助动词 之后。 He always goes to school on foot. She was often late for school. I have never been to Beijing·

易混词语辨析与练习 late, later, latest, lately
latest 1.The ________ edition of the dictionary is far better than the previous ones. late 2.If the cab arrives _____, you will miss the flight. 3.This photo reminds me of my ___ grandfather. late 4.He’s not been feeling well justlately ______. late 5.In _______ autumn, you will find the ground covered with fallen leaves. later 6.At first he denied all guilt, but he ______made a partial confession.

rather, fairly, quite
It is ______ that his English is _____ perfect. A.sure; very B. right; rather C. exact; fairly D. certain; quite

1. rather 常修饰贬义的词,fairly 常修饰褒义 的词。有些词本身并无褒贬,但用rather 意为 反感,用fairly 意为赞许。 This room is fairly big/ rather big. 2. quite 与表示完全概念的词 (right, wrong, perfect, certain, empty, full… ) 连用时, 表示“完全”= completely

still, yet, already
already 1.The guests are ________ here. But the meat is not ready _______. It ______ yet still has to be cooked for another five minutes. 2.Have you finished the work yet __________? You are very speedy.

not , no
not 为副词,修饰谓语,no 为形容词,修 饰名词
no We got ______ help from them. no There is ______ time left . There is scarcely _____ time left. any

学习几个兼有两种形式的副词
1) close与closely;

close意思是“近”;closely 意思是“仔细地”, 例如: He is sitting close to me. Watch him closely. 2) late 与lately; late意思是“晚”;lately 意思是“最近”,例 如: You have come too late. What have you been doing lately?

学习几个兼有两种形式的副词 3) deep与deeply; deep意思是“深”,表示空间深度;deeply时常 表示感情上的深度,“深深地”,例如: He pushed the stick deep into the mud. Even father was deeply moved by the film. 4) high与highly; high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于 much,例如: The plane was flying high. I think highly of your opinion.

5) wide与widely; wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是“广泛地;在 许多地方”,如:

He opened the door wide.
English is widely used in the world.

6) free与freely;
free的意思是“免费”;freely 的意思是“无限制

地”
You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you

like.

1. The bread is ____ than these cakes C A. very delicious B. much delicious C. more delicious D. as delicious

C 2. Lin Tao jumped ____ in the long jump in the school sports meeting A. far B. farther C. farthest D. quite far
3. When they met in the hotel . They talked A and laughed ______ A. happily B. happy C. happier D. happiest

D 4. In our city it’s ____ in July ,but it is even ____ in August A. hotter hottest B. hot hot C. hotter hot D. hot hotter
5. Hainan is a very large Island .It is the C second ______ island in china. A. large B. larger C. largest D. most largest

D 6. An elephant is ____ than a tiger . A. heavy B. very heavy C. the heaviest D. heavier

7. A horse is ______ than a dog . C A. much heavy B. more heavier C. much heavier D. more heavy 8. Emma always makes a lot of mistakes . D She is _____. A. care B. careful C. carefully D. careless C 9. Which subject is _____ , physics or chemistry ? A. interesting B. most interesting C. more interesting D. the most interesting

10. He is ___ enough to carry the heavy box . A A. strong B. stronger C. much stronger D. the strongest A 11. Li lei often talks ___ but does ___ so everyone says he is a good boy . A. less more B. few much C. more little D. little many 12. When the famous singer started to sing , everyone began to shout very ___ . A A. loudly B. loud C. heavily D. high


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