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高中英语必修5(外研版)Unit 1 British and American English 知识点总结


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高中英语必修 5(外研版)Unit 1 British and American English 知识点总结
一、重点词汇 have?in common

· 原文再现 We have really everything in common with America nowadays,e

xcept of course,language. 当然,除了语言外,如今我们确实在所有方面都和美国一样。 · 基本用法 have...in common 在...有共同之处 (宾语可以为 sth./nothing/little/a little/ a lot/much 等) Though they are twins,they have nothing in common. 虽然是双胞胎,他们却毫无共同之处。 To my surprise,I found I had a lot in common with this stranger. 令我吃惊的是,我发现自己和这个陌生人有许多共同点。 · 知识拓展 相关短语 1. in common with sb./sth. 与??一样 In common with other students, Tom is often late for school. 和其他学生一样,汤姆也经常迟到。 2. common people 平民百姓 3. common sense 常识 词义辨析: common/ordinary/usual/normal 1. common 常见的,尤其指许多人或事物所共同具备的。 Rabbits and foxes are common in Britain. 兔子和狐狸在英国很常见。 2. ordinary 普通的,指平常的,平淡无奇的。 It was a very ordinary day today. 今天是很平常的一天。

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3. usual 多指习惯性的、遵循常规的、一贯如此的。 I'm afraid I overslept and missed my usual bus. 很遗憾我睡过头了,误了我通常坐的那班公共汽车。 4. normal 正常的,侧重“无异常”。 The doctor said the child's temperature was normal. 医生说孩子体温正常。
make a difference
·原文再现 It doesn't make much of a difference whether a teacher speaks British or American English. 一位老师说的是英式英语还是美式英语,这并没有多大差异。 ·基本用法 make a difference 有关系;有影响;起重要作用 (difference 前常可以加 big/great/little/much/no 等词 修饰) Even if you tried to help, it wouldn't have made any difference. 即使你设法帮忙了,结果也不会有什么不同。 What you said just now made no difference to him. 刚才你说的话对他没有什么影响。 Graduates should be optimistic that they can make a difference in our world. 毕业生应该乐观,相信自己能令这个世界有所不同。

accent
·原文再现 …so the accent isn't going to be a problem. ...所以口音不会是个问题。 ·基本用法 accent n. 口音;重音;强调 He was often made fun of for his strong accent. 由于他乡音很重,大家常和他开玩笑。 Judging from her accent, she must be from the North. 从她的口音判断,她一定是北方人。 The accent of this word falls on the last syllable.

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这个词的重音落在最后一个音节上。 Her English accent is so good, you will think she is a native speaker. 她的英语口音很纯正,谁都以为她生来就说英语。

obvious
·原文再现 British and American English are different in many ways. The first and most obvious way is in the vocabulary. 英式英语与美式英语在很多方面都不相同。最首要,最明显的区别就在于词汇。 ·基本用法 obvious adj. 明显的;显然的;无疑的 It is quite obvious that he didn't do it himself. 显然他没有亲自去做。 Her disappointment was obvious to everyone. 大家都看得出来她显然很失望。 ·知识拓展 相关单词 obviously= clearly= apparently adv. 显然地,明显地 Obviously, he can’t tell the difference between them. 显然他无法区别二者的不同。 We must help him---he's obviously in trouble. 我们必须帮助他---他显然有麻烦了。

get around
·原文再现 As a tourist, you will need to use the underground in London or the subway in New York , or maybe you will prefer to get around the town by taxi (British) or cab (American) . 作为游客,你在伦敦要乘的地铁叫 underground,而在纽约则叫 subway,或者你愿意乘坐 taxi (英国用 法) 或者 cab (美国用法)游览城市。 ·基本用法 get around 四处走动;应付;逃避;(新闻或消息等)传开 It is difficult for him to get around without a stick.

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他没有手杖四处活动很困难。 I think we should be able to get around most of these problems. 我认为我们应该能避开这些问题的大部分的。 It quickly got around that Liu Xiang got the first prize again. 刘翔再次获得第一名的消息很快就传开了。 I don’t know how he’s going to get around this matter. 我不知道他打算如何应付此事。 ·知识拓展--词义辨析:get 词组 get around=get about (到)各处走动;(到)各处旅行 get around=spread (消息、谣言等)传开 get across(被)理解,明白;把…表达出来 get along (with) 进展(行);相处 get away (from) 逃掉 get rid of 摆脱;除去 get back 回来;收回 get in 插话;收获 get through 做完;通过;接通 get close to 接近

queue
·原文再现 The British queue up; Americans stand in line. 英国人排队用 queue up;美国人排队用 stand in line。 ·基本用法 1. queue v. 排队;排队等候 Come and queue up, children, let's go to the theater. 孩子们,来排好队,让我们去戏院吧。 2. queue n. 队列;长队 We were at the tail of the bus queue. 我们立在公车候车队伍的末尾。 · 知识拓展--相关短语

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1. queue up 排队等候 Every day I have to queue up at the bus stop to go to work. 我每天为了上班必须在公共汽车站排队。 2. jump the queue 插队(不按次序排队) 3. queue jumper 不按照次序排队的人

confusing
·原文再现 Sometimes the same word has a slightly different meaning, which can be confusing. 有时候,同一个单词在意思上有细微的差别会让人困惑。 ·基本用法 confusing adj. 令人困惑的;难懂的 注意对比:confused adj. “感到困惑的”,一般修饰人或一个人的表情(look,expression)及声音(voice)。 From his confused expression,I can see this confusing problem puzzled him. 从他困惑的表情可以看出,我知道这个令人困惑的问题把他难倒了。 ·知识拓展 相关单词 1. confuse vt. 使困惑;使难以理解;混淆 Don’t confuse him with his brother. They are much alike. 别把他与他的弟弟混淆了,他们非常相像。 Whoever sent the message is trying to confuse me. 那个写信的人不管是谁,反正想迷惑我。 2. confused adj. 感到困惑的,感到难懂的 I was confused at his confusing words. 我对他说的令人难懂的话感到迷惑不解。 3. confusion n.困惑;混乱,混淆 He stood there in confusion. 他困窘地站在那里。 相关短语 confuse A with/and B 把 A 和 B 混淆 be confused by sth. 被…搞糊涂了

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in confusion 困惑地;困窘地

compare
·原文再现 Prepositions, too, can be different: compare on the team, on the weekend (American) with in the team, at the weekend (British). 介词的用法也有所不同:比较一下 on the team,on the weekend (美国用法)和 in the team,at the weekend (英国用法)。 ·基本用法 compare v. 比较,对比;把…比作 Compare this car with that one and you will find the differences between them. 把这辆汽车与那辆汽车相比,你就会发现他们之间的区别。 Teachers are often compared to gardeners while students flowers. 人们常把老师比做园丁,而将学生比做花朵。 ·知识拓展 相关单词 comparison n. 比较,对比 Her looks are beyond/without comparison. 她的美貌无与伦比。 相关短语 1. compare…with… 把…和…进行比较 Don’t compare your disadvantages with others’ strong points. 不要拿自己的缺点与别人的优势相比。 2. compare…to… 把…比作… We often compare children to flowers of our country. 我们常常把孩子比做祖国的花朵。 3. compared to/with... 和…相比 (固定搭配,常用作状语 ) Compared to/with developed countries,we still have a long way to go. 与发达国家相比,我们还有很长的路要走。 4. in comparison with 与…相比

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5. by comparison 比较起来,较之(多用于句首)

variety
·原文再现 The other two areas in which the two varieties differ are spelling and pronunciation. 两种语言分类各不相同的另外两个方面就是拼写和发音。 ·基本用法 variety n.变化;多种多样 There are new varieties of wheat. 麦子有许多新品种。 He left for a variety of reasons. 他由于种种原因而离开了。 ·知识拓展 相关单词 1. vary v. 变化;变异;使多样化 Teaching methods vary greatly from school to school. 各个学校的教学方法大不相同。 2. various adj. 各种各样的;不同的 He is fond of playing various kinds of toys. 他喜欢玩各种玩具。 3. variously adv. 不同地;各种各样地 He is variously described as a hero, a genius and a fool. 把他说成是英雄、天才、笨蛋,不一而足。 4. variation n. 变化;变异,变种

There is variation in price from store to store for the product. 在不同的店里这个产品的价格也不一样。 相关短语 a variety of 多种多样的,相当于 varieties of,既可以修饰可数名词,也可以修饰不可数名词。同时, variety 的前面可以有 great,large,wide 等词修饰。如: A variety of apples are sold in this supermarket. 这家超市卖各种各样的苹果。

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We have a great variety of famous tea here. 我们这里供应多种名茶。

differ
·原文再现 The other two areas in which the two varieties differ are spelling and pronunciation. 两种语言分类各不相同的另外两个方面就是拼写和发音。 ·基本用法 differ vi. “不同,相异”, 常与介词 in 连用表示“在某方面相异”。与介词 from 连用,表示“和…不同” Our opinion differs greatly from each other’s in that respect. 我们的意见在那方面有很大的出入。 The two girls are similar in appearance,but they differ in voice. 这两个女孩在外表上相似,但声音却不同。 ·知识拓展 相关单词 different adj. 不同的,有区别的 difference n. 不同;不同之处 相关短语 1. differ from=be different from 与…不同 His opinion differs entirely from mine. 他的意见与我的完全不同。 2. differ in 在…方面不同 The brothers differ widely in their tastes. 他们弟兄的爱好大相径庭。 3. differ with/from sb. about/on/over sth. 关于某事与某人意见不同 We differ with each other about this matter. 关于这件事,我们意见不同。 4. tell the difference 分辨;区分 The twins are so alike that it’s difficult to tell the difference. 这对双胞胎太像了,很难分出谁是谁来。 5. make a difference 有影响;有作用;有意义

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·原文再现 Many factors have influenced American pronunciation since the first settlers arrived four hundred years ago. 自从四百年前第一批移民的到来,有很多因素影响了美语发音。 ·基本用法 settler n. 移民者;殖民者;定居者 This restaurant is owned by an Australian settler. 这家餐馆由一位澳大利亚移民所有。 ·知识拓展--相关单词 1. settle v. 安居;定居;解决 He's of an age when he ought to settle down. 他已经到了应该安顿下来的年龄了。 I hope you can seek your way to settle the matter. 我希望你能设法解决这件事。 2. settlement n. 移民;殖民;解决,处理 We'll leave the question for later settlement. 这问题我们将留待以后解决。

be similar to
·原文再现 The accent,which is most similar to British English,can be heard on the East Coast of the US. 在美国东海岸能听到与英国英语非常相似的口音。 ·基本用法 be similar to 与…类似;相似 Your views on education are similar to mine. 你的教育观点和我的相似。 What you said just now is similar to what she said yesterday. 你刚刚所说的与她昨天说的相似。 ·知识拓展--相关短语 be similar in... 在…方面相似,和…差不多

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The theme of this novel is similar in that of that novel. 这本小说的主题和那本小说的差不多 反义词:be different from 不同于

remark
·原文再现 When the Irish writer George Bernard Shaw made the famous remark that the British and the Americans are two nations divided by a common language, he was obviously thinking about the differences. 当著名的爱尔兰作家萧伯纳说出“英国和美国是被一种常见的语言分割开来的两个国家”一番话时, 很明显 他考虑了两者之间的差异。 ·基本用法 1. remark n. 言辞;评论;讲话 That last remark was a hit at me. 最后的话是对我的讽刺。 2. remark v. 评论;谈到;说 The editor remarked that article was well written. 编者评论说那篇文章写得很好。 ·知识拓展 相关单词 remarkable adj. 引人注目的;异常的,非凡的

The child is remarkable for his cleverness. 这孩子聪明得惊人。 相关短语 1. remark that … 说…;评论… He remarked that he would be absent the next day. 他说他第二天会缺席。 2. remark on / upon sth./sb. 谈论某事或某人 He was remarking upon the subject when I came into the room. 当我进入房间的时候,他正在谈论那个主题。 3. make a remark / remarks on / about … 对…发表评论

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Please make a remark on “Better City, Better Life”, the theme of the 2010 Shanghai World Expo. 请你说说自己对上海世博会主题“城市让生活更美好”的认识。

have difficulty (in) doing sth.
·原文再现 A Londoner has more difficulty understanding a Scotsman from Glasgow than understanding a New Yorker. 伦敦人要听懂来自格拉斯哥的苏格兰人说话比听懂纽约人说话更难。 ·基本用法 have difficulty (in) doing sth. 做某事有困难(much,little,no 修饰,in 可以省略。有相同用法的搭配还有 have trouble/problem/a hard time/a good time/great fun (in) doing sth.) Some students have difficulty in finding jobs after graduation. 有些学生毕业后很难找到工作。 He said he had some difficulties with his English pronunciation. 他说他在英语发音方面有一些困难。 Did you have any trouble finding his house? 你找到他的房子有没有困难? You can never imagine the great difficulty I had getting her QQ number. 你都想象不到我弄到她的 QQ 号有多大的困难。

steadily
·原文再现 For more than a century communications across the Atlantic have developed steadily. 一个多世纪以来,大西洋两岸的交流稳步发展。 ·基本用法 steadily adv. 稳定地;稳步地;有规则地 His health is getting steadily worse. 他的健康正逐渐恶化。 The production of their factory goes steadily upward. 他们工厂的生产稳步上升。 ·知识拓展--相关单词 steady adj 稳定的;稳固的;坚定的。

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The price of fruits remains steady. 水果的价格保持稳定。 He's never been able to hold down a steady job. 他从未能保住一份稳定的工作。

flick
·原文再现 Since the 1980s, with satellite TV and the Internet, it has been possible to listen to British and American English at the flick of a switch. 自从 20 世纪 80 年代以来,随着卫星电视和因特网的使用,非常便捷地听到英式英语和美式英语已经成 为 可能。 ·基本用法 flick n. 轻打;轻弹;轻快的动作 Flick the dust off and we will use this table. 把这张桌子上的灰尘轻轻抹去,我们要用桌子。 He gave it a flick with his finger. 他用手指轻叩它。 It will be possible to change the color of cars at the flick of a switch. 它将是可能的轻轻一拨开关改变汽车的颜色.

switch
·原文再现 Since the 1980s, with satellite TV and the Internet, it has been possible to listen to British and American English at the flick of a switch. 自从 20 世纪 80 年代以来,随着卫星电视和因特网的使用,非常便捷地听到英式英语和美式英语已经成 为 可能。 ·基本用法 1. switch n. 开关;转换;鞭子 I can't feel where the light switch is.

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我摸不出电灯开关在哪里。 2. switch v. 转换;改变;抽打 Hang on, please. I'll switch you to the manager. 请不要挂断电话。我给你转接到经理那儿去。 Be sure to switch off the light when you leave the office. 你离开办公室时务必把灯关掉。 ·知识拓展--相关短语 switch on 打开电源,开关等 switch off 切断电源,开关等 switch over 转换频道 switch to 切换到; 转变成

lead to
·原文再现 But it has also led to lots of American words and structures passing into British English ,so that some people now believe that British English will disappear. 但是这也致使许多美国英语单词和结构传入英国英语,以至于现在有一些人相信英国英语将要消失。 ·基本用法 lead to 引起;通向;相连(lead to...中的 to 是介词,后跟名词、代词或 v-ing 形式。) All roads lead to Rome. 条条大路通罗马。 Hard work leads to success and failure often lies in laziness. 勤劳通向成功,失败源于懒惰。 Too much work and too little rest often lead to illness. 过量的工作和过少的休息会引起疾病。 This road leads to the hotel. 这条路通向旅馆。 ·知识拓展 相关短语 1. lead sb. to do sth. 使得/引导某人去做某事 The evidence led me to a different conclusion. 这个证据使我得出一个不同的结论。 2. lead sb. to… 带领…通往,引导某人(to 是介词,后跟名词,动名词,代词。) What led you to this conclusion?

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你是怎样得出这个结论的? What led you to take up acting as a career? 是什么让你开始从事演艺事业的? “动词+介词 to”构成的常用短语: look forward to 盼望 pay attention to 注意 get down to 开始认真干 belong to 属于 point to 指向 agree to 同意 devote...to... 贡献…给… turn to 求助于;转向;翻到 stick to 坚持 object to 反对 refer to 谈到;涉及;参阅 see to 处理;料理 reply to 答复 add to 增加 compare...to... 把…比作…

structure
·原文再现 But it has also led to lots of American words and structures passing into British English ,so that some people now believe that British English will disappear. 但是这也致使许多美国英语单词和结构传入英国英语,以至于现在有一些人相信英国英语将要消失。 ·基本用法 structure n. 结构;构造;组织 The structure of the sentence is strange. 这个句子的结构很奇怪。 The social structure has changed beyond recognition. 社会结构已变得面目全非,今非昔比。

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·原文再现 English is developing very rapidly. 英语发展得很快。 ·基本用法 rapidly adv. 快地;迅速地 Childhood is a period of rapid growth. 幼年是生长迅速的时期。 ·知识拓展--相关单词 rapid adj. 快的;迅速的 His rise to power was very rapid. 他很快掌握了大权。

announcement
·原文再现 The prime minister is making an important announcement at the moment. 总理正在发布一个重要的公告。 ·基本用法 announcement n. 公告;宣告;发表

An announcement will be made next week. 下周将有一个通告发布。 The announcement will appear in tomorrow's newspapers. 该通告将于明日见报。 ·知识拓展 相关单词 announce v. 宣布;通知;公告 I hope to announce the winner shortly. 我希望马上宣布胜利者的名字。 I am sorry to announce a slight delay. 我很抱歉地告诉大家飞机有点儿晚点。 词义辨析:declare/ announce/ claim

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1. declare 指正式宣布,当众宣布。通常指官方正式公布,宣告事情。如: I now declare this meeting open. 我现在宣布会议开幕。 2. announce 指预告性地宣布或公开宣告大家关心的事情。如: The teacher announced in the class that the winter holidays would begin on January 28. 老师在班上宣布元月 28 日放寒假。 3. claim 多指根据权利宣称,声称。如: Doctors claimed to have discovered a cure for the disease. 医生们声称已找到该疾病的治疗方法。

edition
·原文再现 Hello, and welcome to today’s edition of In the air. 大家好,欢迎欢迎来到今天这一期的节目 In the air。 ·基本用法 edition n. 版本;集;期 She is an improved edition of her mother. 她长得像她母亲但胜过她母亲。 The edition is limited to 500 copies. 该版限出 500 本。 This edition of the dictionary is sold out. 这个版本的字典已售完了。 ·知识拓展--相关单词 1. edit v. 编辑;校订

It took him a long time to edit the film. 剪辑这部电影花了他很多时间。 2. editor n. 编辑;主编 He is the chief editor of the newspaper. 他是这家报纸的主编。

cute
·原文再现

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A cute accent is attractive. 一个可爱的口音是吸引人的。 ·基本用法 cute adj. 可爱的;漂亮的;聪明的 Bertha is a cute brown and white bear. 柏莎是一只可爱的棕白相间的熊. It was cute of the boy to bring it to me. 那个男孩把它带给我,可真聪明。 You are not so cute as you think. 你还不像你自己想的那样乖巧。

add
·原文再现 Now add some more ideas in favor of your chosen variety. 现在增加更多的观点来支持你选择的类型。 ·基本用法 add v. 加;增加;接着说 He added that he didn't believe it. 他补充说他不相信这件事。 The fire is going out; will you add some wood? 火快熄灭了,请你加些木柴好吗? ·知识拓展 相关单词 addition n.附加;加法 相关短语 1. add to 增加,增添 The snowstorm added to our difficulties. 暴风雪增加了我们的困难。 2. add...to... 把…加到…之上 Please add some sugar to the milk. 请往牛奶里加些糖。 3. add up 把...加起来(强调动作)

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He added up those figures and they added up to 5,050. 他把那些数字加起来,它们合计为 5050。 4. add up to... 加起来总共是…(强调结果) His school education added up to no more than one year. 他的学校教育加起来不到一年。 5. in addition (用做副词)此外;另外 In addition, I'm the editor of our yearbook. 另外,我还是我们年鉴的编辑。 6. in addition to (用做介词)除…之外,还…. In addition to French, he has to study Japanese. 除了法语外,他还得学日语。

in favor of
·原文再现 Now add some more ideas in favor of your chosen variety. 现在增加更多的观点来支持你选择的类型。 ·基本用法 in favor of 支持;赞同;有利于 She is all in favor of my suggestion. 她完全赞同我的建议。 In their discussion, I was in favor of Mr. Li. 在他们的争论中,我支持李先生。 ·知识拓展 近义词组 be for 赞成;主张 We are for you against them. 我们支持你们反对那些家伙。 反义词组 be against 违反;反对 We are against it, first, last, and all the time. 我们始终如一地反对这件事。

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司 present
·原文再现 Present your ideas to the rest of the class. 把你的观点陈述给班里的其他同学。 ·基本用法 1. present v. 陈述(观点等);赠送;颁发 On Teachers’ Day,some students presented their teachers with some flowers. 在教师节那天,有些学生给他们的老师献了花。 2. present adj. 出席的;现在的(常作表语和后置定语,不要误认为它是动词) All the people present at the meeting were asked to present their own opinions about this matter. 所有出席这次会议的人都被要求陈述一下对这件事情的看法。 3. present n. 礼物;赠品;现在 I sent him a present in his brother's name. 我以他兄弟的名义送了他一件礼物。 ·知识拓展--相关短语 1. present sb. with sth. / present sth. to sb. 把某物赠送给某人 They presented a sum of money to the college in memory of their son. 他们向学院赠送了一笔款项以纪念他们的儿子。 2. present sb. to sb. 正式把某人介绍,引见给某人(地位,级别较高的人) May I present Mr Smith to you? 我把史密斯先生介绍给您,好吗? 3. at present 目前,现在 At present,many students want to go abroad for further education. 目前,许多学生想出国深造。 4. be present at 出席;在场 He will be present at the meeting in person. 他将亲自参加会议。

refer to …as…
·原文再现

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The Chinese refer to their language as Han, as it became popular among the people during the Han Dynasty. 中国人把自己的语言称为汉语,因为它是在汉代流行起来的。 ·基本用法 refer to…as… 称…为…..; 把…当作 (注:除了 refer to…as…表 “把…当作,认为”外,还有 regard…as …, look on…as…,take…as…,think of…as…,treat…as…,see...as...,consider...as...有类似的用法。) The students referred to their teacher as a friend. 学生们把老师当作朋友。 I think of John as a sad person with little success in his life. 我认为约翰是个可悲的人,一辈子很少有什么成功。

·知识拓展 相关短语 refer to 涉及;谈到;查阅,参考 Don't refer to this matter again, please. 请不要再提这件事了。 Does what he has said refer to me? 他说的事涉及到我了吗? You may refer to your notes if you want. 如果需要,可以查阅笔记。 词义辨析: refer to/ look up 这两个短语都有“查阅,查询”的意思,但后面所跟的宾语不同。 refer to 后面跟所查询的工具,如 a book,a dictionary。 look up 后面跟要查询的内容,然后再用介词 in 跟工具,如:look up a word in a dictionary。

attempt
·原文再现 Can you see any similarities between Webster’s work and attempts to simplify Chinese? 你能从韦伯斯特的工作与简化汉语之间看到什么相似之处吗? ·基本用法

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
1. attempt vt. 试图 (常指一次的而不是继续的尝试, 往往暗示这种尝试达不到目的。 后接不定式与动名 词时 意义相同。 try 是普通用词, 指为成功做某事而付出努力或花费一定代价; 后接不定式表示“努力做某事”, 后接动名词表示“尝试着做”。) I attempted to work out the question,but failed. 我试图算出那道题,但没算出来。 2. attempt n. 企图,努力;尝试 I passed my driving test at the first attempt. 我考驾照时一次就通过了。 ·知识拓展 相关单词 attempted adj. 未遂的;意图的 He was charged with an attempted crime. 他因犯罪未遂而被起诉。 相关短语 1. attempt sth. 尝试某事 2. attempt to do/doing sth. 尝试(试图)做某事 Don't attempt to do so much in such a short time. 时间这么短,别想干这么多的事。 3. make an attempt to do sth./ at doing sth. 尝试(试图)做某事 They made no attempt to escape/at escaping. 他们未曾企图逃跑。

simplify
·原文再现 Can you see any similarities between Webster’s work and attempts to simplify Chinese? 你能从韦伯斯特的工作与简化汉语之间看到什么相似之处吗? ·基本用法 simplify vt. 简化;使单纯;使简易 The program could simplify further. 该程序还可以进一步地简化。

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
Could you simplify what you've just said? 你能简化你刚才所说的吗? ·知识拓展--相关单词 simple adj. 简单的;易懂的;普通的 I like my clothes to be simple but elegant. 我喜欢朴素但漂亮雅致的衣服。

combination
·原文再现 Combinations of letters (like ough) may be pronounced in a number of ways. 字母的组合(如 ough)可以有多种发音。 ·基本用法 combination n. 结合;组合;联合 Pink is a combination of red and white. 粉红色是红色与白色的混合色. His character is a combination of wit and kindness. 他的性格是智慧与善良的结合。 ·知识拓展 相关单词 combine v. 联合;结合;混合 Patience combined with diligence is necessary to success. 耐心结合勤奋是成功所必需的。 The two companies combined to make a large one. 这两家公司合并成一家大公司。 词义辨析:combine/join/link/connect/attach/associate/unite 这些动词均有“连接、结合、联合”之意。 1. join: 侧重把原来不相连接的物紧密地连接在一起,但仍可再分开。也指把分散的人或几个部分的人联 合 起来,或加入到某团体中去。如:join a club 加入俱乐部。 2. combine: 指两个或两个以上的人或物结合在一起。如:combine work with pleasure 把工作和乐趣结 合 起来。

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
3. unite: 指联合、团结在一起,构成一个整体。如:unite the whole country 使全国团结起来。 4. connect: 指两事物在某一点上相连接,但彼此又保持独立。如:connect this wire to the television 把 电线 跟电视连上。 5. link: 指连环式的连接, 或用接合物或其它方式连接, 还可指一事物与另一事物的联系或关系。 如: a link with friends 和朋友的联系。 6. attach: 指把局部连接在整体上,小的接在大的上面,活动的接在固定的上面。如:attach a stamp to the envelope 把邮票贴在信封上。 7. associate: 指人与人友好和平,平等地联合在一起;用于物时,指两事物因历史或其它原因,很自然 被 人们联系在一起,即产生联想。如:associate China with the Greet Wall. 想起中国,就联想到长城。

thanks to
·原文再现 For Americans things are a little bit easier, thanks to the work of Noah Webster, a teacher who graduated from Yale University in 1778. 对美国人来说,事情稍微好办些,这多亏了一位叫诺亚?韦伯斯特的人, 他是一位 1778 年毕业于耶鲁大 学 的教师。 ·基本用法 thanks to 由于,幸亏(thanks to 是介词短语,常用作状语,用于表示好的事情发生的原因) Thanks to your help we were successful. 由于你的帮助我们成功了。 Thanks to your explanation, it's clear to me now. 你这么一说,我心里就透亮了。 ·知识拓展--词义辨析:thanks to/ due to/ owing to/ because of/ as a result of 这些词组均表示“由于”之意。 1. due to 用于较庄重的书面语中,侧重“起因于”,在句中多作表语,有时作状语。 To some extent, this is due to the nature of the world around it. 从某种程度上来说,这是由于世界的周围局势所决定的。 2. owing to 可以和 due to 换用,但在句中多作状语,也可作表语。

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Owing to the help from his comrades, he has made rapid progress. 由于同志们的帮助,他进步很快。 3. because of 着重某种原因的理由,在句中通常作状语。 I love you because of what you do for me. 我爱你因为你为我做的事。 4. thanks to 突出一种感激之情,含“多亏”意味. Thanks to your help, we were successful. 多亏了你的帮助,我们成功了。

distinctive
·原文再现 As a young man he had fought against the British in the American War of Independence, and he felt that written English in the newly independent United States should have a distinctive “American” look. 他年轻时曾经在美国独立战争中为反抗英军而战斗,他觉得英语的书写形式在新独立的美国应该体现与 众 不同的”美国”面貌。 ·基本用法 distinctive adj. 有特色的;与众不同的 She had a distinctive appearance. 她的外貌与众不同。 Beer has a very distinctive smell. 啤酒有一种特殊的味道。 ·知识拓展--相关单词 distinction n. 区别;特点 There is a fine distinction between the two words. 这两个字之间有细微区别。 We should make a distinction between right and wrong. 我们应该分清是非。

look
·原文再现

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
As a young man he had fought against the British in the American War of Independence, and he felt that written English in the newly independent United States should have a distinctive “American” look. 他年轻时曾经在美国独立战争中为反抗英军而战斗,他觉得英语的书写形式在新独立的美国应该体现与 众 不同的“美国”面貌。 ·基本用法 1. look n. 外观;面容;看 A look of misery spread over Martha's face. 玛莎的脸上布满了愁云。 Let me have a look at your passport. 让我看一下您的护照。 She threw me a look of encouragement. 她向我投来鼓励的目光。 2. look v. 看;看起来 I look at this problem from a different viewpoint. 我从不同的观点来看这个问题。 The old man sitting on the park bench looks familiar. 坐在公园长椅上的那个老人看上去很面熟。(此句中,look 作系动词用,后面加形容词,而不是副词)

criticize
·原文再现 The British criticized the dictionary, but it quickly became a standard reference book in the States. 英国人对这本词典持批评态度,但它在美国仍很快成为标准参考用书。 ·基本用法 criticize v. 批评;评论 It's hard to criticize one's own work. 评价自己的工作并非易事。 You are free to criticize my work. 你可以随意批评我的工作。 ·知识拓展--相关单词 1. critic n. 批评家;评论家;爱挑剔的人

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
He is a very famous film critic. 他是一个很有名气的电影评论家。 2. critical adj. 批评的;爱挑剔的;评论的 Your critical analysis helped me a great deal. 你的评论分析对我帮助很大。

standard
·原文再现 The British criticized the dictionary, but it quickly became a standard reference book in the States. 英国人对这本词典持批评态度,但它在美国仍很快成为标准参考用书。 ·基本用法 1. standard n. 标准,水平,准则 In my opinion, neither you nor he has met the standard. 在我看来,你跟他都没有达到标准。 2. standard adj. 普通的;标准的 It will send you a standard form for you to fill out. 它会寄给你标准表格要你填写。 ·知识拓展--相关短语 1. the living standards 生活标准 The living standards of the Chinese people have been greatly improved. 中国人民的生活水平已经有了很大的提高。 2. set a standard 制定标准 He sets high standards of behavior for his pupils. 他为学生制定严格的行为准则。 3. be up to/meet the standard 达到标准 His work was not up to the required standard. 他的工作未达到要求的水准。

reference
·原文再现 The British criticized the dictionary, but it quickly became a standard reference book in the States. 英国人对这本词典持批评态度,但它在美国仍很快成为标准参考用书。

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
·基本用法 reference n. 参考;涉及;参考书目 This reference book is very useful to our study. 这本参考书对我们的研究很有用。 There is no further reference to him in her diary. 她的日记中没有进一步提到他。 All such books were bought for reference. 所有这些书都是为参考而买的。 ·知识拓展--相关单词 refer v. 参考;涉及;提到;查阅 注意:refer 常跟介词 to 搭配。如: refer to 涉及;谈到;查阅;参考 refer…to… 提交;归属于;认为…与…有关 Don't refer to this matter again, please. 请不要再提这件事了。 For further details, please refer to page 426. 详情请看 426 页。 Mr White referred his success to his hard work. 怀特先生说他的成功是靠勤劳工作而获得的。

二、重点句型 America and England are two countries divided by a common language. 美国和英国是被用一种语言分开的两个国家。
·基本用法 本句中,过去分词短语 divided by a common language 作后置定语,修饰 two countries。非谓语动词作 定语,现在分词表示主动或进行,过去分词表还被动或完成,不定式表示将来的动作。如: The people waiting there looked very anxious. 在那里等待的人们看起来很着急。 There were many people trapped under the broken buildings in the earthquake. 地震中很多人被困在倒塌的建筑下。 He always has a lot of work to do.

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他总是有很多工作要做。

Americans use a flashlight, while for the British, it’s a torch. 美国人把手电筒成为 flashlight,然而英国人却叫它 torch。
·基本用法 此句中 while 不是引导时间状语从句,而是是作为并列连词使用,意为 ”然而,而”,强调前后两者对比。 but 重点强调前后意思转折,注意用心体会两者在句中区别。如: Some people waste food while others haven't enough. 有些人很费粮食,然而有些人却吃不饱。 The son was having a good meal at home,while the parents were working in the fields. 儿子在家吃好饭而父母却在田里辛勤劳作。 I ought to have helped her,but I never could. 我本该帮她但没能。 Honey is sweet,but the bee stings. 蜂蜜很甜,但蜜蜂有刺蜇人。

Sometimes the same word has a slightly different meaning, which can be confusing. 有时候,同一个单词在意思上有细微的差别会让人困惑。
·基本用法 句中 which can be confusing 是一个非限制性定语从句, 关系代词 which 指代的是前面整个主句的意思。 Which 作关系代词引导非限制性定语从句时,既可以指代前面句子中的某一名词或代词,也可指代主句中的部 分 或整个句子的内容,在从句中做主语,宾语或表语。如: My brother enjoyed playing basketball, which he really plays well. 我弟弟喜欢打篮球,他打得很好。(which 指代前面的 basketball,在从句中作宾语) She told me she won the match, which was a lie. 她告诉我她赢了比赛,那是一个谎言。(which 指代 she won the match,在从句中作主语) She passed the driving test, which made us very surprised. 她通过了驾驶考试,让我们大吃一惊。(which 指代前面整个主句内容,在从句中作主语)

The British use prepositions where Americans sometimes omit them.

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司 英国人用介词的地方美国人有时候可能会省略掉。
·基本用法 本句为主从复合句,where 引导的是地点状语从句。Where 引导的状语从句位置比较灵活,可位于主句 前, 也可位于主句后。如: Springs are very short where she lives. 在她住的地方春天很短暂。 Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者,事竟成。 We should put the medicine where the children can’t reach. 我们应该把药放到孩子们够不到的地方。

When the Irish writer George Bernard Shaw made the famous remark that the British and the Americans are two nations divided by a common language, he was obviously thinking about the differences. 当著名的爱尔兰作家萧伯纳说出“英国和美国是被一种常见的语言分割开来的两个国 家” 一番话时,很明显他考虑了两者之间的差异。
·基本用法 此句为主从复合句,when 引导的是时间状语从句。that the British and the Americans are two nations divided by a common language 是同位语从句,用来说明前面的名词 remark 的内容。同位语从句常跟 在 以下名词的后面:idea,thought,belief,hope,suggestion,doubt,order,news。如: I have no idea when he will come. 我不知道他什么时候来。 Almost everyone expressed the hope that we would meet again. 几乎每个人都表达了想再次见面的希望。 I am glad to hear the news that our team has won the game. 我很高兴听到我们队赢得了比赛的消息。 ·知识拓展 that 引导的定语从句与同位语从句区别: that 引导同位语从句时,是连词,在从句中不充当任何成分,一般不能省略;that 引导定语从句时,是

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关系代词,在从句中充当主语或宾语,若作宾语,可以省略。如: The news that our football team won the match was encouraging. (同位语从句) 我们足球队赢得比赛的消息很鼓舞人心。 The news (that) we heard on the radio was encouraging. (定语从句) 我们在收音机里听到的消息很鼓舞人心。

This non-stop communication,the experts think,has made it easier for British people and Americans to understand each other. 专家认为,这种不间断的交流使得英美人之间的相互理解变得更加容易。
·基本用法 当不定式,动名词或从句在复合宾语结构中作某些动词的宾语时(如 make,find,see,hear 等),为 保持 句子平衡,常用 it 作形式宾语,而将真正的宾语放在句尾。其结构为:主语+谓语动词+ it +形容词/ 名词/ 代词+不定式/动名词/从句。it 后面的形容词或名词作宾补。如: His dream was that the Olympic Games would make it possible for countries and people to live peacefully side by side. 他的梦想就是奥林匹克运动会能使所有的国家和人们和平共处。 New inventions and discoveries have made it possible for us to think about the world in new ways. 新的发明和发现使我们用新的方式了解世界成为可能。 We found it pleasant that we worked together with them. 我们发现与他们一起工作很愉快。 He thinks it no need talking about it with them. 他认为没有必要跟他们谈。

But it has also led to lots of American words and structures passing into British English, so that some people now believe that British English will disappear. 但是这也导致许多美式英语单词和结构传入到英式英语中,以至于现在有一些人相信 英式英语将要消失。
·基本用法

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1. 本句是主从复合句,so that 引导的是一个结果状语从句。so that 还能引导目的状语从句,相当于 in order that,目的状语从句里常用情态动词 may, can, might 或 could 表示目的。不能把 so that 引导的目的状语 从句 和结果状语从句混淆。比较下面两个句子的意义和结构,就很容易区别了。 He spoke at the top of his voice so that the students at the back could hear him. 他说话声音很高,为的是后面的同学能听见。(目的状语从句) He spoke at the top of his voice, so that the students at the back heard him. 他说话声音很高,结果后面的同学都听见了。(结果状语从句) 注意:无论 so that 引导目的状语从句,还是引导结果状语从句,都通常位于句中,而不置于句首。 2. lead to sth. /doing sth. 意为“导致某事/做某事”。 本句中 lead to 后面的宾语是 passing into British English Passing into…的逻辑主语是 lots of American words and structures,是一个独立主格结构。如: The workers worked still harder, their living conditions greatly improved. 由于工人们的生活条件大大提高,他们工作得更起劲了。 (improved 的逻辑主语是 their living conditions,两者是逻辑上的动宾关系)

It is easier to compare British and American English now that we have the Internet. 因为有了因特网,比较英式英语和美式英语就更容易了。
·基本用法 1. 此句为主从复合句,now that 引导的是一个原因状语从句。表示“既然,因为”,强调已知的事实,同 since 相似,语气较弱。 Since you can't answer the question, I'll ask someone else. 既然你回答不出这个问题,我就问别人了。 Now that you are busy, let me do it for you. 既然你忙,就让我给你做吧。 2. 本句中 it 是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的不定式短语 to compare…。当句子主语过长时,为了保持 句子 平衡,常真正的主语后置,用 it 作形式主语。如: It is hard for some parents to stop their children from playing computer games. 对于一些家长来说,组织他们的孩子玩电脑游戏是很难的。

By the 1850s it was selling one million copies a year, making it one of the most

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司 popular school books ever. 到 19 世纪 50 年代,这本书一年就卖了一百万册,这使得它成为最受欢迎的学校用书之 一。
·基本用法 本句中的 making it one of the most popular school books ever 是现在分词短语作结果状语。在分词短语 作 状语往往强调一种自然的结果,而动词不定式则强调意料之外的结果。如: Europe football is played in more than 80 countries in the world, making it the most popular game 世界上有 80 多个国家都在踢欧洲足球,这使得它成为最流行的运动。 This kind of fish can eat a person in two minutes, leaving only bones. 这种鱼能在两分钟内把一个人吃掉,只剩下骨头。 They ran to the station, only to be told the train had left. 他们跑往火车站,结果被告知火车已经开走了。

三、重点语法 时态(I): 一般现在时/ 现在进行时/ 现在完成时/ 一般将来时
·含义 “时态”实际上是指谓语动词所表示的动作发生的时间和方式。考虑一个谓语动词的时态时,首先要考虑这 个动作是发生在过去,现在,将来,还是过去将来;其次要考虑这个动作发生的方式是一般,进行,完 成, 还是完成进行。两个方面结合。 ·用法 一般现在时 1. 表示现在习惯或经常反复发生的动作或存在的状态,常与 usually,always,sometimes,often, frequently, every day/week/year/morning...on Sunday 等时间状语连用。如: He often does his homework in his study. 他经常在他的书房做作业。 2. 表示主语现在的特征、性格和状态。如: The dictionary belongs to me. 这本词典是我的。 3. 表示客观规律、正确的事实或科学真理、格言,以及其他不受时间限制的客观存在。如:

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
The moon goes around the earth. 月亮绕着地球转。 4. 在由连词 if,unless,before,as soon as,when,once,however 等引导的时间(条件,让步)状 语 从句中,需用一般现在时表示将来。如: If you work hard,you won’t fail in the exam. 如果你努力学习,你在考试中不会不及格。 5. 表示按时间表,安排或计划要做的事(有时间状语),限于 begin,come,leave,go,arrive,start, stop,open,close,return 等动词。如: They leave for Shanghai next Sunday. 他们下周日去上海。 现在进行时 1. 表示现在(说话瞬间)正在进行或发生的动作。 He is reading newspapers. 他正在读报纸。 2. 表示说话人现在对主语的行为表赞叹, 责备, 厌恶等感情色彩, 常与 always, constantly, continually 等副词连用。 He is always thinking of others. 他总是想着别人。 3. 表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。(说话时动作不一定正在进行) What are you doing these days? 这些日子你在做什么? 4. 表示最近按计划或安排将要进行的动作。常限于 go,come,leave,start,arrive,return,work, sleep, stay,do,have,wear 等表移动、方向的动词。 He is coming to see me next week. 他下周将来看我。 5. 在时间,条件状语从句中表示将来要进行的动作。 If you are standing at the corner when I pass, I’ll give you a lift into town. 如果我经过时你正站在拐角处,我会让你搭便车进城的。 6. wonder,hope 等词用于进行时表示委婉的语气。

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
I’m wondering if you can help me. 我在想你能否帮助我。 辨析:现在进行时/一般现在时 1. 表示在经常性,习惯性的动作或永久性的状态,用一般现在时;表示现在暂时性的动作,用现在进行 时。 The computer works perfectly/ is working perfectly. 这台电脑运行得非常好/现在运行得非常好。 2. 表示短暂性的动作,用一般现在时;表示持续性的动作,用现在进行时。 The bus stops/ is stopping. 汽车迅速停下/渐渐停下。 3. 说明事实,用一般现在时;表示感情色彩,用现在进行时。 Jane does/ is always doing well at college. 简在大学学习很好/总是学得很好。 现在完成时 1. 表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果,着眼点是现在。 —Have you had your supper yet? 你吃过晚饭了吗? —Yes,I have just had it. 是的,我刚刚吃过。 2.表示过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。可以和表示从过去某一时刻延续到现在(包括“现在” 在内) 的一段时间的状语连用:so far, up/till now, since, for the past/last few years, these few days, all the morning, for a long time 等。just,today,this morning,this month,this year,since,all the time。 I haven’t seen my teacher this evening 今晚我还没见到我的老师。 3. 和 already, never, ever, just, before, lately, recently, yet, so far, up to the present, in the past/last few years 等状语连用。 I have done my homework already. 我已经做完了家庭作业。 4. 常与介词 for,during,in,within,over 等引导的时间状语连用,表示过去的某一行为一直延续到现 在。 I haven’t seen my English teacher in the recent years.

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
近几年我没见过我的英语老师。 5. 表示反复或习惯性的动作,常与 several times,once,twice,three times,frequently 等频度副词 连用。 I have been to the USA once. 我曾去过美国一次。 6. 在“最高级+名词”或在“这是第几次”之后跟定语从句,从句用现在完成时。 This is the third time I have been here. 这是我第三次来这儿。 7. 表示从过去到现在没有发生的动作。 I haven’t swept the floor for half a week. 我已半周没拖地了。 8. 用在时间、条件状语从句中,表示从句动作先于主句动作完成。 I’ll tell him after you have left. 你走后我将告诉他。 9. have been to 去过……(已回来),have gone to 去……了(或到了或在途中)。 My sister has gone to the USA. 我妹妹已去了美国。 10. 在现在完成时中,终止性动词若与 for,since 等延续性状语连用,需把终止性动词变为 be 动词等 的 适当形式。如: die→be dead, join→be in, fall ill→be ill, finish→be over, leave/go→be away, begin→be in, make friends →be friends,become→be,borrow→keep,arrive/get to/reach/come→be in/be at/stay,dress→be (dressed) in,put on→have on/wear,meet→stay together。 They have been good friends for years. 他们是多年的好朋友了。 一般将来时 1. 表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态, 常与 soon, tomorrow(morning...), next week/year..., some day, from now on,the day after tomorrow,in (the) future 等表示将来的时间状语连用。 I don’t know what will happen in the future. 我不知道将来会发生什么。

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
2. 表示临时决定要做的事。 --I thought I asked you to sweep the floor. 我想我说过让你扫地的。 --Oh, sorry, Mother. I’ll do it right now. 噢,对不起,妈妈。我马上就做。 3. shall/will+动词原形:(单纯)表将来;不用于条件句;表(必然的)将来;表意愿,决心。 Oil will float on water. 油总是浮在水面上。 4. be going to+动词原形:(计划)打算做…;(客观迹象)预示。 It is going to rain. 要下雨了。 5. be on the point of doing sth. /be about to +动词原形:即将或正要去做某事,不与时间状语连用但 可与 when 从句连用。 I’m on the point of leaving. 我马上要走了。 6. be to+动词原形:计划好要做…;(表命令、禁止)应该… Where are we to stay tonight? 我们今晚将住在哪里? 7. be+doing 表示按计划、安排即将发生的动作,常用于 go,start,set out,leave,reach,arrive, return, come,move,take off 等位移动词。 I’m going to Shanghai tomorrow. 我明天要去上海。 8. 祈使句/短语+and/or+主语+will... Work hard and you will succeed sooner or later. 努力吧,你早晚会成功的。

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