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语法专题:定语从句完全详解


高中语法基础知识专题讲座:定语从句
定义:在句中起定语的作用、修饰句子中的名词或代词的从句。因其功能类似形容词,故又称为形容词性 从句。 先行词:被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 关系词(引导词) :引导定语从句的词叫关系词。 引导定语从句的词: 关系代词: that, which, who, whom, whose, as 关系副词:when, where, why 等。

一、关系代词 (一)先行词为人事物, 引导词作主语 Women ________ drink more than two cups of coffee a day have a great chance of having heart disease than those ____ don't. (that/ who; who) All the people who work hard don't succeed, but the only people who succeed are those who work hard. The house ________ is by lake looks nice. (which) 引导词不用 that, 只能用 who 的几种情况: ①先行词为 one, ones, anyone, those, he/she/I / they 等指人的词时, 关系词只能用 who He _________laughs last laughs best. (who) Those ______ willing to attend the party, sign here please. (who) God helps those________ help themselves. (who) One ________ has a sense of humor is often very popular among people. (who) ②先行词后有后置定语 I am writing to a friend in England ________ is studying Chinese. (who) ③在 there be 结构中。 There are many young people ________ like pop music. (who) ④一个句子中有两个定语从句,其中一个用了 that,为避免重复另一个宜用 who. The girl that you met yesterday is an English teacher who teaches well. (二)先行词为人或物,引导词作宾语 Is this the man_____________ you talked about yesterday? (who/ whom/ that) Show me the book___________ you spoke of the other day. (which / that) Do you know the boy to _________ she was talking? (whom) This is the book _________ I have been talking about. (which) (三)先行词为人事物,引导词作定语 I wanna marry a man________ father is a millionaire. (whose) Book me a room _______window faces the south. (whose) =the window of which / of which the window 二、关系副词

(一)先行词为事物,引导词作地点状语 Is this the farm ______________ you once worked? (where/ on which) I walked up to the top of the hill with my friends, we enjoyed a splendid view of the lake. (where/ on which) (二)先行词为事物,引导词作时间状语 I’ll always remember the days _____________I studied there. (when / in which) I will never forget the day ______I came to my university and the day ______I spent in a new city. (when; which) Between the two parts of the concert is an interval, the audience can buy ice-cream. (when) (三)先行词为事物,引导词作原因状语 Tell me the reason ______________ you were late. (why / for which) (四)是用 the one 还是用 that , which, where. (1)Is this school _______ you study? (D) (2)Is this the school ______ you study in? (A) (3)Is this the school _______ you study? (B) (4)Is this school ______ is a senior one? (E) A. that/which B. where C. the one D. the one where E. the one that / which 遇到这类句子,先将其变成肯定句,再看主句是否缺少表语。若缺表语,则必须用 the one 的形式,接着 再看 the one 在从句中作什么成分, 若作状语, 则必须用 the one where, 若作主语或宾语时, 则用 the one (that/ which) (五)是用 when 还是用 that, which (1)May 1 is the day ______ we spent together. (A) (2)May 1 is the day ________i joined the army. (B) A. that/ which B. when 当先行词是表示时间的名词时,作时间状语时,用 when, 若作主语或宾语时,就用 that/ which.

[要点难点] 一、that 和 which 的用法区别 (一)只用 that 的情况: ①先行词由最高级修饰时 Is that the best ________ you can do ? (that) That's the most expensive hotel ________ we've ever stayed in. ②先行词由序数词修饰时 The first thing ________ should be done is to get the tickets. (that) when people talk about Hangzhou, the first ________ comes to mind is the West Lake. (that) ③先行词由 the last, the only, the same, the very, the next 等修饰时。 This is the very book that I want to find. ④先行词是不定代词 all, anything, everything, little, much, nobody, nothing 等时。 There is nothing ( that ) I can do. I mean the one that was brought yesterday. ⑤先行词有 any, no, all, much, little, few, every 等限定词时。 ⑥先行词为词组,该词组既包含人又含物时。 We talked about the books and writers _________ we knew. (that) The guests spoke highly of the children and their performances ________they saw at the talent show. (that)

⑦当主句是以 who 或 which 开头的特殊疑问句时。 Who is the girl _____ drove the car? (that) Which was the hotel _____ was recommended to you? (that) Which of the two sheep ________ you keep produces more milk? (that) ⑧定语从句中套有另一个定语从句,其中一个关系语已用 which。 He visited a factory which produced things _________ sold well. (that) ⑨先行词为人或物,引导词作表语,引导词只能使用 that I’m no longer the man_______ I used to be. (that) The town is not the one ______it was ten years ago. (that) (二)只用 which 的情况: ①在非限定性定语从句中(定语从句前有逗号) 。 Mary was much kinder to Jack than she was to the others, ________, of course, make all the others upset. (which) ②介词后。 关系代词和关系副词的用法区别 ①关系代词 代词→指代作用:定语从句不完整时 ②关系副词: 定语从句完整时 二、如何确定使用关系代词还是关系副词? 关键: “三步走”战略。 ①锁定“先行词” ②分析从句是否完整。 (重点) 分析关键:找出从句中的动词。 动词的出现情况 及物动词:主语+Vt. +宾语 不及物动词:a. 主语+Vi. b. 主语+Vi. +介词+宾语(介宾搭配) ③选词。 分析:定语从句如果完整,使用关系副词(where/ when/ why) 定语从句如果不完整,使用关系代词(who/ whom/ which/ that) step 1 step 2 如:This is the factory ________ my father once worked. This is the factory ________ my father once worked in. (where; that/which) I will never forget the days ________ I spent in the wood near our village. I will never forget the days ________ I spent my holidays with my grandparents. I will never forget the small village ________ I spent my holidays. (which/that; when; where) Is this the school ________ you visited the other day? Is this the school ________ you visited your teacher the other day? (which/ that; where) 三、whose 的用法 既可以指人也可以指物,即既可以说“某人的” ,也可以说“某物的” 。

Fortune never helps the man ________ courage fails. That's the man ________ house has been burned down. (whose; whose) I wanna marry a man________ father is a millionaire. whose 的两种用法: A. whose = of which 表示物 B. whose = of whom 表示人 whose 与 of which/ whom 的区别: 1. of which/ whom + the :谁的什么东西 The parents won't let her marry anyone ________ family was poor. The parents won't let her marry anyone ________ the family was poor. ( whose; of whom) 2. A / B + n. = n. + A / B of whom the family was poor = the family of whom was poor 即 whose+名词=the +n + of which =of which + the + n.

四、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的区别 限制性定语从句是先行词(即被修饰词)不可缺少的定语,限制性定语从句前不用逗号隔开; 非限制性定语从句只是对先行词的附加说明,如果去掉,先行词所述对象仍很清楚,非限制性定语从 句前常用逗号隔开。 补充:非限制性定语从句中有逗号时,说明该句话比较自由,位置可灵活调动。 1. 地位高低(重要与否) 2. (关系代词或关系副词前)有无逗号 Those who want to go camping please tell the monitor. Football, which is a very interesting game, is played all over the world. =Football is played all over the world, which is a very interesting game. 注意:非限制性定语从句可以用关系代词 which, who, whom, whose, as 及介词+ which/ whom 等引导, 也可以用关系副词 when, where 引导,但不能用 that 引导。另外,非限制性定语从句中的关系代词或关系 副词是不能省略的。 五、介词+which/whom 引导的定语从句 如果关系代词 which/ whom 本身在定语从句中充当一个介词或介词短语的宾语的时候,有时可以将介 词直接放在 which/ whom 的前面,这样就产生了“介词+关系代词”及“名词或代词+介词+which/ whom” 或“复合介词+which/ whom”等的结构。 I know the man to whom you talked just now. talk to +宾语 拓展: who 与 whom 的区别 (1)who 可以作主格,也可以作宾格;whom 只可以作宾格。 (2) “介词+宾语”的情况下只可以用 whom

I know the man to whom you talked just now. 变: I know the man whom/ who you talked to just now. 如何正确判断与使用介词 (一)看定语从句中动词或形容词与介词的搭配 1. The girl _____ whom he had fought all his life no longer seemed important to him. (for) 2. He is the man _____ whom I think you can depend . (on) 3. He referred to some reference books ______ which I am not very familiar. (with) (二)看从句中的动词或动词词组与先行词的搭配 1.He made a hole in the wall, ______ which he could see what was going on outside the house. (though) 2.The librarian _____whom I just shook hands works heart and soul. (with) (三)根据先行词判断,所用的介词与先行词搭配 1.The rate ______ which wild animals are being destroyed has increased. (at) 2.This is our classroom ,_______________(在前面) which there is a teacher’s desk. (in the front of) 六、why 引导的定语从句 关系副词 why 用在 reason 之后,只引导限制性定语从句,why 在从句中作状语,表示原因。 Give me the reason why you should be interested in his affairs. The reason why she was ill was that she had eaten bad meat. 注意:有时 reason 后不一定是 why 引导的定语从名。如下列句子中,reason 后接的是 which/ that 引导 的定语从句,这是因为 reason 在定语从句中作主语或宾语。 Is this the reason which/ that the chairman gave at the meeting? I really can't understand the reason that / which he explained. 七、 where 引导定语从句有时修饰一些具有抽象意义的表示地点的名词。 job, field, situation, point, position, 如 case ,scene 等。 But after a few days' stay they got to the point where they could read each other's thoughts. It got to the point where I couldn't remember any of the reasons why I loved him. He’s got himself into a dangerous situation where he is likely to lose control over the plane. —What do you think of teaching, Bob? —I find it fun and challenging. It is a job ________ you are doing something serious but interesting. (where) I'll give you my friend's home address _________I can be reached most evenings. (where) Men are more suited to occupational environments ______ require decisive action while women are better at jobs ______ a considered approach is most important. (that/ which ; where)

八、the way 后的定语从句 the way 后的定语从句用 in which 引导, which 可以用 that 代替, that 又可以省略。 in 而 所以, “某 表达 人做某事的方法”有三种形式: the way in which somebody does something the way that somebody does something the way ( ) somebody does something ★★★★★ 常考!! ! Please tell me the way (that/ in which) you did the job. What surprised me was not what he said but he said it. (the way)

九、which 指代前面句中的内容。 which 的这一用法只能以非限制性定语从句出现。 Jenny was late for school a third time during the week, which made her teacher very angry. He left early, which was wise. He often helps me with my lessons, which is kind of him. Ted came for the weekend wearing only some shorts and a T-shirt, __ is a stupid thing to do in such weather. (which) 十、as 用法 关系代词 as 引导定语从句有两种形式 (1)as 引导一个非限制性定语从句修饰一个分句,as 代表该分句所表达的整个概念或其中一部分的概 念。as 定语从句可置于句首、句中或句尾。as 本身在从句中充当主语、宾语及表语。 As is known to all, the earth moves around the sun. He must be an African, as may be seen from the color of his skin. If he comes late , as is usual, for another time, we'll not receive him. My hometown is no longer the same _________ it used to be. (as) I hope to get such a dictionary ________ he is using. (as) 注意: ①一般说来,当关系代词在从句中作 be 动词的主语或一般动词的宾语时,which 和 as 可交替使用。 He left her, as/ which was strange. ② 这一类的 as 表面上看好像和 which 代替全句时的用法相似, as 引导的定语从句的最大特点是它 但 的意思多侧重于表达 (正) “ 像?? (正) 如??” 类似的意思。 引导的从句可以放在句首, as 本身有“正 as 如…..正象…”之意,与之连用构成的有 as is said/ known/ announced/ reported/ mentioned/ expected/ discussed/point out 等。 I travel to the Binhai New Area by light railway every day, do many businessmen who live in downtown Tianjin. (as )

as 引导非限制性定语从句常见结构有 as is well known/ is known to all 众所周知 as has been said before 如前所述 as has been already pointed out 正如已经指出的 as we all can see 正如我们所看到的 as is expected/ hoped/ supposed,. 正如所盼望的/ 希望的/料想的 as is often the case 情况常常如此 ③当关系代词在从句中作一般动词(非 be 动词)的主语时,只能用 which。 ④as 可置于句首、句中,而 which 则只能用于句中。 As everyone knows, Tom is good at English. He was late for school, as / which was usual with him. He saw the girl, as/ which he had hoped (he would). He saw the girl, which delighted him. (句中的 which 不能用 as 代替,因为从句中的 delighted 是非 be 动词) (2)用于 as ... as, the same .. .as, so ... as, such ... as 等结构中。 十一、嵌入式定语从句(分隔式定语从句)

有一种定语从句,在其从句中的主语和谓语之间有一个插入语,如 I think。这一种定语从句叫做嵌入 式定语从句。嵌入的分句的谓语动词常常是 think, believe, guess, imagine, say, suppose, be sure, doubt 等。 She offered a suggestion which she said would interest you. He wrote letters to every person and organization that he believed might be able to help. That is the engineer who I think is the right man chosen for the job. 十二、定语从句中主谓一致问题 定语从句中的动词在人称和数方面应该与它的先行词保持一致。 I am not one who ______afraid of difficulty. (is) Don ’t choose me, who _______not fit for this job. (am) He is the only one of the students who ________ here just now. (was) He is one of the students who ________ here just now. (were) 十三、定语从句与并列结构。试比较: He has two sons, neither of whom looks like him. He has two sons, and neither of them looks like him. 十四、定语从句与强调结构的区别 (1)It was in this house ______ he was born. (B) (2)It was this house ______ he was born. (A) (3)It was in the house ________ he used to live in that the exhibition was held. (C) A. where B. that C. which D. there (4)Was it in the street ______ our school is located in ______ the car accident happened? (which; that) (第一空考查定语从句, that 或 which 作第二个 in 的宾语;第二空考查强调句型。 ) 判断是否是强调结构的方法是去掉 it is /was …that, 若整个句子结构和意义不受影响, 则为强调结构, 否则 为定语从句。 十五、定语从句与其他从句的区别 (1)定语从句与地点状语从句的区别是看有无表示地点的名词作先行词,有则是定语从句,试比较: You should leave the toy where you can find. I still remember the bus stop where / at which I met you. (2)定语从句与结果状语从句的区别是看从句的连接词是否在从句中作成分,作成分的是定语从句;若 连接词在句中不作成分时,则为结果状语从句。试比较: He is such a kind person as everybody likes. He is such a kind person that everybody likes him. (3)定语从句与同位语从句的区别主要是看连接词是否在从句中作成分,作成分的是定语从句,不作成 分而只是表示前面名词的具体内容的则是同位语从句。试比较: The news that he had been back surprised us all. The news (that) he told us surprised us all. 区别定语从句与同位语从句最简单的方法是:在先行词与从句之间加 be 动词,若句子成立,则是同 位语从句;若句子不成立,则可能为定语从句。 The news that he has passed the exam pleased him and his family. 由于 “The news is that he has passed the exam.” 句子成立, “that he has passed the exam” The news 因此 是

的同位语。 The news that he told me this morning is not interesting. 由于 “The news is that he told me this morning” 不成立, “that he told me this morning” 于是 不是 The news 的同位语,而是限定 The news 的定语从句。


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