当前位置:首页 >> 机械/仪表 >>

KINETICS Noise Control design and application guidelines


CHAPTER D1 SEISMIC BUILDING CODE REVIEW TABLE OF CONTENTS

Referenced Standards Overview of Analytical Methods Used Static vs Dynamic Modeling Techniques Required Calculation Input Understanding Standard Calculation Output Understanding non-Standard Calculation Output General Assumptions and Disclaimer

D1.2 D1.3 D1.4 D1.5 D1.6 D1.7 D1.8

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Chapter D1)
KINETICS SEISMIC ENGINEERING
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 10/1/03
PAGE:

D1.0
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

Purpose, Extent and Limitations of Analysis

D1.1

PURPOSE, EXTENT AND LIMITATIONS OF A SEISMIC ANALYSIS
The primary purpose for a seismic analysis with regard to equipment, piping, ductwork and conduit is to offer a degree of confidence to the Engineer of Record that a competent individual has reviewed the application, specified appropriate componentry and documented that, properly installed, it is in compliance with code and specification requirements. There are many inherent limitations as to the extent of such an analysis. The primary limitation is that, by law, an Engineer can only take responsibility for those components over which he has direct control or knowledge. The typical items that are addressed in an analysis are the determination of design seismic forces, the resulting reactions at the restraint connections to the structure (if the equipment remains rigid) and the capabilities of the hardware and anchorage to resist those forces. The capabilities of equipment to withstand seismic forces must be determined by either the equipment manufacturer or by an independent party that has access to all of the technical information relative the equipment. As to it’s structural durability, all material strengths, thicknesses, geometry and operating loads must be accounted for and added to the seismic load requirements. The issue becomes more complex when continued operation of the equipment is mandated. As the ability of an independent party to obtain this information is extremely limited, the manufacturer must normally address the equipment durability issues. There are also building structural issues that must be considered. These relate to the ability of the building structure to withstand the local seismic forces placed on it by the equipment. In a similar fashion to the equipment, to properly analyze these factors, a detailed knowledge of both the building structure and the loads anticipated in that structure during a seismic event must be considered. These must be added to the forces generated by the equipment. As there is no one else with access to this information, this analysis falls into the domain of the Structural Engineer of Record. Finally, in order for the system to work, it is assumed that all of the componentry is properly installed. Critical information on the installation of the various parts is provided and frequently once installed, it is extremely difficult to determine if the appropriate procedures were followed. As a result, after the fact inspections are based only on what can be observed in the final installation and are not comprehensive. The responsibility for following the appropriate procedures falls to the installation contractor with possible oversight by an independent on site observer.

PURPOSE, EXTENT AND LIMITATIONS OF A SEISMIC ANALYSIS
PAGE 1 OF 1
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 09/02/04
DOCUMENT:

D1.1
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

REFERENCED STANDARDS
Listed below are the significant documents referenced and or used in the creation of this manual. ACI (American Concrete Institute) 318-02 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, 2002 ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) 7-98 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, 1998 ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) 7-02 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, 2002 ASD (Allowable Stress Design) National Design Specification for Wood Construction Manual (American Forest and Paper Association / American Wood Council) 1999 ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers) HVAC Application Handbook, 2003 ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers) RP-812 A Practical Guide to Seismic Restraint, 1999 BOCA (Building Officials and Code Administrators) National Building Code, 1996 and Amendments FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) FEMA 412 Installing Seismic Restaints for Mechanical Equipment, 2002 FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) FEMA 413 Installing Seismic Restaints for Electrical Equipment, 2004 FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) FEMA 414 Installing Seismic Restaints for Ducts and Pipe, 2004 IBC (International Building Code) (International Code Council), 2000 IBC (International Building Code) (International Code Council), 2003 NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) NFPA 13 Installation of Sprinkler Systems, 1999 NRC-CNRC (National Research Council – Canada) National Building Code of Canada, 1995

REFERENCED STANDARDS
PAGE 1 OF 2
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 9/24/03
DOCUMENT:

D1.2
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

SBC (Standard Building Code) (Southern Building Code Congress International), 1997 and Amendments TI-809-04 (US Army Corps of Engineers) Seismic Design for Buildings, 1998 UBC (Uniform Building Code) (International Conference of Building Officials), 1997 and Amendments

REFERENCED STANDARDS
PAGE 2 OF 2
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 9/16/04
DOCUMENT:

D1.2
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

OVERVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS USED
Unless otherwise specified, the analyses performed by on a worst case statically applied load and assume that rigid. These assumptions are in compliance with application of appropriate factors, address dynamic elements involved as well. Kinetics Noise Control are based the equipment being restrained is code parameters and with the forces to the various structural

There are several types of reactive loads that result from the analysis of a typical piece of equipment. A horizontal shear load, an imbalance load, a vertical uplift load, an overturning load and the static deadweight load. The interaction between these results in worst case combinations at each restraint point. SHEAR LOAD ANALYSIS The most obvious restraint loading that occurs during a seismic event is the horizontal force that is generated by the lateral load. In its simplest case this results in the lateral load being split among the restraints. If the center of gravity of the equipment is aligned with the geometric center of the restraints, the split will be equal as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 IMBALANCED LOAD ANALYSIS More frequently, the unit center of gravity is not aligned with the geometric center. When this is the case, an imbalanced load is generated which needs to be combined with the shear loads previously discussed. Figure 2 shows that the method of analyzing this

OVERVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS USED
PAGE 1 0F 6
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 9/24/03
DOCUMENT:

D1.3
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

Generally speaking, this analysis models a piece of restrained equipment as a rigid body with a lateral and possibly vertical load as defined by the code applied to its center of gravity. The application of these loads generates forces at the equipment restraints, which can eventually be reconciled to anchor loads. As the wave front angle for the earthquake is unknown, this analysis work must ensure that the design loads are applied in the directions which will generate the highest forces in the anchors.

situation is to treat the horizontal shear load at each restraint as a function of the mass that is associated with them.

Figure 2 OVERTURNING LOAD ANALYSIS The accurate modeling of overturning forces is critical in determining the vertical forces to which the restraints are exposed. In the simple case where the center of gravity is coincident with the geometric center of the system and with four restraints, the vertical components are a simple function of the height of the center of gravity and the restraint spacing (Figure 3).

Figure 3 In the case of a system with more than four restraints, the number of points that can be considered to share the overturning load becomes a function of clearance that may be present. Note in Figure 4, that with no clearance, resistance to the overturning load will occur at every restraint location. The most common type of installation that exhibits this property is a rigidly bolted system.

OVERVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS USED
PAGE 2 0F 6
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 9/24/03
DOCUMENT:

D1.3
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

9-1

Figure 4 In systems that have more than four restraints and contain restraints that maintain an operating clearance, only the end restraints can be considered effective in resisting overturning loads. With this type of restraint, some elastomeric snubbing must be present to prevent impact loading and resulting force amplification. In some cases, if the snubbing pads are thick enough and the operating clearance small enough, some load sharing may be present, but in general this effect is minimal. This is clearly illustrated in Figure 4. LOAD DIRECTION ANALYSIS Because the direction of the seismic load is unknown, it is necessary to determine the worst case overturning load at each restraint point based on any possible load direction. The method used by Kinetics Noise Control is to set up a mathematical model of the equipment arrangement and then index the application angle of the design seismic force for the full 360 degrees of possible application angles in 1-degree increments. At each increment, the overturning load for each point is computed and the worst case load encountered at each restraint point is used in the analysis.

Figure 5

OVERVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS USED
PAGE 3 0F 6
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 9/24/03
DOCUMENT:

D1.3
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

OTHER SIGNIFICANT FACTORS Before a mathematical model can be built, there are several other key hardware factors that need to be accounted for. These factors relate to specific snubber or system designs that can have a major impact on the final restraining loads. SINGLE DIRECTION SNUBBERS Figure 6A shows a system using four single direction lateral restraints. Because this type of restraint only restrains a single direction lateral load, they must be used in sets of four. Some versions of these include a vertical snubbing pad for uplift loads. Although these are then biaxial restraints, they behave very similarly. It is important to note that since each restraint only works in a single direction, that any restraint must absorb the entire lateral force by itself. MULTI-DIRECTION SNUBBERS In contrast to this, the same unit fitted with four multi-axial restraints will produce an average lateral load per restraint equal to 1/4 of the total load. This results in a series of restraints, which can be significantly smaller than what would be required for single direction components (Figure 6B).

Figure 6

OVERVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS USED
PAGE 4 0F 6
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 9/24/03
DOCUMENT:

D1.3
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

OPEN SPRING ISOLATORS When restraining vertical loads, there are two distinct types of restraints that can be used. The first of these I will call an open or non-contained spring isolator. This is one in which the spring bears against the floor and the anchor bolts have the possibility of absorbing the spring load. An illustration of this is shown in Figure 7 (Labeled “OPEN”). CONTAINED SPRING ISOLATORS Another more common type of restrained spring isolator is one, which I will call a contained spring isolator. In this type, the spring load is contained within the restraint housing. The net result is that the anchor bolts, while still required to resist the equipment loading, do not have to absorb any additional loading that may be generated by the spring. This is shown in Figure 7 (Labeled “CONTAINED”). To illustrate this point more clearly, The first illustration in Figure 7 shows the two types of isolators under normal load. Note that in either case the anchors are effectively unloaded. If the equipment weight is now suddenly removed, the situation occurs that is illustrated in the second illustration. In this case nearly all the spring load is transferred directly to the anchor bolts in the open case, but the anchors are still unloaded in the contained one.

Figure 7

OVERVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS USED
PAGE 5 0F 6
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 9/24/03
DOCUMENT:

D1.3
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

SEPARATE SNUBBERS A quick review of systems which incorporate spring supports and independent snubbers will show that they perform in the same manner as those which use open spring isolators. These cases are illustrated in the right half of Figure 7. MODEL GENERATION Two static models are set up for a given piece of equipment. One would be an X-axis model and the other a Y-axis version. In these models, all translational, vertical and overturning loads are accounted for including factors for the center of gravity offsets in each of the two major axes. The input load can be considered to be applied in any direction and X and Y components are extracted from it. Using the above concept and generating loads for each restraint point based on the load angle discussed earlier. The angle is incremented from 0 to 360 degrees, generating the resulting forces at each restraint point for each angle. The worst case force at each restraint location is then stored and used for the evaluation of the restraint at that location. RESTRAINT ANALYSIS Up to now, the analysis has been limited to the entire system. It now becomes necessary to use the loads developed for each restraint location to determine the adequacy of each restraint. In general each restraint behaves like a small piece of equipment with its own horizontal, vertical and overturning components. Because these parameters are clearly defined for each restraint however, these factors can be boiled down to a capacity chart listing the maximum vertical, lateral and combined capacity of the restraint. These values are different for anchorage to concrete or attachment to steel. The previously computed forces are then compared to the restraint limits to ensure their adequacy.

OVERVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS USED
PAGE 6 0F 6
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 9/24/03
DOCUMENT:

D1.3
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

STATIC vs DYNAMIC MODELING
The basic format for tests and/or analyses of seismic resistant systems follow one of the following two primary paths, static or dynamic modeling. Within these major categories there are a myriad of detailed approaches that will not be addressed here. Instead, this document will focus on the significant differences between the static and dynamic models, what can be gained from each and when one might be preferred over another. The static analysis involves applying a force either mathematically to a mathematically modeled system or to apply an actual force to a physical model. This force must be applied in the direction that will generate the largest possible static forces in the equipment, the equipment anchorage and the restraint. The force at that restraint is then measured or computed for comparison to the statically rated capacity of the restraint, the equipment, the anchorage device or the local load conditions on the structure. In order to use this analysis to address the forces that occur in a dynamic situation, like an earthquake, a factor (or series of factors) is then applied to the computed forces. These factors have been “fine tuned” with experience and currently offer a high degree of confidence. Unfortunately, these amplified factors can only be directly related to the structural performance of the system. In a dynamic analysis, a time varying input force is used. The force is generated from historical ground acceleration data from an earthquake that has properties that are expected to be similar to those that would be experienced at the proposed project site. The amplitude of this profile is adjusted upward or downward to provide peaks that coincide with the seismic design values for the project. In the case of equipment, if the study is done analytically, a model that not only addresses the basic geometry of the system, but also models the dynamic cushioning in the restraint device itself is needed. If an actual sample is tested, samples of the equipment, restraints and anchorage systems as well as a shake table large enough to mimic the appropriate seismic accelerations are necessary. In addition, the dynamic input forces must accurately portray not only the expected earthquake, but must also accurately account for the direction of the wave front and the impact of dynamic factors in the structure. On the surface, it is obvious that a dynamic test will be considerably more expensive than would be a static one. In order for it to be justified in the practical world, there is a requirement that if offers a fair trade-off in value to the end user. Dynamic modeling has been most commonly used with regard to building structures and with systems were failure can result in serious danger or loss of life (Nuclear facilities for example). With regard to the building structures themselves, there are several factors that allow dynamic models to offer easily justified benefits. First, the cost of the analysis, compared to the cost of the structure, is relatively low. In addition, since buildings are generally “one-offs”, they normally include extensive individualized design work specific to

STATIC vs DYNAMIC MODELING
PAGE 1 OF 3
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 9/16/04
DOCUMENT:

D1.4
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

the application anyway and as such, frequently are already “modeled”. An additional factor specific to a structure is that the consequences of failure, from a life-safety standpoint, are significant. Finally, from a cost/benefit side, the use of a dynamic model can open the potential to reduce or simplify the structure and can actually reduce its cost. With regard to those applications involving the potential for extremely hazardous material release, cost is not even an issue. It is critical to all concerned that the system is analyzed in absolutely the best way possible. Both static and dynamic modeling methods should be used and conservative factors applied to the result.

Note that the above also holds true for those pieces of equipment in non-critical structures, but who’s continued operation after a seismic event would be needed to ensure life-safety. Benefits of a static analysis become clear in non-critical applications. Here, the use of static techniques and appropriate factors offer conservative, easily documented and repeatable results that can confirm the structural durability of the equipment and anchorage for minimal cost. In these cases (where continued operation of the equipment is not required), life safety can be addressed simply by applying a conservative static analysis. In these applications, if the potential cost or downtime that might result from internal damage to this equipment is a significant issue, features could be added internally by the manufacturers for minimal cost that could increase the confidence level of continued operation greatly. The key here is that the cost to offer a 90% chance of success would only be a fraction of the cost that would be required to guarantee success. Over the long term, it is likely that equipment designed to be installed in seismically active areas, will become more robust and will be designed to meet some reasonable fatigue

STATIC vs DYNAMIC MODELING
PAGE 2 OF 3
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 9/16/04
DOCUMENT:

D1.4
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

Hospitals and other facilities that must remain operational after a seismic event pose more of a dilemma. The dynamic analysis of the structure can often be justified as noted above, however the mechanical equipment inside can be a problem. Of primary concern is the current requirement identified in the IBC and TI-809-04 codes for critical equipment to remain operational. This means that not only must the equipment be structurally substantial enough to ride out an event, but also that its internals must be tough enough that the tremor will not generate internal mechanical failures. There is no practical way to model this statically. Instead, the individual equipment component parts must be designed to accept significant forces within allowable fatigue limits. This type of analysis is common for vehicles or other devices that are subject to dynamic loads, but is not commonly used in the design of static equipment. The only other option would be to perform substantial dynamic testing over a wide input spectrum (both in frequency and direction) on existing equipment. This would likely cost considerably more than the value of the equipment itself.

criteria. Once this becomes common practice, much of the need to perform detailed dynamic analyses or testing of this equipment will likely disappear. Currently, the best “value” is to perform static analyses with the inclusion of appropriate factors on all equipment installations. The resulting forces can be used to validate the capability of the equipment to remain in place during an appropriate seismic event. Where it is necessary to certify the continued operation of the equipment as well, current practice is that it be dynamically tested or analyzed. At best, this is not comprehensive and requires that all factors are appropriately accounted for, that the actual ground forces experienced are similar to those assumed in type, frequency and magnitude and that the unit in the field behaves at least as well as the unit in the lab. Better than the dynamic qualification test however, is that the equipment should be “designed” to withstand all anticipated and factored forces expected on its internal components within the fatigue limits of the materials that make it up and with some reasonable additional safety factor.

STATIC vs DYNAMIC MODELING
PAGE 3 OF 3
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 9/16/04
DOCUMENT:

D1.4
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

Required Calculation Input
There are several pieces of information that are required for Kinetics Noise Control to perform an analysis on an equipment installation. Some of this information is project and/or code related and some is equipment related. The input requirements will vary depending on the project building code. The appropriate building code for the project is required and is the first piece of information to be determined, as it governs everything else. Since the codes vary with time and local jurisdiction, and because there are periods during which it may be possible to use different codes for the same project, it is critical that the code, and code version, used are consistent with the project requirements. More recent codes require project site data that impacts the seismic design forces. This includes soil type and, in the 97 UBC, the type and proximity of the nearest fault. This data is not something that can be quickly pulled from a map, and as such is not something that it is available to anyone offsite who is attempting to perform an analysis. The end use of the building also needs to be identified. Factors are assigned in the course of the analysis based on the end use, and the project impact (safety and/or cost) can be significant if the wrong factors are used. Once the general information is identified, specific information relative to the equipment and system is required. Besides the obvious geometric and weight data for the equipment (height, width, length, weight, approximate center of gravity location, and locations of any mounting hardware), generic material as to what type of equipment it is and whether its continued function is needed for life safety must be determined. The 95 NBC (Canada), 97 UBC, 2000 IBC, 2003 IBC and TI-809-04 all require that the mounting elevation of the equipment relative to the roof height of the structure be known as well. In some cases, some of the required data must be estimated. Kinetics Noise Control will attempt to do this conservatively, and in so doing the net result is a more conservative analysis and potentially costly installation. While attempts are made to make “reasonable” and “conservative” estimates, it remains the responsibility of others to compare these values to the actual equipment and indicate to Kinetics Noise Control if something appears to be inconsistent. All values used in the analysis are provided on the output; the responsibility to review this data will normally fall to the general contractor or the engineer of record. To aid in collecting the appropriate information to perform analyses, the following checklist has been developed and should be filled out for each piece of equipment addressed by the project.

REQUIRED CALCULATION INPUT
PAGE 1 OF 2
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 10/11/04
DOCUMENT:

D1.5
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

Seismic Checklist
General Data: Project:_____________________________________________Date:_________ Seismic Code: o SBC o UBC o BOCA o UBC (Calif) o IBC o NBC-Canada o Other _____________________________ Code Year of issue: o 1993 o 1994 o 1995 o 1996 o 1997 o 2000 o 2003 o Other _____________________ Accel factor or Proj location (Av, v, Z, or SDS (.2 Sec Response Accel)):_____________ Optional Minimum “G” factors from Spec:_________Horiz, __________Vert Building Use:______________________________________________________ Total Occupancy:___________________________________________________ Addition data for 1997 UBC If Av = .4, provide distance to nearest fault and source type. o <= 2 km o > 2 km ,< 10 km o > 10 km o A (Frequent Lrg Magnitude) o B (Other) o C (Rare Sml Magnitude) Addition data for 2000 IBC, TI-809-04 Equipment Importance Factor (Ip):________ Failure of this Equipment will result in a life safety issue: o Yes o No Addition data for 1997 UBC, IBC and TI-809-04 codes only: Soil Type: o Sa (Hard Rock) o Sb (Rock) o Sc (Dense Soil/Soft Rock) o Sd (Stiff Soil) o Se (Soft Soil) o Sf (Other-Backfill, etc.) Provide detail data on soil conditions if Sf selected. Addition data for the NBC-Canada Code only: Foundation Factor: Failure of this Equipment can release Hazardous Materials: o Yes o No Tag Data: Equipment Location in Building: o At or Below Grade o Above Grade Roof Elevation _______ o If 1997 UBC, IBC, TI-809-04 or NBC Equipment Mounting Elevation_______ Type of Equipment:___________ Equipment Weight: ___________ Height from base of Equipment to Vertical CG:_______________ The Equipment will be attached to: o Concrete Anchors o Through Bolt to Steel or Concrete o Welded o Bolt to Wood (Thickness, width, and type of wood required.) Include structural drawings if available showing unit location with respect to structural members. Equipment Geometry (Include Drawing)

REQUIRED CALCULATION INPUT
PAGE 2 OF 2
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 10/11/04
DOCUMENT:

D1.5
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

UNDERSTANDING KNC ’ S STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT
Most of the seismic and wind certifications performed by Kinetics Noise Control will be done using proprietary analytical software and will generate a report in the format shown on the following pages. In cases that cannot be modeled using this software, the results will be obtained using customized spreadsheet documents that will vary in format depending on the analysis involved. This section will provide insight and understanding of the data presented using the standardized computer-generated format. There will always be at least one output sheet per seismic calculation. If special anchorage is required, a second sheet indicating the special anchorage requirements will be added. If wind is also an issue, and a wind analysis was requested, a third document (for standard anchorage) and possibly a fourth (for special anchorage) would be included as well. In all cases, the output documents will have three portions. The upper half of the sheet indicates the information input into the program. The second segment indicates the program outputs, and the last segment lists special notes that are applicable.

Seismic Certification Document (A) All standard seismic certifications will include the (A)-type document. It can be identified by the (A) in the top right corner and the word Seismic included in the title. Input Data Looking first at the input data, there are several key areas that are grouped together as follows: UNDERSTANDING KNC’S STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 1 OF10
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

RELEASE DATE: 5/17/04
DOCUMENT:

D1-6
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ?2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

General project data is generally across the top of the document. Included is the reference purchase order number from Kinetics Noise Control in the top left-hand corner. Below this is the name assigned to the project by Kinetics Noise Control, the representative’ s name, reference to the representative’ s purchase order number, and the date that the certification was performed. Also listed is the code used to perform the analysis and any overriding horizontal and vertical seismic design acceleration coefficients, if specified. For some codes, the soil type, fault type, and fault proximity come into play and if they are applicable they are listed as shown above. The next data segment is specifically related to the particular equipment installation being certified. In the figure below, the location of this information has been indicated. For ease of reference, the tag data listed at the top right-hand corner as well as on the third line refers to the component being evaluated. Within the body of the text a name for the equipment is listed along with the tag identification and below this is the mounting arrangement. In this case, the mounting is identified as Base Mounted, Common Support/Restraint Loc. This indicates that the equipment is mounted at its base (typically to the floor) and that the restraints and supports are at the same locations (meaning that if isolated, combination isolator/restraints are used, or if hard mounted, that the unit is bolted down and restrained UNDERSTANDING KNC’S STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 2 OF 10
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

RELEASE DATE: 5/17/04
DOCUMENT:

D1-6
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ?2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

with the same hardware). Other options that may be listed are: Base Mounted, Different Support/Restraint Loc. (for separate isolators & restraints) Base Mounted, 4 Isolators/2 Restraints (where 2 restraints are located at the equipment centerline) Hanging, Common Support/Restraint Loc. (where equipment is hung with 4 or more rods and is restrained at the same points) Hanging, Different Support/Restraint Loc. (where equipment is hung with 4 or more rods and is restrained at different points) Hanging, 2 Supports/4 Restraints (where equipment is hung on 2 hanger rods and is restrained with 4 restraint cables).

Listed on the right side of the certification are Code G (ASD) and Conc Ancs (ASD) values. These are the computed seismic force values used by the program to determine the forces at the restraint points expressed in ASD (Allowable Stress Design or Working Stress based) units. Code G is the basic design force and is used to evaluate component capacity and through-bolted anchorage. Conc Ancs includes additional factors that must be used to evaluate anchorage to concrete. The (H/V) terms are the horizontal and vertical force components. Weight, geometry, and equipment specific seismic design factors are the last items that fall into this segment of the input data. Wgt (weight) is the operating weight of the equipment. Elev-Roof/Equip is the relative elevation of the equipment in the structure to the roof elevation and is required only by some codes. Seismic factors Ap, Ss, I, Rp s/c are the factors drawn from the code and are used to UNDERSTANDING KNC’S STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 3 OF 10
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

RELEASE DATE: 5/17/04
DOCUMENT:

D1-6
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ?2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

compute the previously discussed seismic force values. The names of these terms will vary from code to code, but they will always be found in this location on the certification document. Where s/c appears, this indicates that different values are used for throughbolted (s for steel) and anchored to concrete (c for concrete) connections. Values for A, B, ex, and ey are identified in the schematic. These represent the spacing between the outermost restraint elements and the assumed offset in the center of gravity of the system. When the restraint components are independent of the supports, the values a and b will also be listed. In the sketch, support points are represented by O’ s and restraint points by X’ s. The last item that relates to the equipment data is the height (Hgt). The value here is the vertical distance between the equipment center of gravity and the restraint contact point. With hanging equipment, two values will be listed. The first is the vertical distance between the equipment center of gravity and the restraint connection point and the second is the distance between the restraint connection point and the elevation at which the hanger rods connect to the equipment. Moving on to the installation sketch:

The diagram represents schematically the general layout of the equipment. Restraint points are labeled 1, 2, 3, etc. and the previously discussed dimension locations are identified. If the equipment has more than 4 restraint points, the sketch will show added restraint locations at the midpoint of the long axis; however, the actual number of restraints will be listed under the restraint data heading. In some cases, there may be 2 restraints grouped in each corner. If this is the case the UNDERSTANDING KNC’S STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 4 OF 10
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

RELEASE DATE: 5/17/04
DOCUMENT:

D1-6
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ?2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

schematic drawing will reflect that condition. The last segment listed in the input data portion of the certification is the restraint data section.

Listed here is information on the total number of restraints and the number visible on each side (or axis). Also identified is the restraint type and assumed anchor embedment depth (in bolt diameters) for concrete anchors. Finally, by location (as shown on the sketch) the model of the restraint is identified. If more than 4 restraints, the smallest of the remaining restraints is listed after the heading Other. For hard-mounted applications, the restraints will be identified as Solid. If cable restrained, the cable quantity and size will be identified. Output Data This section of the certification is broken into 2 major subdivisions. First is a summary of the design loads used at each restraint location.

UNDERSTANDING KNC’S STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 5 OF 10
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

RELEASE DATE: 5/17/04
DOCUMENT:

D1-6
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ?2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

If more than 4 restraints are used on a piece of equipment, a final column will appear labeled Other. The data displayed will be the worst-case condition of those restraints not listed as 1 through 4. Listed here is the static load (deadweight), the worst-case uplift load condition, the worstcase horizontal load condition, and the effective corner weight used when considering overturning factors. If the system is a hanging system, the maximum tensile load in the cable (based on an angle of 45 degrees to the horizontal) is listed instead of the effective corner weight. All seismic forces as presented are based on the G-forces appropriate for through-bolted or welded connections. Higher G-forces, as noted at the top of the sheet, are, however, used by the program when appropriate if computing safety factors for concrete anchors. Note: If evaluating or independently analyzing special concrete anchorage conditions, where a 2:1 factor is required (IBC, 97 UBC, TI809-04), the forces listed must be increased as follows. Horizontal forces should be doubled. The effective corner weight should be subtracted from the maximum uplift force and the result added to the maximum uplift force to determine a new uplift component. In addition, the restraint geometry must be accounted for as the listed forces act at the snubbing location of the restraint and forces at the anchors can be considerably different. (This is only required for evaluating the anchorage.) The effective corner weight differs from the static load in that it is the force required at that corner to “ lift” the equipment (if the equipment is assumed to be rigid). For example, it will take the same force to lift the corner of a table with 4 legs as it will to lift a corner of the same table if 10 legs are added somewhere in the middle. While the centrally located legs spread the load out from a support standpoint, they do not share the load when resisting rocking motions. The lower section of the output data segment presents restraint and hardware capacity information as shown below.

This information will vary depending on the restraint components used, but in general it will present safety factors for the restraint component used, through-bolt size and quantity UNDERSTANDING KNC’S STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 6 OF 10
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

RELEASE DATE: 5/17/04
DOCUMENT:

D1-6
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ?2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

(if through bolted), anchor size, quantity and embedment (if anchored to concrete), and through-bolt/anchor safety factors. If a hanging system is used, the worst-case compressive load in the hanger rod is also identified. Data presented in the “ Other” column reflects worst-case loading in conjunction with the smallest “ Other” restraint and as such is a worst-case condition for the remaining components. All safety factors listed must exceed 1.0 to have a valid installation with the following exception. In cases where only the concrete anchor safety factor is less than 1.0, an oversized base plate can be provided to allow higher capacity. In these cases, a second certification sheet labeled (B) will be included and will address this condition. Notes The final segment of the certification document is comprised of general notes and the standard disclaimer. The notes will vary with the restraint devices used and the application, but will in general offer the following added information.

Weld sizes that can be used as an option to bolting when appropriate for the restraint devices are listed. When one or more of the concrete anchor safety factors is less than 1.0, a note indicating that Sheet B will be included and information addressing the need for an oversized baseplate will appear. Additional notes relating to allowable cable angles, A-307 hardware requirements, and edge distances for concrete anchors are also included when appropriate. General Comments on Document (A) Often, due to a lack of comprehensive input data, Kinetics Noise Control engineers will conservatively estimate the center of gravity location. While estimating a dimension or magnitude for this isn’ t unreasonable, the direction of the imbalance is almost always UNDERSTANDING KNC’S STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 7 OF 10
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

RELEASE DATE: 5/17/04
DOCUMENT:

D1-6
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ?2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

unknown. Because of this, unless the direction of the imbalance is clearly stated (relative to features on the equipment that are spelled out) the worst-case computed corner restraint condition should be assumed for all corner locations. Seismic Certification Document (B) When appropriate and as indicated above, the seismic certifications will include the (B)type document. It can be identified by the (B) in the top right corner and the word Seismic included in the Title. While it is formatted in the same manner and includes much the same information as the (A) document, it contains detailed information relating to the capacity of the required oversize base plate and additional anchors. Input Data The only difference between the (A)- and (B)-documents within the input data section is that the schematic equipment layout sketch is changed to show the size and layout of the required oversize base plate.

Information on the on the bolt pattern, anchor size, overall dimensions, and weld locations are all presented in a readable format. Output Data The first portion of the output data (which indicates the loads at the restraint points) remains unchanged from the (A)-Document. Information on the modified anchorage arrangement is, however, new. UNDERSTANDING KNC’S STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 8 OF 10
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

RELEASE DATE: 5/17/04
DOCUMENT:

D1-6
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ?2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

Notes Additional notes are provided that relate directly to the oversized base plate and the anchors that go with them. Wind Certification Document (A) When requested, Kinetics Noise Control will perform an additional wind certification. It is very similar to the seismic certification and can be identified by the (A) in the top right corner and the words Wind Load included in the title. Input Data

The areas where there are differences between the wind load input data and the seismic load input data are indicated above. UNDERSTANDING KNC’S STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 9 OF 10
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

RELEASE DATE: 5/17/04
DOCUMENT:

D1-6
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ?2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

Listed will be the quantity and size of the anchors, the required anchor embedment depth, and the resulting anchorage safety factor for each location.

The seismic G-forces listed in the seismic certification are replaced by a design wind pressure. In addition, the length, width, and height of the restrained equipment are indicated. All of the remaining input information remains the same. Output Data The output data format is exactly the same as the output data in the seismic certification. The only difference is that the values listed are the result of the wind load and not of the seismic load. As with the seismic certification, the possibility exists in a wind application that concrete anchorage may be inadequate. If this is the case, a (B)-document similar to the (B)seismic document is generated. Wind Certification Document (B) Without going into great detail, the difference between the (B)-wind certification document and the (A)-wind certification document is identical to the differences between the (B)seismic document and the (A)-seismic document. Refer back to the earlier comments for further clarification.

UNDERSTANDING KNC’S STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 10 OF 10
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

RELEASE DATE: 5/17/04
DOCUMENT:

D1-6
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ?2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

UNDERSTANDING NON-STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT
There are periodically equipment applications that do not fit well into the automated seismic computation programs developed by Kinetics Noise Control. This holds true for others that perform this service as well. This section of the manual indicates the minimum material that should be expected to be included in the output document, from Kinetics Noise Control or from any other reputable organization. This data comprises those items that must be verified by the end user to ensure that the appropriate information was provided, was understood and was used. Because of the number of links in the chain, miscommunication in this area is common and failure to do validate this data can make the certification invalid. It also provides input that should be used by the equipment manufacturer and the building structural engineer to ensure that the durability of the equipment and locally, of the structure, is adequate to withstand the seismic inputs. Echoed Input Data First there should be a list of assumed inputs. Overall, there should be a listing of the project, any reference order numbers to which the certification applies and the date the calculation was performed. In addition, global parameters like the Code used, the ground acceleration coefficient, the soil type, any appropriate fault factors and Importance factors should be listed. If there are over-riding design accelerations included in the spec, these should be defined as well. This data is necessary to communicate to all concerned which code was applied and what factors were either provided to the individual doing the calculation or were assumed by them. The date should be included as changes are sometimes required in the field and calculations need to be re-run. If there are multiple calculations that end up in a job file, the date offers a historical link as to which calculation is valid. Moving on to the application specific information, there should be a listing of the Equipment Importance factor (if different from the structure), assumed or dictated equipment elevation data, equipment type (by definition), mounting parameters and overall geometric and weight data. The parameters used here can significantly impact the performance of the system and frequently are not fully disclosed to the individual performing the analysis. Items such as CG locations, elevations in the structure, lifesafety assumptions, and even weights are often not clear. Even when provided, this information often comes in piecemeal via phone, fax or separate email correspondence. Because the individual has no direct control over the accuracy of the input information, it is critical that it be echoed back to ensure that the data applied makes sense to the user.

UNDERSTANDING NON-STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT
PAGE 1 OF 2
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 9/17/04
DOCUMENT:

D1.7
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

Computed Output Information The minimum output material that must be offered to the end user as a result of the computation is the following: 1) The computed Seismic load (in G’s) appropriate for the particular piece of equipment in question. 2) A selection of a restraint device (or devices) including model, size, quantity, general arrangement and specific locations. 3) The maximum expected horizontal and vertical forces at those devices resulting from the application of a “worst case” seismic load. 4) Confirmation that the restraint device is adequate in size to withstand the loads. 5) If anchored to concrete and an oversized baseplate is required, the size of that baseplate. 6) Minimum size and embedment depth of anchors for concrete applications. 7) If required, identification of anchor type (Wedge or Undercut). 8) If bolted to steel, the minimum acceptable size of attachment bolts. 9) If welded to steel, the minimum size of welds required to make the connection. 10) An installation sketch or schematic orienting the equipment. A Seismic Calculation Assumptions and Disclaimer Document This critical document spells out in detail, what is and what is not addressed by the certification. In addition, it indicates what assumptions may have been made in putting the analysis together. Lastly, it indicates to whom this information should be forwarded to ensure that all facets relating to the acceptability of the installation are addressed. Stamped or Sealed Coversheet A dated coversheet listing the certification document by Tag and indicating the name of the individual who performed the certification along with their Professional Engineering seal must also be included. If there is only one calculation, in lieu of a coversheet, the certification document itself can include this information.

UNDERSTANDING NON-STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT
PAGE 2 OF 2
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 9/17/04
DOCUMENT:

D1.7
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

Seismic and Wind Certification General Assumptions and Disclaimer
All Seismic and Wind Certifications performed by Kinetics Noise Control, Inc., and/or its associates, unless clearly stated otherwise in the body of that certification document, will be performed in accordance with the assumptions and disclaimers identified herein. Loads Considered The loads considered in this certification are limited to those forces described in the seismic portion of the specified code for the project. If Kinetics Noise Control is not otherwise informed, the most recent version of the appropriate code will be used. Wind will not be considered during the analysis unless it is specified to be included in the seismic certification request. In the absence of wind velocity and the appropriate factors, Kinetics Noise Control will use 35 PSF as a wind load requirement. If this is not adequate, it is the responsibility of the Design Professional of Record to notify Kinetics Noise Control. Extent of the Certification The certification addresses those items that directly restrain a component or piece of equipment and are provided by Kinetics Noise Control. It includes the attachment weld, anchor or bolt that is required to affix the restraint to the building structure, or third-party support structure, and extends through the weld or bolt that attaches the restraint to the restrained component or piece of equipment. An example of a third-party support structure is a sheet metal roof curb or equipment rail or base not provided by Kinetics Noise Control. The certification does not cover the capabilities of the building structure or third-party support structure to withstand the seismic loading, nor does it cover the ability of the equipment, component or component frame to structurally withstand these same forces. Provided in the certification are the design horizontal and vertical loads at the attachment locations that can be used by others to evaluate the ability of the building or third-party support structure or piece of equipment to withstand these loads. Determination of the applicability of the certification design loads to a specific project remains the responsibility of the Design Professional of Record. Equipment Data The equipment weight, geometry, and CG data used to perform the certification have been provided to Kinetics Noise Control by others, no attempt has been made by Kinetics Noise Control to verify its accuracy and it is up those providing the information to do so. Where CG data is not provided, associates of Kinetics Noise Control will attempt to make reasonable yet conservative estimates as to the magnitude of any imbalance, although it must be recognized that the direction of the imbalance is often unknown. Unless the equipment orientation is obvious from the diagram in the certification document, it should be assumed that the orientation is not known. Under these conditions, the worst-case restraint, attachment and/or anchorage selection indicated for any particular location must be used for all locations.

GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS AND DISCLAIMER
PAGE 1 OF 2
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 10/29/03
DOCUMENT:

D1.8
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ?2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

Equipment Durability Kinetics Noise Control and its associates make no representations as to equipment durability and its ability to survive a seismic event and remain functional. Installation Where detailed installation procedures are not addressed in KNC-provided documentation, all seismic hardware and components must be installed in conformance with FEMA 412, 413, and 415. Free copies are available from FEMA (1-800-480-2520) or through Kinetics Noise Control. Equipment, Restraint, and Component Attachment Holes For seismic restraint, it is necessary that any attachment bolts positioned in the path between the equipment to be restrained and the building structure be a tight fit with their mating holes (the hole is to be not more than 1/16” in diameter larger than the attachment bolt). In the case of Kinetics Noise Control-supplied restraint components, attachment safety factors are based on hardware sized per the above. In the case of directly attached equipment, the hardware and components provided by Kinetics Noise Control are the minimum required to withstand the seismic loading. If attachment holes in the equipment exceed the recommendation above, the attachment hole is to be sleeved or grouted to bring its effective diameter down to not more than 1/16” larger than the attachment hardware used. Anchor Capacity and Edge Distances All anchor load allowables are based on ICBO test data and assume full anchor embedment in 3000 psi concrete and a minimum spacing between the anchor centerline and the edge of the slab into which it is sunk in accordance with the included anchorage data. The anchor data used is appropriate for the anchors provided by Kinetics Noise Control, unless otherwise noted. Under some conditions as noted in the calculations, undercut anchors may be required Stamps Stamped documents are intended to support the Engineer of Record on the project. If the project is located in an area for which Kinetics does not have a valid PE license, the documents will be stamped with a valid out-of-state seal. This practice is intended solely to indicate that a competent individual has reviewed the document. It is not intended to imply that the licensee is legally empowered to practice in the jurisdiction of the project. General Kinetics Noise Control, Inc., and its associates guarantees that we will use that degree of care and skill ordinarily exercised under similar conditions by reputable members of our profession to determine restraint and/or attachment safety factors based on customersupplied input data. No other warranty, expressed or implied, is made or intended.

GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS AND DISCLAIMER
PAGE 2 OF 2
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 10/29/03
DOCUMENT:

D1.8
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ?2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

CHAPTER D2 SEISMIC BUILDING CODE REVIEW TABLE OF CONTENTS

IBC 2000 Piping Restraint Rules IBC 2000 Ductwork Restraint Rules BOCA 1996/SBC 1997 Piping Restraint Rules BOCA 1996/SBC 1997 Ductwork Restraint Rules UBC 1997 Piping Restraint Rules UBC 1997 Ductwork Restraint Rules Evaluating Seismic Requirements in Specifications National Building Code of Canada Requirements Other Referenced Standards (OSHPD, VISCMA, SMACNA)

D2.2 D2.3 D2.4 D2.5 D2.6 D2.7 D2.8 D2.9 D2.10

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Chapter D2)
SEISMIC BUILDING CODE REVIEW
Toll Free (USA only): International: Fax: World Wide Web: Email: 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASE DATE: 03/05/04
PAGE:

D2.0
MEMBER Kinetics Noise Control ? 2003

DUBLIN, OHIO, USA ? MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA

KINETICS ? Seismic Design Manual

Understanding the 2000 IBC Code

D2.1

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section D2.1 – 1.0 D2.1 – 2.0 D2.1 – 2.1 D2.1 – 2.2 D2.1 – 2.3 D2.1 – 2.4 D2.1 – 2.5 D2.1 – 2.6 D2.1 – 3.0 D2.1 – 3.1 D2.1 – 3.2 D2.1 – 3.3 D2.1 – 4.0 D2.1 – 4.1 D2.1 – 4.2 D2.1 – 4.3 D2.1 – 4.4 D2.1 – 4.5 D2.1 – 4.6 D2.1 – 4.7 D2.1 – 4.8 D2.1 – 4.9 Title Introduction Seismic Restraint Basics for Pipe and Duct Introduction Building Use – Nature of Occupancy Site Class Mapped Acceleration Parameters Seismic Design Category Summary Component Importance Factor Introduction Criteria for Assigning a Component Importance Factor Summary General Exemptions and Requirements Introduction Exemptions for Seismic Design Categories A and B Exemptions for Seismic Design Category C Exemptions for Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F “Chandelier” Exemption Component Size Relative to the Building Structure Reference Documents Allowable Stress Design Submittals and Construction Documents

D2.1 – 4.10 Equipment Certification for Essential Facilities D2.1 – 4.11 Consequential or Collateral Damage D2.1 – 4.12 Flexibility of Components and Their Supports and Restraints D2.1 – 4.13 Summary

TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 1 of 3
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 0.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
Section D2.1 – 5.0 Title Exemptions for Piping Systems

D2.1 – 5.1 Introduction D2.1 – 5.2 The 12 Rule D2.1 – 5.3 Single Clevis Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Categories A and B D2.1 – 5.4 Single Clevis Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Category C D2.1 – 5.5 Single Clevis Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F D2.1 – 5.6 Exemptions for Trapeze Supported Pipe per VISCMA Recommendations D2.1 – 5.6.1 Trapeze Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Categories A and B D2.1 – 5.6.2 Trapeze Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Category C D2.1 – 5.6.3 Trapeze Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Category D D2.1 – 5.6.4 Trapeze Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Categories E and F D2.1 – 5.7 Summary D2.1 – 6.0 Exemptions for HVAC Ductwork

D2.1 – 6.1 Introduction D2.1 – 6.2 The 12 Rule D2.1 – 6.3 Size Exemption D2.1 – 6.4 Further Exemptions for Ductwork D2.1 – 6.5 Restraint Allowance for In-Line Components D2.1 – 6.6 Summary D2.1 – 7.0 Exemptions for Electrical

D2.1 – 7.1 Introduction D2.1 – 7.2 “Implied” Blanket Exemption Based on Component Importance Factor D2.1 – 7.3 Conduit Size Exemptions D2.1 – 7.4 Trapeze Supported Electrical Distribution Systems D2.1 – 7.5 Summary D2.1 – 8.0 Seismic Design Forces

D2.1 – 8.1 Introduction D2.1 – 8.2 Horizontal Seismic Design Force

TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 2 of 3
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 0.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
Section Title D2.1 – 8.3 Vertical Seismic Design Force D2.1 – 8 .4 The Evolution of a P and R P Factors D2.1 – 8.5 LRFD versus ASD D2.1 – 8.6 Summary D2.1 – 9.0 Anchorage of MEP Components to the Building Structure

D2.1 – 9.1 Introduction D2.1 – 9.2 General Guidelines for MEP Component Anchorage D2.1 – 9.3 Anchorage in (Cracked) Concrete and Masonry D2.1 – 9.4 Undercut Anchors D2.1 – 9.5 Prying of Bolts and Anchors D2.1 – 9.6 Power Actuated or Driven Fasteners D2.1 – 9.7 Friction Clips D2.1 – 9.8 Summary

TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 3 of 3
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 0.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this manual is to provide design professionals, contractors, and building officials responsible for the MEP, Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing, with the information and guidance required to ensure that the seismic restraints required for a specific project are selected and/or designed, and installed in accordance with the provisions code. This guide will be written in several easily referenced sections that deal with specific portions of the code.

This guide is based on the International Building Code (IBC). The 2000 IBC and the 2003 IBC are very similar, and in fact are almost identical. When they are referenced in this manual, it will be as 2000/2003 IBC. The latest version of the IBC that is currently being adopted by the various states is 2006 IBC. This is the version that will form the core basis for this manual. When appropriate the differences between the 2006 IBC and the 2000/2003 IBC will be pointed out. The intent is to have a working guide that is based on the current 2006 IBC, but is also relevant to the 2000/2003 IBC. The code based requirements for the restraint of pipe and duct are found in the following references.

1. 2007 ASHRAE HANDBOOK – Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Applications; American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle, N.E. Atlanta, GA 30329, 2007; Chapter 54 Pp 54-11 and 54-12. 2. 2000 International Building Code; International Code Council, 5203 Leesburg Pike, Suite 708, Falls Church, Virginia, 22041-3401; 2000. 3. ASCE 7-98 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures; American Society of Civil Engineers, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, Virginia 20191-4400, Chapter 9. 4. 2003 International Building Code; International Code Council, Inc., 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, Illinois 60478-5795; 2002. 5. ASCE/SEI 7-02 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures; American Society of Civil Engineers, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, Virginia 20191-4400, Chapter 9.

INTRODUCTION PAGE 1 of 2
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 1.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
6. 2006 International Building Code; International Code Council, Inc., 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, Illinois 60478-5795; 2006. 7. ASCE/SEI 7-05 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures; American Society of Civil Engineers, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, Virginia 20191-4400, Chapters 1, 2, 11, 13, 20, and 21. 8. SMACNA, Seismic Restraint Manual – Guidelines for Mechanical Systems with Addendum No. 1 2nd Edition; Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association, Inc., 4201 Lafayette Center Drive, Chantilly, Virginia 20151-1209, 1998. 9. UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC) – Seismic Design for Buildings; United States Department of Defense Document UFC 3-310-03A, 1 March 2005; Table 3-3, Pp 3-13 – 317.

The selection and installation of the proper seismic restraints for MEP systems requires good coordination with the design professionals and contractors involved with the building project. A good spirit of cooperation and coordination is especially required for projects that have been designated as essential facilities, such as hospitals, emergency response centers, police and fire stations. Coordination between the various design professionals and contractors will be a constant theme throughout this guide. This coordination is vital for the following reasons. 1. The seismic restraints that are installed for a system can and will interfere with those of another unless restraint locations are well coordinated. 2. The space required for the installed restraints can cause problems if non-structural walls need to be penetrated, or other MEP components are in the designed load path for the restraints. 3. The building end of the seismic restraints must always be attached to structure that is adequate to carry the code mandated design seismic loads. It is the responsibility of the structural engineer of record to verify this.

INTRODUCTION PAGE 2 of 2
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 1.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION
D2.1 – 2.1 Introduction:

As with any design job, there is certain basic information that is required before seismic restraints can be selected and placed. The building owner, architect, and structural engineer make the decisions that form the basis for the information required to select the seismic restraints for the pipe and duct systems in the building. This is information that should be included in the specification and bid package for the project. It also should appear on the first sheet of the structural drawings. For consistency, it is good practice to echo this information in the specification for each building system, and on the first sheet of the drawings for each system. In this fashion, this information is available to all of the contractors and suppliers that will have a need to know. D2.1 – 2.2 Building Use – Nature of Occupancy (Section 1.5) [Section 1.5]1:

How a building is to be used greatly affects the level of seismic restraint that is required for the MEP (Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing) components. In the 2006 IBC the building use is defined through the Occupancy Category, which ranges from I to IV. Occupancy Category I is applied to buildings where failure presents a low hazard to human life. At the other end of the range, Occupancy Category IV is applied to buildings which are deemed to be essential. In the previous two versions of the IBC (2000/2003), the building use was defined though the Seismic Use Group which varied from I to III. Table 1-1 of ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 describes which types of buildings are assigned to which Occupancy Category. Table 2-1 below summarizes the information found in Tables 1-1 and 9.1.3 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Table 1-1 of ASCE 7-05, and ties the Seismic Use Group from the previous versions of the IBC to the Occupancy Category. The nature of the building use, or its Occupancy Category, is determined by the building owner and the architect of record.

1

References in brackets (Section 1.5) and [Section 1.5] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in ASCE 7-98/02 ASCE 7-05 respectively which forms the basis for the seismic provisions in 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC respectively.

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 1 of 15
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 2.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
Table 2-1; Building Use vs. Occupancy Category & Seismic Use Group (Table 1-1, Table 9.1.3) [Table 1-1] Occupancy Seismic Category Use 2000/2003 Group & 2006 2000/2003 IBC IBC

Building Use or Nature of Occupancy

I I II

Buildings and structures in which failure would pose a low hazard to human life. These buildings include, but are not limited to: ? Agricultural buildings and structures. ? Certain temporary buildings and structures. ? Minor storage buildings and structures. Buildings and structures that are not listed as Occupancy Category I, III, or IV. Also, cogeneration power plants that do not supply power to the national power grid. Buildings and structures, in which failure would pose a substantial hazard to human life, have the potential to create a substantial economic impact, and/or cause a mass disruption of dayto-day civilian life. These buildings include, but are not limited to: ? Where more than 300 people congregate in one area. ? ? Daycare facilities with a capacity greater than 50. Elementary and Secondary school facilities with a capacity greater than 250 and colleges and adult educational facilities with a capacity greater than 500. Healthcare facilities with 50 or more resident patients that do not have surgery or emergency treatment facilities. Jails, prisons, and detention facilities. Power generation stations. Water and sewage treatment facilities. Telecommunication centers.

III

II

? ? ? ? ?

Buildings and structures which are not in Occupancy Category IV which contain enough toxic or explosive materials that would be hazardous to the public if released. Buildings and structures which are designated as essential facilities which include but are not limited to: ? Hospitals & healthcare facilities with surgical or emergency treatment facilities. ? Fire, rescue, ambulance, police stations, & emergency vehicle garages. ? Designated emergency shelters. ? Facilities designated for emergency preparedness & response. ? Power generating stations and other public utilities required for emergency response and recovery. ? Ancillary structures required for the continued operation of Occupancy Category IV buildings and structures. ? Aviation control towers, air traffic control centers, and emergency aircraft hangers. ? Water storage facilities and pumping stations required for fire suppression. ? Buildings and structures required for national defense. ? Buildings and structures that contain highly toxic and/or explosive materials in sufficient quantity to pose a threat to the public.

IV

III

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 2 of 15
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 2.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
D2.1 – 2.3 Site Class – Soil Type (Sections 9.4.1.2.1, 9.4.1.2.2) [Section 11.4.2 & Chapter 20]:

The Site Class is related to the type of soil and rock strata that directly underlies the building site. The Site Class ranges from A to F progressing from the stiffest to the softest strata. Table 2-2 lists the various Site Classes and their corresponding strata.

Generally the structural engineer is responsible for determining the Site Class for a project. If the structural engineer’s firm does not have a geotechnical engineer on staff, this job will be contracted to a geotechnical firm. The Site Class is determined in accordance with the references stated above from ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05. The site profile is normally obtained by drilling several cores on the property. If there is insufficient information concerning the soil properties, then the default Site Class D is assigned to the project.
Table 2-2; Site Class vs. Soil Type (Table 9.4.1.2) [Table 20.3-1] Site Class
A B C D E F

Soil Type
Hard Rock Rock Very Dense Soil & Soft Rock Stiff Soil (Default Site Class) Soft Clay Soil Liquefiable Soils, Quick Highly Sensitive Clays, Collapsible Weakly Cemented Soils, & etc. These require site response analysis.

D2.1 – 2.4 Mapped Acceleration Parameters (Sections 9.4.1.2.4 & 9.4.1.2.5) [Sections 11.4.3 & 11.4.4 and Chapters 21 & 22]

The United States Geological Survey, USGS, has mapped all of the known fault lines in the United States and its possessions. They have assigned ground level acceleration values to each location based on the Maximum Considered Earthquake, MCE, for two earthquake periods, 0.2 sec and 1.0 sec, at 5% damping. The mapped values are listed in terms of %g, where 1g is 32.2 ft/sec2, 386.4 in/sec2, 9.8 m/sec2. The long period values are generally applied to the buildings and other

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 3 of 15
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 2.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
structures since they react more strongly to the long period excitation due to their relatively high mass and low stiffness. The code specifies the use of short period values when evaluating nonstructural components, which include pipe and duct, as they respond more strongly to the short period excitation due to their relatively low mass and high stiffness.

The Mapped Acceleration Parameters are available in ASCE 7-98/02 for 2000/2003 IBC and ASCE 7-05 for 2006 IBC, or may be obtained from the USGS cataloged by ZIP Code. The short period Mapped Acceleration Parameter is usually denoted as S S and the Long period Mapped Acceleration Parameter is denoted as S1 . Note that the values for S S and S 1 may be different for 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC. Be sure the correct values are being used for the code that is in force in your jurisdiction.

Special Note: For the purpose of making preliminary estimates, the long and short period mapped acceleration parameters for selected U. S. cities are given in Table 2.4, and for selected international cities in Table 2.5. Please be aware that these values do not necessarily represent the maximum acceleration values that may occur in the named cities. For the U. S. cities please refer to the data compiled by the USGS by ZIP CODE. For international locations, local geological assessments should be sought from reputable sources at that location.

The Site Class information is then used to determine the Design Spectral Acceleration Parameters, S DS and S D 1 , for the short and long period MCE respectively. Equations 2-1 and 2-2 may be used to estimate the Design Spectral Acceleration Parameters.
2 Fa S S 3

S DS =

Equation 2-1 (9.4.1.2.4-1) [11.4-3]

And

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 4 of 15
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 2.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
S D1 = 2 Fv S 1 3

Equation 2-2 (9.4.1.2.4-2) [11.4-5]

Where: Fa = the short period Site Coefficient which is listed in Table 2-5. The values for Fa which correspond to values of S S that fall between those listed in Table 2-5 may be obtained through linear interpolation. Fv = the long period Site Coefficient which is listed in Table 2-6. The values for Fv which correspond to values of S 1 that fall between those listed in Table 2-6 may be obtained through linear interpolation. S DS = the Design Short Period Spectral Acceleration Parameter which has been corrected for the Site Class.

S D1 = the Design Long Period Spectral Acceleration Parameter which has been corrected for the
Site Class. S S = the Mapped Short Period Acceleration Parameter for the MCE @ 5% damping.

S 1 = the Mapped Long Period Acceleration Parameter for the MCE @ 5% damping.

If not otherwise listed for the project, the structural engineer should be contacted for the values of S DS and S D1 . These values are not only required to determine the design accelerations, but also to determine the Seismic Design Category for the building, which will be discussed next.

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 5 of 15
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 2.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
Table S2-3; Mapped Acceleration Parameters for Selected U.S. Cities 2000/2003 IBC & 2006 IBC
State, City
Alabama
Birmingham Mobile Montgomery

ZIP CODE
------35217 36610 36104

SS
2000 2006 2003
-----0.33 0.13 0.17

S1
2000 2006 2003
-----0.12 0.06 0.08

State, City
Illinois
Chicago Moline Peoria Rock Island Rockford Springfield

ZIP CODE
------60620 61265 61605 61201 61108 62703

SS

S1

2000 2000 2006 2006 2003 2003
-----0.19 0.14 0.18 0.13 0.17 0.27

-----0.31 0.12 0.16

-----0.10 0.05 0.07

-----0.17 0.14 0.18 0.13 0.15 0.29

-----0.07 0.06 0.09 0.06 0.06 0.12

-----0.06 0.06 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.11

Arkansas
Little Rock

------72205

-----0.48

-----0.50

-----0.18

-----0.16

Arizona
Phoenix Tucson

------85034 85739

-----0.23 0.33

-----0.19 0.29

-----0.07 0.09

-----0.06 0.08

Indiana
Evansville Ft. Wayne Gary Indianapolis South Bend

------47712 46835 46402 46260 46637

-----0.82 0.17 0.18 0.18 0.12

-----0.72 0.15 0.16 0.19 0.12

-----0.23 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.06

-----0.21 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.05

California
Fresno Los Angeles Oakland Sacramento San Diego San Francisco San Jose

------93706 90026 94621 95823 92101 94114 95139

-----0.76 1.55 1.98 0.59 1.61 1.50 2.17

-----0.78 2.25 1.97 0.64 1.62 1.61 1.60

-----0.30 0.60 0.87 0.23 0.86 0.86 0.78

-----0.29 0.83 0.77 0.25 0.82 0.82 0.60

Kansas
Kansas City Topeka Wichita

------66103 66614 67217

-----0.12 0.19 0.14

-----0.13 0.17 0.14

-----0.06 0.06 0.06

-----0.06 0.05 0.05

Colorado
Colorado Springs Denver

------80913 80239

-----0.18 0.19

-----0.22 0.21

-----0.06 0.06

-----0.06 0.06

Kentucky
Ashland Covington Louisville

------41101 41011 40202

-----0.22 0.19 0.25

-----0.19 0.18 0.25

-----0.09 0.09 0.12

-----0.07 0.08 0.10

Connecticut
Bridgeport Hartford New Haven Waterbury

------06606 06120 06511 06702

-----0.34 0.27 0.29 0.29

-----0.27 0.24 0.25 0.25

-----0.09 0.09 0.08 0.09

-----0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

Louisiana
Baton Rouge New Orleans Shreveport

------70807 70116 71106

-----0.14 0.13 0.17

-----0.12 0.11 0.15

-----0.06 0.06 0.08

-----0.05 0.05 0.07

Florida
Ft. Lauderdale Jacksonville Miami St. Petersburg Tampa

------33328 32222 33133 33709 33635

-----0.07 0.14 0.06 0.08 0.08

-----0.06 0.14 0.05 0.07 0.07

-----0.03 0.07 0.02 0.04 0.03

-----0.02 0.06 0.02 0.03 0.03

Massachusetts
Boston Lawrence Lowell New Bedford Springfield Worchester

------02127 01843 01851 02740 01107 01602

-----0.33 0.38 0.36 0.26 0.26 0.27

-----0.28 0.33 0.31 0.22 0.23 0.24

-----0.09 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.09 0.09

-----0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.07

Georgia
Atlanta Augusta Columbia Savannah

------30314 30904 31907 31404

-----0.26 0.42 0.17 0.42

-----0.23 0.38 0.15 0.43

-----0.11 0.15 0.09 0.15

-----0.09 0.12 0.07 0.13

Maryland
Baltimore

------21218

-----0.20

-----0.17

-----0.06

-----0.05

Maine
Augusta Portland

------04330 04101

-----0.33 0.37

-----0.30 0.32

-----0.10 0.10

-----0.08 0.08

Iowa
Council Bluffs Davenport Des Moines

------41011 52803 50310

-----0.19 0.13 0.07

-----0.18 0.13 0.08

-----0.09 0.06 0.04

-----0.08 0.06 0.04

Michigan
Detroit Flint Grand Rapids Kalamazoo Lansing

------48207 48506 49503 49001 48910

-----0.12 0.09 0.09 0.12 0.11

-----0.12 0.09 0.09 0.11 0.10

-----0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04

-----0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04

Iowa
Boise Pocatello

------83705 83201

-----0.35 0.60

-----0.30 0.63

-----0.11 0.18

-----0.10 0.19

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 6 of 15
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 2.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
Table 2-3 Continued; Mapped Acceleration Parameters for Selected U.S. Cities 2000/2003 IBC & 2006 IBC
State, City
Minnesota
Duluth Minneapolis Rochester St. Paul

ZIP CODE
------55803 55422 55901 55111

SS
2000 2006 2003
-----0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

S1
2000 2006 2003
-----0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03

State, City
Raleigh Winston-Salem

ZIP CODE
27610 27106

SS

S1

2000 2000 2006 2006 2003 2003
0.22 0.28 0.21 0.24 0.10 0.12 0.08 0.09

-----0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

-----0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03

North Dakota
Fargo Grand Forks

------58103 58201

-----0.07 0.05

-----0.08 0.06

-----0.02 0.02

-----0.02 0.02

Missouri
Carthage Columbia Jefferson City Joplin Kansas City Springfield St. Joseph St. Louis

------64836 65202 65109 64801 64108 65801 64501 63166

-----0.16 0.19 0.22 0.15 0.15 0.21 0.12 0.59

-----0.17 0.21 0.23 0.16 0.13 0.22 0.12 0.58

-----0.09 0.10 0.11 0.08 0.06 0.10 0.05 0.19

-----0.08 0.09 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.10 0.05 0.17

Ohio
Akron Canton Cincinnati Cleveland Columbus Dayton Springfield Toledo Youngstown

------44312 44702 45245 44130 43217 45440 45502 43608 44515

-----0.18 0.16 0.19 0.20 0.17 0.21 0.26 0.17 0.17

-----0.17 0.14 0.18 0.19 0.15 0.18 0.21 0.16 0.16

-----0.06 0.06 0.09 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.06 0.06

-----0.05 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.05 0.05

Mississippi
Jackson

------39211

-----0.19

-----0.20

-----0.10

-----0.09

Oklahoma
Oklahoma City Tulsa

------73145 74120

-----0.34 0.16

-----0.33 0.16

-----0.09 0.07

-----0.07 0.07

Montana
Billings Butte Great Falls

------59101 59701 59404

-----0.16 0.74 0.29

-----0.17 0.65 0.26

-----0.06 0.21 0.09

-----0.07 0.20 0.09

Oregon
Portland Salem

------97222 97301

-----1.05 1.00

-----0.99 0.80

-----0.35 0.4

-----0.34 0.34

Nebraska
Lincoln Omaha

------68502 68144

-----0.18 0.13

-----0.18 0.13

-----0.05 0.04

-----0.05 0.04

Pennsylvania
Allentown Bethlehem Erie Harrisburg Philadelphia Pittsburgh Reading Scranton

------18104 18015 16511 17111 19125 15235 19610 18504

-----0.29 0.31 0.17 0.23 0.33 0.13 0.30 0.23

-----0.26 0.27 0.16 0.20 0.27 0.13 0.26 0.20

-----0.08 0.08 0.05 0.07 0.08 0.06 0.08 0.08

-----0.06 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.06

Nevada
Las Vegas Reno

------89106 89509

-----0.64 1.36

-----0.57 1.92

-----0.19 0.50

-----0.18 0.77

New Mexico
Albuquerque Santa Fe

------87105 87507

-----0.63 0.62

-----0.59 0.54

-----0.19 0.19

-----0.18 0.17

New York
Albany Binghamton Buffalo Elmira New York Niagara Falls Rochester Schenectady Syracuse Utica

------12205 13903 14222 14905 10014 14303 14619 12304 13219 13501

-----0.28 0.19 0.32 0.17 0.43 0.31 0.25 0.28 0.19 0.25

-----0.24 0.17 0.28 0.15 0.36 0.28 0.21 0.24 0.18 0.22

-----0.09 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.09 0.08 0.09

-----0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.09 0.06 0.07

Rhode Island
Providence

------02907

-----0.27

-----0.23

-----0.08

-----0.06

South Carolina
Charleston Columbia

------29406 29203

-----1.60 0.60

-----2.19 0.55

-----0.45 0.19

-----0.56 0.15

South Dakota
Rapid City Sioux Falls

------57703 57104

-----0.16 0.11

-----0.17 0.11

-----0.04 0.04

-----0.04 0.03

Tennessee
Chattanooga Knoxville Memphis Nashville

------37415 37920 38109 49503

-----0.52 0.59 1.40 0.09

-----0.46 0.53 1.40 0.09

-----0.14 0.15 0.42 0.04

-----0.12 0.12 0.38 0.04

North Carolina
Charlotte Greensboro

------28216 27410

-----0.35 0.26

-----0.32 0.23

-----0.14 0.11

-----0.11 0.08

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 7 of 15
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 2.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
Table 2-3 Continued; Mapped Acceleration Parameters for Selected U.S. Cities 2000/2003 IBC & 2006 IBC
State, City
Texas
Amarillo Austin Beaumont Corpus Christi Dallas El Paso Ft. Worth Houston Lubbock San Antonio Waco

ZIP CODE
------79111 78703 77705 78418 75233 79932 76119 77044 79424 78235 76704

SS
2000 2006 2003
-----0.17 0.09 0.12 0.10 0.12 0.37 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.14 0.10

S1
2000 2006 2003
-----0.05 0.04 0.05 0.02 0.06 0.11 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.05

-----0.18 0.08 0.10 0.08 0.11 0.33 0.11 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.09

-----0.04 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.11 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.04

Utah
Salt Lake City

------84111

-----1.82

-----1.71

-----0.78

-----0.09

Virginia
Norfolk Richmond Roanoke

------23504 23233 24017

-----0.13 0.32 0.30

-----0.12 0.25 0.26

-----0.06 0.09 0.10

-----0.05 0.06 0.08

Vermont
Burlington

------05401

-----0.47

-----0.40

-----0.13

-----0.10

Washington
Seattle Spokane Tacoma

------98108 99201 98402

-----1.56 0.38 1.24

-----1.57 0.40 1.22

-----0.54 0.09 0.40

-----0.54 0.11 0.42

Washington, D.C.
Washington

------20002

-----0.18

-----0.15

-----0.06

-----0.05

Wisconsin
Green Bay Kenosha Madison Milwaukee Racine Superior

------54302 53140 53714 53221 53402 54880

-----0.07 0.14 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.06

-----0.06 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.06

-----0.03 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.02

-----0.03 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.2

West Virginia
Charleston Huntington

------25303 25704

-----0.21 0.23

-----0.19 0.20

-----0.08 0.09

-----0.07 0.07

Wyoming
Casper Cheyenne

------82601 82001

-----0.38 0.19

-----0.39 0.20

-----0.08 0.06

-----0.08 0.05

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------

---------------------

---------------------

---------------------

---------------------

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 8 of 15
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 2.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
Table 2-4; Mapped Acceleration Parameters for Selected International Cities UFC 3-310-03A (1 March 2005)
Country, City
AFRICA Algeria
Alger Oran

SS
----------1.24 1.24

S1
----------0.56 0.56

Country, City
Kenya
Nairobi

SS
-----0.62

S1
-----0.28

Country, City
South Africa
Cape Town Durban Johannesburg Natal Pretoria

SS
-----1.24 0.62 0.62 0.31 0.62

S1
-----0.56 0.28 0.28 0.14 0.28

Lesotho
Maseru

-----0.62

-----0.28

Angola
Luanda

-----0.06

-----0.06

Liberia
Monrovia

-----0.31

-----0.14

Benin
Cotonou

-----0.06

-----0.06

Libya
Tripoli Wheelus AFB

-----0.62 0.62

-----0.28 0.28

Swaziland
Mbabane

-----0.62

-----0.28

Botswana
Gaborone

-----0.06

-----0.06

Tanzania
Dar es Salaam Zanzibar

-----0.62 0.62

-----0.28 0.28

Malagasy Republic
Tananarive

-----0.06

-----0.06

Burundi
Bujumbura

-----1.24

-----0.56

Malawi
Blantyre Lilongwe Zomba

-----1.24 1.24 1.24

-----0.56 0.56 0.56

Togo
Lome

-----0.31

-----0.14

Cameroon
Douala Yaounde

-----0.06 0.06

-----0.06 0.06

Tunisia
Tunis

-----1.24

-----0.56

Cape Verde
Praia

-----0.06

-----0.06

Mali
Bamako

-----0.06

-----0.06

Uganda
Kampala

-----0.62

-----0.28

Central African Republic
Bangui

-----0.06

-----0.06

Mauritania
Nouakchott

-----0.06

-----0.06

Upper Volta
Ougadougou

-----0.06

-----0.06

Chad
Ndjamena

-----0.06

-----0.06

Mauritius
Port Louis

-----0.06

-----0.06

Zaire
Bukavu Kinshasa Lubumbashi

-----1.24 0.06 0.62

-----0.56 0.06 0.28

Congo
Brazzaville

-----0.06

-----0.06

Morocco
Casablanca Port Lyautey Rabat Tangier

-----0.62 0.31 0.62 1.24

-----0.28 0.14 0.28 0.56

Djibouti
Djibouti

-----1.24

-----0.56

Zambia
Lusaka

-----0.62

-----0.28

Egypt
Alexandria Cairo Port Said

-----0.62 0.62 0.62

-----0.28 0.28 0.28

Zimbabwe
Harare

-----1.24

-----0.56

Mozambique
Maputo

-----0.62

-----0.28

Niger
Niamey

-----0.06

-----0.06

ASIA Afghanistan
Kabul

----------1.65

----------0.75

Equatorial Guinea
Malabo

-----0.06

-----0.06

Nigeria
Ibadan Kaduna Lagos

-----0.06 0.06 0.06

-----0.06 0.06 0.06

Bahrain
Manama

-----0.06

-----0.06

Ethiopia
Addis Ababa Asmara

-----1.24 1.24

-----0.56 0.56

Bangladesh
Dacca

-----1.24

-----0.56

Gabon
Libreville

-----0.06

-----0.06

Republic of Rwanda
Kigali

-----1.24

-----0.56

Brunei
Bandar Seri Begawan

-----0.31

-----0.14

Gambia
Banjul

-----0.06

-----0.06

Senegal
Dakar

-----0.06

-----0.06

Burma
Mandalay Rangoon

-----1.24 1.24

-----0.56 0.56

Guinea
Bissau Conakry

-----0.31 0.06

-----0.14 0.06

Seychelles
Victoria

-----0.06

-----0.06

China
Canton Chengdu Nanking Peking

-----0.62 1.24 0.62 1.65

-----0.28 0.56 0.28 0.75

Sierra Leone
Freetown

-----0.06

-----0.06

Ivory Coast
Abidijan

-----0.06

-----0.06

Somalia
Mogadishu

-----0.06

-----0.06

-----------------------------------

------

------

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 9 of 15
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 2.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
Table 2-4 Continued; Mapped Acceleration Parameters for Selected International Cities UFC 3-310-03A (1 March 2005)
Country, City
ASIA China
Shanghai Shengyang Tibwa Tsingtao Wuhan

SS
----------0.62 1.65 1.65 1.24 0.62

S1
----------0.28 0.75 0.75 0.56 0.28

Country, City
Jordan
Amman

SS
-----1.24

S1
-----0.56

Country, City
Thailand
Bangkok Chinmg Mai Songkhia Udom

SS
-----0.31 0.62 0.06 0.31

S1
-----0.14 0.28 0.06 0.14

Korea
Kwangju Kimhae Pusan Seoul

-----0.31 0.31 0.31 0.06

-----0.14 0.14 0.14 0.06

Turkey
Adana Ankara Istanbul Izmir Karamursel

-----0.62 0.62 1.65 1.65 1.24

-----0.28 0.28 0.75 0.75 0.56

Cyprus
Nicosia

-----1.24

-----0.56

Kuwait
Kuwait

-----0.31

-----0.14

Hong Kong
Hong Kong

-----0.62

-----0.28

Laos
Vientiane

-----0.31

-----0.14

India
Bombay Calcutta Madras New Delhi

-----1.24 0.62 0.31 1.24

-----0.56 0.28 0.14 0.56

Lebanon
Beirut

-----1.24

-----0.56

United Arab Emirates
Abu Dhabi Dubai

-----0.06 0.06

-----0.06 0.06

Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur

-----0.31

-----0.14

Viet Nam
Ho Chi Min City

-----0.06

-----0.06

Nepal
Kathmandu

-----1.65

-----0.75

Indonesia
Bandung Jakarta Medan Surabaya

-----1.65 1.65 1.24 1.65

-----0.75 0.75 0.56 0.75

Yemen Arab Republic
Sanaa

-----1.24

-----0.56

Oman
Muscat

-----0.62

-----0.28

Pakistan
Islamabad Karachi Lahore Peshawar

-----1.68 1.65 0.62 1.65

-----0.65 0.75 0.28 0.75

ATLANTIC OCEAN AREA Azorea
All Locations

----------0.62

----------0.28

Iran
Isfahan Shiraz Tabriz Tehran

-----1.24 1.24 1.65 1.65

-----0.56 0.56 0.75 0.75

Bermuda
All Locations

-----0.31

-----0.14

Quatar
Doha

-----0.06

-----0.06

CARIBBEAN SEA Bahama Islands
All Locations

----------0.31

----------0.14

Iraq
Baghdad Basra

-----1.24 0.31

-----0.56 0.14

Saudi Arabia
Al Batin Dhahran Jiddah Khamis Mushayf Riyadh

-----0.31 0.31 0.62 0.31 0.06

-----0.14 0.14 0.28 0.14 0.06

Cuba
All Locations

-----0.62

-----0.28

Dominican Republic
Santo Domingo

-----1.24

-----0.56

Israel
Haifa Jerusalem Tel Aviv

-----1.24 1.24 1.24

-----0.56 0.56 0.56

French West Indies
Martinique

-----1.24

-----0.56

Singapore
All Locations

-----0.31

-----0.14

Grenada
Saint Georges

-----1.24

-----0.56

Japan
Fukuoka Itazuke AFB Misawa AFB Naha, Okinawa Osaka/Kobe Sapporo Tokyo Wakkanai Yokohama Yokota

-----1.24 1.24 1.24 1.65 1.65 1.24 1.65 1.24 1.65 1.65

-----0.56 0.56 0.56 0.75 0.75 0.56 0.75 0.56 0.75 0.75

South Yemen
Aden City

-----1.24

-----0.56

Haiti
Port au Prince

-----1.24

-----0.56

Sri Lanka
Colombo

-----0.06

-----0.06

Jamaica
Kingston

-----1.24

-----0.56

Syria
Aleppo Damascus

-----1.24 1.24

-----0.56 0.56

Leeward Islands
All Locations

-----1.24

-----0.56

Puerto Rico
All Locations

-----0.83

-----0.38

Taiwan
All Locations

-----1.65

-----0.75

Trinidad & Tobago
All Locations

-----1.24

-----0.56

--------------------

------

------

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 10 of 15
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 2.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
Table 2-4 Continued; Mapped Acceleration Parameters for Selected International Cities UFC 3-310-03A (1 March 2005)
Country, City
Belize
Beimopan

SS
-----0.62

S1
-----0.28

Country, City
Denmark
Copenhagen

SS
-----0.31

S1
-----0.14

Country, City
Trieste Turin

SS
1.24 0.62

S1
0.56 0.28

Canal Zone
All Locations

-----0.62

-----0.28

Finland
Helsinki

-----0.31

-----0.14

Luxembourg
Luxembourg

-----0.31

-----0.14

Costa Rica
San Jose

-----1.24

-----0.56

France
Bordeaux Lyon Marseille Nice Strasbourg

-----0.62 0.31 1.24 1.24 0.62

-----0.28 0.14 0.56 0.56 0.28

Malta
Valletta

-----0.62

-----0.28

El Salvador
San Slavador

-----1.65

-----0.75

Netherlands
All Locations

-----0.06

-----0.06

Guatemala
Guatemala

-----1.65

-----0.75

Norway
Oslo

-----0.62

-----0.28

Honduras
Tegucigalpa

-----1.24

-----0.56

Germany
Berlin Bonn Bremen Düsseldorf Frankfurt Hamburg Munich Stuttgart Vaihigen

-----0.06 0.62 0.06 0.31 0.62 0.06 0.31 0.62 0.62

-----0.06 0.28 0.06 0.14 0.28 0.06 0.14 0.28 0.28

Poland
Krakow Poznan Waraszawa

-----0.62 0.31 0.31

-----0.28 0.14 0.14

Nicaragua
Managua

-----1.65

-----0.75

Panama
Colon Galeta Panama

-----1.24 0.83 1.24

-----0.56 0.38 0.56

Portugal
Lisbon Oporto

-----1.65 1.24

-----0.75 0.56

Romania
Bucharest

-----1.24

-----0.56

Mexico
Ciudad Juarez Guadalajara Hermosillo Matamoros Mazatlan Merida Mexico City Monterrey Nuevo Laredo Tijuana

-----0.62 1.24 1.24 0.06 0.60 0.06 1.24 0.06 0.06 1.24

-----0.28 0.56 0.56 0.06 0.28 0.06 0.56 0.06 0.06 0.56

Spain
Barcelona Bilbao Madrid Rota Seville

-----0.62 0.62 0.06 0.62 0.62

-----0.28 0.28 0.06 0.28 0.28

Greece
Athens Kavalla Makri Rhodes Sauda Bay Thessaloniki

-----1.24 1.65 1.65 1.24 1.65 1.65

-----0.56 0.75 0.56 0.75 0.56 0.56

Sweden
Goteborg Stockholm

-----0.62 0.31

-----0.28 0.14

Hungary
Budapest

-----0.62

-----0.28

Switzerland
Bern Geneva Zurich

-----0.62 0.31 0.62

-----0.28 0.14 0.28

EUROPE Albania
Tirana

----------1.24

----------0.56

Iceland
Keflavick Reykjavik

-----1.24 1.65

-----0.56 0.75

Austria
Salzburg Vienna

-----0.62 0.62

-----0.28 0.28

Ireland
Dublin

-----0.06

-----0.06

United Kingdom
Belfast Edinburgh Edzell Glasgow/Renfrew Hamilton Liverpool London Londonderry Thurso

-----0.06 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.62 0.31 0.31

-----0.06 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.28 0.14 0.14

Italy
Aviano AFB Brindisi Florence Genoa Milan Naples Palermo Rome Sicily

-----1.24 0.06 1.24 1.24 0.62 1.24 1.24 0.62 1.24

-----0.56 0.06 0.56 0.56 0.28 0.56 0.56 0.28 0.56

Belgium
Antwerp Brussels

-----0.31 0.62

-----0.14 0.28

Bulgaria
Sofia

-----1.24

-----0.56

Czechoslovakia
Bratislava Prague

-----0.62 0.31

-----0.28 0.14

U. S. S. R.
Kiev

-----0.06

-----0.06

--------------------

------

------

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 11 of 15
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 2.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
Table 2-4 Continued; Mapped Acceleration Parameters for Selected International Cities UFC 3-310-03A (1 March 2005)
Country, City
U. S. S. R.
Leningrad Moscow

SS
-----0.06 0.06

S1
-----0.06 0.06

Country, City
Valparaiso

SS
1.65

S1
0.75

Country, City
Baguio

SS
1.24

S1
0.56

Colombia
Bogotá

-----1.24

-----0.56

Samoa
All Locations

-----1.24

-----0.56

Yugoslavia
Belgrade Zagreb

-----0.62 1.24

-----0.28 0.56

Ecuador
Quito Guayaquil

-----1.65 1.24

-----0.75 0.56

Wake Island
All Locations

-----0.06

-----0.06

NORTH AMERICA Greenland
All Locations

----------0.31

----------0.14

Paraguay
Asuncion

-----0.06

-----0.06

Peru
Lima Piura

-----1.65 1.65

-----0.75 0.75

Canada
Argentia NAS Calgary, Alb Churchill, Man Cold Lake, Alb Edmonton, Alb East Harmon AFB Fort Williams, Ont. Frobisher N. W. Ter. Goose Airport Halifax Montreal, Quebec Ottawa, Ont. St. John’s, Nfld. Toronto, Ont. Vancouver Winnipeg, Man.

-----0.62 0.31 0.06 0.31 0.31 0.62 0.06 0.06 0.31 0.31 1.24 0.31 1.24 0.31 1.24 0.31

-----0.28 0.14 0.06 0.14 0.14 0.28 0.06 0.06 0.14 0.14 0.56 0.28 0.56 0.14 0.56 0.14

Uruguay
Montevideo

-----0.06

-----0.06

Venezuela
Maracaibo Caracas

-----0.62 1.65

-----0.28 0.75

PACIFIC OCEAN AREA Australia
Brisbane Canberra Melbourne Perth Sydney

----------0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

----------0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14

Caroline Islands
Koror, Paulau, Is. Ponape

-----0.62 0.06

-----0.28 0.06

SOUTH AMERICA Argentina
Buenos Aires

----------0.25

----------0.10

Fiji
Suva

-----1.24

-----0.56

Johnson Island
All Locations

-----0.31

-----0.14

Brazil
Belem Belo Horizonte Brasilia Manaus Porto Allegre Recife Rio de Janeiro Salvador Sao Paulo

-----0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.31

-----0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.14

Mariana Islands
Guam Saipan Tinian

-----1.24 1.24 1.24

-----0.56 0.56 0.56

Marshall Islands
All Locations

-----0.31

-----0.14

New Zealand
Auckland Wellington

-----1.24 1.65

-----0.56 0.75

Bolivia
La Paz Santa Cruz

-----1.24 0.31

-----0.56 0.14

Papua New Guinea
Port Moresby

-----1.65

-----0.75

Philippine Islands
Cebu Manila

-----1.65 1.65

-----0.75 0.75

Chile
Santiago

-----1.65

-----0.75

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 12 of 15
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 2.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
Table 2-5; Short Period Site Coefficient, Fa (Table 9.4.1.2.4a) [Table 11.4-1] Site Class
A B C D E F

Mapped MCE Short Period Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter
(Linear Interpolation Is Permitted)

SS 0.25
0.8 1.0 1.2 1.6 2.5

SS=0.50
0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.7

SS=0.75
0.8 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2

SS=1.00
0.8 1.0 1.0 1.1 0.9

SS 1.25
0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9

These values to be determined by site response analysis.

Table 2-6; Long Period Site Coefficient, Fv (Table 9.4.1.2.4b) [Table 11.4-2] Site Class
A B C D E F

Mapped MCE Long Period Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter
(Linear Interpolation Is Permitted)

S1 0.10
0.8 1.0 1.7 2.4 3.5

S1 = 0.20
0.8 1.0 1.6 2.0 3.2

S1 = 0.30
0.8 1.0 1.5 1.8 2.8

S1 = 0.40
0.8 1.0 1.4 1.6 2.4

S1 0.50
0.8 1.0 1.3 1.5 2.4

These values to be determined by site response analysis.

D2.1 – 2.5 Seismic Design Category (Section 9.4.2.1) [Section 11.6]:

This parameter is of great importance to everyone involved with MEP systems. The Seismic Design Category to which a building has been assigned will determine whether seismic restraints are required or not, and if they qualify for exemption, which MEP components may be exempted, and which will need to have seismic restraints selected and installed. The MEP components within

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 13 of 15
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 2.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
a building will be assigned to the same Seismic Design Category as the building itself. There are six Seismic Design Categories, A, B, C, D, E, and F. The level of restraint required increases from Seismic Design Category A through F. Up through Seismic Design Category D, the Seismic Design Category to which a building or structure is assigned is determined though the use of Tables 2-6 and 2-7. To determine the Seismic Design Category both the Long ( S D1 ) and Short ( S DS ) Period Design Response Acceleration Parameter must be determined. The most stringent Seismic Design Category, resulting from the two acceleration parameters, will be assigned to the project. For Occupancy I, II, or III (Seismic Use Group I or II) structures, if the Mapped Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter is greater than or equal to 0.75, S1 ≥ 0.75 , then the structure will be assigned to Seismic Design Category E. For Occupancy Category IV (Seismic Use Group III) structures, if the Mapped Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter is greater than or equal to 0.75, S1 ≥ 0.75 , then the structure will be assigned to Seismic Design Category F. To ensure consistency, the Seismic Design Category should be determined by the structural engineer.

Table 2-7; Seismic Design Category Based on the Short Period Design Response Acceleration Parameter (Table 9.4.2.1a) [Table 11.6-1] Occupancy Category (Seismic Use Group) Value of SDS I or II (I)
SDS < 0.167 0.167 0.33 SDS < 0.33 SDS < 0.50 SDS A B C D

III (II)
A B C D

IV (III)
A C D D

0.50

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 14 of 15
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 2.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
Table 2-8; Seismic Design Category Based on the Long Period Design Response Acceleration Parameter (Table 9.4.2.1b) [Table 11.6-2] Occupancy Category (Seismic Design Category) Value of SD1 I or II (I)
SD1 < 0.067 0.067 0.133 SD1 < 0.133 SD1 < 0.20 SD1 A B C D

III (II)
A B C D

IV (III)
A C D D

0.20

D2.1 – 2.6 Summary:

The following parameters will be required by the design professionals having responsibility for MEP systems in a building, and should be determined by the structural engineer of record.

1. Occupancy Category (Seismic Use Group for 2000/2003 IBC): This defines the building use and specifies which buildings are required for emergency response or disaster recovery. 2. Seismic Design Category: This determines whether or not seismic restraint is required. 3. Short Period Design Response Acceleration Parameter ( S DS ): This value is used to compute the horizontal seismic force used to design and/or select seismic restraints required.

These parameters should be repeated in the specification and drawing package for the particular system, mechanical, electrical, or plumbing, in question.

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 15 of 15
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 2.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
COMPONENT IMPORTANCE FACTOR
D2.1 – 3.1 Introduction:

MEP components and systems are categorized in ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 as nonstructural components. There are just two values for the Component Importance Factors for MEP components, 1.0 and 1.5, which are not directly linked to the importance factor for the building structure. The Component Importance Factor is designated as I P in the body of the code. All MEP components must be assigned a component importance factor. The design professional that has responsibility for the MEP system in question is also responsible for assigning the Component Importance Factor to that system.

D2.1 – 3.2 Criteria for Assigning a Component Importance Factor (Sections 9.6.1 and 9.6.1.5) [Section 13.1.3]1: For MEP systems, the Component Importance Factor ( I P ) assigned to the components within the system shall be determined as follows.

1. If the MEP system is required to remain in place and function for life-safety purposes following and earthquake the importance factor assigned to the MEP system and its components shall be 1.5. Some examples of this type of system would be; a. Fire sprinkler piping and fire suppression systems. b. Smoke removal and fresh air ventilation systems. c. Systems required for maintaining the proper air pressure in patient hospital rooms to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases. d. Systems that maintain proper air pressure, temperature, and humidity in surgical suites, bio-hazard labs, and clean rooms.
1

References in brackets (Sections 9.6.1 and 9.6.1.5) and [Section 13.1.3] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 respectively which forms the basis for the seismic provisions in 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC respectively..

PIPE AND DUCT COMPONENT IMPORTANCE FACTOR PAGE 1 of 3
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 3.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
e. Medical gas lines. f. Steam lines or high pressure hot water lines. 2. If the MEP system contains or is used to transport hazardous materials, or materials that are toxic if released in quantities that exceed the exempted limits a Component Importance Factor of 1.5 shall be assigned to that MEP system and its components. Examples are as follows. a. Systems using natural gas. b. Systems requiring fuel oil. c. Systems used to exhaust laboratory fume hoods. d. Boilers, furnaces and flue systems. e. Systems that are used to ventilate bio-hazard areas and infectious patient rooms. f. Chemical or by-product systems which are required for industrial processes. 3. If the MEP system is in or attached to a building that has been assigned to Occupancy Category IV (Seismic Use Group III), i.e. essential or critical facilities, and is required for the continued operation of that facility following an earthquake, then a Component Importance Factor of 1.5 shall be assigned to that system and its components. Hospitals, emergency response centers, police stations, fire stations, and etc. fall in Occupancy Category IV. The failure of any system could cause the portion of the building it serves to be evacuated and unusable would cause that system and its components to be assigned a Component Importance Factor of 1.5. Even the failure of domestic water lines can flood a building and render it uninhabitable. So, all of the items listed above under items 1 and 2 would apply to facilities in Occupancy Category IV. 4. If the MEP system that is located in or attached to an Occupancy Category IV facility and its failure would impair the operation of that facility, then a Component Importance Factor of 1.5 shall be assigned to that MEP system and its components. This implies that any MEP system or component that could be assigned a Component Importance Factor of 1.0 that is located above an MEP system or component that has been assigned a Component Importance Factor of 1.5 must be reassigned to a Component Importance Factor of 1.5.

PIPE AND DUCT COMPONENT IMPORTANCE FACTOR PAGE 2 of 3
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 3.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
5. All other MEP systems that are not covered under items 1, 2, 3, or 4 may be assigned a Component Importance Factor of 1.0. D2.1 – 3.3 Summary:

The Component Importance Factor is very important to the designer responsible for selecting and certifying the seismic restraints for an MEP system or component. This factor is a direct multiplier for the horizontal seismic design force, which shall be discussed in a later section. The Component Importance Factor will also be a key indicator as to whether a particular component will qualify for and exemption or not. If a Component Importance Factor has not been assigned to an MEP system, the designer responsible for selecting the seismic restraints must assume that the Component Importance Factor is equal to 1.5. If the MEP system actually could be assigned a Component Importance Factor of 1.0, this could result in a large increase in the size and number of restraints required along with a corresponding increase in the cost for the system.

It is in the best interest of the design professionals responsible for an MEP system to properly assign the Component Importance Factor to that MEP system. The Component Importance Factor for each MEP system and component should be clearly indicated on the drawings that are distributed to other design professionals, contractors, suppliers, and building officials.

PIPE AND DUCT COMPONENT IMPORTANCE FACTOR PAGE 3 of 3
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 3.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
GENERAL EXEMPTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS
D2.1 – 4.1 Introduction:

The International Building Codes (IBC’s) allow certain exemptions to be made for MEP systems and components from the need for seismic restraint. These exemptions are based on the Seismic Design Category, the Component Importance Factor, and the size and weight, of the MEP components.

There are further general provisions in the IBC pertaining to MEP components that must be acknowledged at the outset of a project. These are provisions ranging from the upper bound size for an MEP component in order for it to be considered as a non-structural component to the component certifications and documentation required.

This section will present the general exemptions for MEP systems and components and discuss the general requirements that apply to them. D2.1 – 4.2 Exemptions for Seismic Design Categories A and B (Section 9.6.1-1 and 9.6.1-3) [Section 13.1.4-1 and 13.1.4-2]1:

MEP systems and their components that are located in or on buildings that have been assigned to Seismic Design Categories A and B are exempt from the requirements for seismic restraints. These two exemptions point out the need for having the correct seismic deign in formation for the project available to all of the design professionals and contractors during the bidding stage of the project. Being able to use these exemptions can save the MEP contractors as much as 10% to 15% in their costs.

1

References in brackets (Section 9.6.1-1 and 9.6.1-2) [Section 13.1.4-1 and 13.1.4-2] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 respectively, which forms the basis for the seismic provisions in 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC respectively.

GENERAL EXEMPTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS PAGE 1 of 10
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 4.0
RELEASED ON: 07/15/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
For example, a critical piece of information required at the outset is the Site Class. If the Site Class has not been determined by a qualified geotechnical engineer, then Site Class D must be assumed. The resulting combination of the mapped acceleration parameters and soil profile of Site Class D may force the project to be assigned to Seismic Design Category C which in turn forces the requirement for seismic restraints. If instead the Site Class had been determined to be Site Class B by a qualified geotechnical engineer, then the project may have been found to fall into Seismic Design Category A or B, thus eliminating the need for seismic restraints for MEP systems and components.

D2.1 – 4.3 Exemptions for Seismic Design Category C (Section 9.6.1-4) [Section 13.1.4-3]:

MEP systems and components that have been assigned to Seismic Design Category C, and that have been assigned a Component Importance Factor of 1.0, are exempt from the requirements for seismic restraints. In this case it is very important that the design professionals responsible for the various MEP systems and components assign the correct Component Importance Factors to those systems and components. If no Component Importance Factor is assigned, the installing contractor should prudently assume that the Component Importance Factor is equal to 1.5, and provide restraints for that system or component. This is particularly true of duct runs where it is very likely that the ventilation components may also be required for smoke control.

It is also critical to know which MEP systems and components have a component Importance Factor of 1.0 and which ones have a Component Importance Factor of 1.5. To the extent possible, those with Component Importance Factors equal to 1.5 should be installed above those with Component Importance Factors equal to 1.0 in order to reduce the over all number of restraints needed for the project.

GENERAL EXEMPTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS PAGE 2 of 10
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 4.0
RELEASED ON: 07/15/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
D2.1 – 4.4 Exemptions for Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F (Sections 9.6.1-5 and 9.1.6-6) [Sections 13.1.4-4 and 13.1.4-5]:

There are basically three exemptions that apply here.

1. MEP components that: a. Are in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F. b. Have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0, c. Have flexible connections between the components and all associated duct, piping, conduit. d. Are mounted at 4 ft (1.22 m) or less above a floor level. e. And weigh 400 lbs (1780 N) or less. 2. MEP components that: a. Are in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F. b. Have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0. c. Have flexible connections between the components and all associated duct, piping, conduit. d. And weigh 20 lbs (89 N) or less. 3. MEP distribution systems that: a. Are in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F. b. Have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0. c. Have flexible connections between the components and all associated duct, piping, conduit. d. And weigh 5 lbs/ft (73 N/m) or less.

D2.1 – 4.5 “Chandelier” Exemption (Section 9.6.3.2) [Section 13.6.1]:

This exemption applies to light fixtures, lighted signs, ceiling fans, and other components that are not connected to ducts or piping and which are supported by chains or other wise suspended from

GENERAL EXEMPTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS PAGE 3 of 10
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 4.0
RELEASED ON: 07/15/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
the structure by a method that allows the component to swing freely. These components will require no further seismic support provided that all of the following conditions are met.

1. The design load for these components shall be equal to: a. 3.0 times the operating load, applied as a gravity design load, for 2000/2003 IBC. b. 1.4 times the operating weight of the component acting downward with a simultaneous horizontal load that is also equal to 1.4 times the operating weight for 2006 IBC. The horizontal load is to be applied in the direction that results in the most critical loading and thus the most conservative result. 2. The component shall not impact other components, systems, or structures as it swings through its projected range of motion. 3. The connection to the structure shall allow a 360° range of motion in the horizontal plane. In other words, this must be a “free swinging” connection.

D2.1 – 4.6 Component Size Relative to the Building Structure (Section 9.6.1) [Section 13.1.5]:

For the most part MEP components will be treated as nonstructural components by the code. However, if the MEP component is very large relative to the building it must be treated as a nonbuilding structure, which has a completely different set of design issues. For 2000/2006 IBC, If the weight of the MEP component is greater than or equal to 25% of the combined weight of the MEP Component and the supporting structure, the MEP component must be treated as a nonbuilding structure per Section 9.14 of ASCE 7-98/02. For 2006 IBC, if the weight of the nonstructural component is greater than or equal to 25% of the effective seismic weight of the building as defined in Section 12.7.2 of ASCE 7-05, then that component must be classified as a nonbuilding structure and designed accordingly.

When might this apply? This applies to very large pieces of MEP equipment such as large cooling towers, and the very large air handling units that are placed on the roofs of buildings employing

GENERAL EXEMPTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS PAGE 4 of 10
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 4.0
RELEASED ON: 07/15/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
lightweight design techniques. The structural engineer of record will have a value for the effective seismic weight of the building. This must be compared to the operating weight of the MEP component in question. D2.1 – 4.7 Reference and Accepted Standards (Sections 9.6.1.1 and 9.6.1.2) and Reference Documents [Section 13.1.6]:

Typically reference standards, acceptance standards, and reference documents are other publications that will provide a basis for earthquake resistant design. Examples of reference documents currently in existence would be the SMACNA Seismic Restraint Manual, listed in Section 1.0 Introduction of the guide, and NFPA 13. These documents may be used with the approval of the jurisdiction having authority as long as the following conditions are met.

1. The design earthquake forces used for the design and selection of the seismic restraints shall not be less that those specified in Section 9.6.1.3 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.3.1 of ASCE 7-05, which is also covered in Section 8.0 of this guide. 2. The seismic interaction of each MEP component with all other components and building structures shall be accounted for in the design of the supports and restraints. 3. The MEP component must be able to accommodate drifts, deflections, and relative displacements that are defined in ASCE 7-05. This means that flexible connections for pipe, duct, and electrical cables for MEP components are in general, a good idea to prevent damage if the MEP component, and/or the pipe, duct, and electrical cables that are attached to it are unrestrained. D2.1 – 4.8 Allowable Stress Design (Sections 2.3 and 2.4) [Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 13.1.7]:

Reference documents that use allowable stress design may be used as a basis for the design and selection of seismic restraints. However, the design earthquake loads determined in accordance with Section 9.6.1.3 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.3.1 of ASCE 7-05 must be multiplied by 0.7.

GENERAL EXEMPTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS PAGE 5 of 10
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 4.0
RELEASED ON: 07/15/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
D2.1 – 4.9 Submittals and Construction Documents (Sections 9.6.3.6, 9.6.3.15 and A.9.3.4.5) [Sections 13.2.1, 13.2.5, 13.2.6, and 13.2.7]:

Projects that require seismic restraints for MEP systems and components will require project specific certification that the design of the seismic restraints selected for the MEP systems and their components will meet the code, specification, or details which ever is most stringent. This certification is to be provided both in the submittals and in the construction documents.

For the submittal of seismic restraints and supports, the certification may be satisfied by one of the following means.

1. Project and site specific designs and documentation that are prepared and submitted by a registered design professional. Please note that a specific discipline is not mentioned regarding the registered design professional that is responsible for the design and signing and sealing of the documentation. 2. Manufacturer’s certification accompanying the submittal the restraints are seismically qualified for the project and site. The certification may be made in any one of three ways as detailed below. a. Analysis – this is typical for the seismic restraints used for MEP systems and components. Manufacturers of these seismic restraint devices will normally have families of the various types of restraint devices that have different seismic force capacity ranges. The manufacturer will perform an analysis to determine the project and site specific seismic design loads, and then analyze the MEP system and/or components to determine the required restraint capacities at the restraint attachment points to the system and/or components. The proper restraint will be selected from the manufacturer’s standard product offering, or a special restraint may be designed and built for the application. The manufacturer’s certification will include a statement signed and seal by a registered design professional that the restraint devices will meet the appropriate code, specification, and/or details.

GENERAL EXEMPTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS PAGE 6 of 10
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 4.0
RELEASED ON: 07/15/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
b. The manufacturer of the restraint devices may have them tested in accordance with ICC-ES AC 156 as outlined in Sections 9.6.3.6 and A.9.3.4.5 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.2.5 of ASCE 7-05. They will then provide a signed and sealed certification document stating that the restraint devices will provide adequate protection for the MEP system and components. c. Experience data per the requirements in Sections 9.6.3.6 and A.9.3.4.5 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.2.6 of ASCE 7-05. This is not a normal avenue for a manufacturer of seismic restraint devices to use to certify their products as being fit for a specific project. In using this method, the manufacturers would incur a great deal of liability.

Section A.9.3.4.5 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.2.7 of ASCE 7-05 indicates that seismic restraints for MEP systems and components will require construction documents that are prepared and, signed and sealed by a registered design professional. Frequently, the submittal package provided by the manufacturer of the seismic restraints will also have enough information to fulfill this requirement. The registered design professional mentioned above needs to be one with knowledge and experience in force analysis, stress and analysis, and the proper use of steel, aluminum, elastomers, and other engineering materials in the design of force resisting systems. There are several disciplines that may fulfill these requirements such as, structural engineers, civil engineers, and mechanical engineers involved in the area of machine design.

D2.1 – 4.10 Equipment Certification for Essential Facilities (Sections 9.6.3.6, 9.6.6.15, and A9.3.4.5) [Sections 13.2.2, 13.2.5, and 13.2.6]:

For buildings that have been assigned to Seismic Design Categories C, D, E, and F designated seismic systems will require certification. Designated seismic systems are those whose failure has the potential to cause loss of life or loss of function for buildings that were deemed essential for recovery following an earthquake. Typically essential facilities are those that have been assigned

GENERAL EXEMPTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS PAGE 7 of 10
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 4.0
RELEASED ON: 07/15/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
to Occupancy Category IV, see Section 2.2 of this guide. For these types of systems, certification shall be provided as follows.

1. For active MEP systems and components that must remain functional after an earthquake shall be certified by the supplier or manufacturer as being operable after the design level earthquake for the project site based on: a. Shake table testing such as that specified in ICC-ES AC 156 as described in Section A.9.3.4.5 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.2.5 of ASCE 7-05. Evidence of compliance is to be submitted to the jurisdiction having authority and the design professional of record for approval. b. Experience or historical data as outlined in Sections 9.6.3.6, 9.6.3.15 and A.9.3.4.5 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.2.6 of ASCE 7-05. This experience data is to come from a nationally recognized procedures and data base that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. The substantiated seismic capacities from the experience data must meet or exceed the specific seismic requirements for the project. As in a. above evidence of compliance will need to be submitted to the design professional of record, and the jurisdiction having authority for approval. 2. MEP systems and components that contain hazardous materials must be certified as maintaining containment of the hazardous materials following an earth quake. Evidence of compliance must be submitted to the design professional of record and the jurisdiction having authority for approval. This certification may be made through: a. Analysis. b. Approved shake table testing specified in Section 9.6.3.6 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.2.5 of ASCE 7-05. c. Experience data as described in Section 9.6.3.6 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.2.6 of ASCE 7-05.

GENERAL EXEMPTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS PAGE 8 of 10
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 4.0
RELEASED ON: 07/15/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
D2.1 – 4.11 Consequential or Collateral Damage (Section 9.6.1) [Section 13.2.3]:

The potential interaction of the MEP systems and components with surrounding systems, components or building structures must be considered when locating and restraining the MEP systems and components. The failure of an MEP system or component that has been assigned a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0 must not cause the failure of an MEP system or component that has been assigned a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.5. This goes back to the issue of assigning a Component Importance Factor of 1.5 to MEP systems or components with a Component Importance Factor of 1.0 whose failure would cause the failure of a system or component with a Component Importance Factor of 1.5. D2.1 – 4.12 Flexibility of Components and their Supports and Restraints (Sections 9.6.1 and 9.6.1.2) [Section 13.2.4]:

All MEP systems and components that are constructed of normal engineering materials will have a certain amount of flexibility, or springiness. So how these systems and components behave during an earthquake will greatly affect their performance and survivability. The system or component could have a flexibility that would put it to resonance with the building and/or the earthquake, in which case the displacements and stresses in the system would be much larger than expected. Conversely the flexibility of the system or component could be such that it was not in resonance with either the building or the earthquake. In this case, the displacements and stresses may be much lower than a code based analysis would indicate. Therefore, the code indicates that the flexibility of the components and their supports be considered as well as the strength of the parts to ensure that the worst cases are considered.

GENERAL EXEMPTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS PAGE 9 of 10
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 4.0
RELEASED ON: 07/15/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
D2.1 – 4.13 Summary:

The exemptions and requirements outlined in this section are intended to assist the MEP design professionals and contractors in planning their project contribution efficiently. Also, they help define the limits of responsibility for each MEP design profession and trade.

GENERAL EXEMPTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS PAGE 10 of 10
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 4.0
RELEASED ON: 07/15/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
EXEMPTIONS FOR PIPING SYSTEMS
D2.1 – 5.1 Introduction:

The exemptions that apply specifically to piping are covered in Section 9.6.3.11.4 of ASCE 798/02 and Section 13.6.8 of ASCE 7-05. The provisions of this section do not cover elevator system piping which is covered in Section 9.6.3.16 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.6.10 of ASCE 7-05. The piping considered in this section is assumed to be high-deformability piping. This implies pipes made from ductile materials that are joined by welding, brazing, or groove type couplings, similar to VICTAULIC couplings, where the grooves in the pipe have been roll formed rather than cut. Limited deformability piping on the other hand, would be pipes made of ductile materials that are joined by threading, bonding, or the use of groove type couplings where the grooves in the pipe have been machine cut. Low deformability piping would be comprised of pipes made from relatively brittle materials such as cast iron or glass. Also not covered in this section is fire protection piping. Fire protection piping will be covered in a separate publication. D2.1 – 5.2 The 12 Rule (9.6.3.11.4-c) [Section 13.6.8-1]1:

No restraints will be required for piping that meets the requirements of the 12 Rule for the entire piping run. The 12 Rule will be said to apply to a piping run if:

1. The piping is supported by rod hangers. a. For single clevis supported pipe, all of the hangers in the piping run are 12 in. (305 mm) or less in length from the top of the pipe to the supporting structure. b. For trapeze supported pipe, all of the hangers in the piping run are 12 in. (305 mm) or less in length from the top of the trapeze bar to the supporting structure. 2. For 2000/2003 IBC The hanger rods and their attachments are not to be subjected to bending moments. For 2006 IBC the hangers are to be detailed to avoid bending of the
1

References in brackets (9.6.3.11.4-c) [Section 13.6.8-1] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 respectively which forms the basis for the seismic provisions in 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC respectively.

EXEMPTIONS FOR PIPING SYSTEMS PAGE 1 of 6
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 5.0
RELEASED ON: 05/27/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
hangers and their attachments. This statement very is ambiguous. It does not clearly define the phrase “significant bending”, and leaves it up to the design professional responsible for the piping system, or worse, the contractor responsible for installing the piping system. The past practice by SMACNA and other recognized authorities in the industry to call for the connection between the hanger and the supporting structure to be “non-moment generating”. This means that the connector must be one that allows the piping run to swing freely on its hangers without introducing a bending moment in the hanger. 3. There must be sufficient space around the piping run to accommodate the expected motion of the pipe as it sways back and forth with the earthquake motion in the building. 4. Connections between the piping and the interfacing components must be designed and/or selected to accept the full range of motion expected for both the pipe and the interfacing component.

D2.1 – 5.3 Single Clevis Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Categories A and B (Sections 9.6.1-1 and 9.6.1-3) [Sections 13.1.4-1 and 13.1.4-2]

No seismic restraints are required for piping in building assigned to Seismic Design Categories A and B. This is implied by the general exemptions found in Section 9.6.1 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.1.4 of ASCE 7-05. D2.1 – 5.4 Single Clevis Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Category C (Sections 9.6.1-1 and 9.6.3.11.4-d2) [Sections 13.1.4-3 and 13.6.8-2b]

1. For single clevis supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C for which the Component Importance Factor is equal to 1.0, no seismic restraint is required. 2. For piping in Buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C, for which the Component Importance Factor is equal to 1.5, and for which the nominal size is 2 in. (51 mm) or less; no seismic restraint is required.

EXEMPTIONS FOR PIPING SYSTEMS PAGE 2 of 6
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 5.0
RELEASED ON: 05/27/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
D2.1 – 5.5 Single Clevis Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F (Sections 9.6.3.11.4-d1 and 9.6.3.11.4-d3) [Sections 13.6.8-2a and 13.6.8-2c]

1. For single clevis supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F, for which the Component Importance Factor is equal to 1.5, and for which the nominal size is 1 in. (25 mm) or less; no seismic restraint is required. 2. For single clevis supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F, for which the Component Importance Factor is equal to 1.0, and for which the nominal size is 3 in. (76 mm) or less; no seismic restraint is required.

D2.1 – 5.6 Exemptions for Trapeze Supported Pipe per VISCMA Recommendations:

Neither ASCE 7-98/02 nor ASCE 7-05 specifies how the piping is to be supported. The point is that many pipes of the exempted size may be supported on a common trapeze bar using hanger rods of the same size as would be specified for a single clevis supported pipe. Keep in mind that the purpose of the seismic restraints is to make sure the pipe moves with the building. The amount of force that the hanger rod must carry will be a direct function of the weight of pipe being supported. It is apparent that there must be some limit to how much weight a trapeze bar can support for a given hanger rod size before seismic restraint is required. VISCMA (Vibration Isolation and Seismic Control Manufacturer’s Association) has investigated this issue and can make the following recommendations on the application of the exemptions in Sections 5.4 and 5.5 above to trapeze supported pipe, www.viscma.com.

The following basic provisions must apply.

1. The hangers must be ASTM A36 all-thread rod. 2. The threads must be roll formed. 3. The pipes must be rigidly attached to the hanger rods.

EXEMPTIONS FOR PIPING SYSTEMS PAGE 3 of 6
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 5.0
RELEASED ON: 05/27/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
4. Provisions must be made to avoid impact with adjacent pipe, duct, equipment, or building structure, or to protect the pipe from such impact. D2.1 – 5.6.1 Trapeze Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Categories A and B: (Sections 9.6.11 and 9.6.1-3) [Sections 13.1.4-1 and 13.1.4-2] For trapeze supported piping in Seismic Design Categories A and B, no seismic restraint is required. D2.1 – 5.6.2 Trapeze Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Category C: (Sections 9.6.1-1 and 9.6.3.11-d2) [Sections 13.1.4-3 and 13.6.8-2b]

1. For trapeze supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C, which have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0, and for which the nominal size is 2 in. (51 mm) or less, nor seismic restraint is required. 2. For trapeze supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C, which have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.5, and for which the nominal size is 2 in. (51 mm) or less, no seismic restraint is required if: a. The trapeze bar is supported by 3/8-16 UNC, or larger, hanger rods. b. The maximum hanger spacing is 10 ft. on center. c. The total weight supported by the trapeze bar is 15 lbs/ft or less.

D2.1 – 5.6.3 Trapeze Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Category D: (Sections 9.6.1-6, 9.6.3.11.4-d2 and 9.6.3.11.4-d3) [Sections 13.1.4-5, 13.6.8-2a, and 13.6.8-2c]

1. For trapeze supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D, which have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.5, and for which the nominal size is 1 in. (25 mm) or less, no seismic restraint is required if: a. The trapeze bar is supported by 3/8-16 UNC, or larger, hanger rods. b. The maximum hanger spacing is 7 ft. on center.

EXEMPTIONS FOR PIPING SYSTEMS PAGE 4 of 6
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 5.0
RELEASED ON: 05/27/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
c. The total weight supported by the trapeze bar is 4 lbs/ft or less. 2. For trapeze supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D, which have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0, and for which the nominal size is 3 in. (76 mm) or less, no seismic restraint is required if: a. The trapeze bar is supported by 1/2-13 UNC, or larger, hanger rods. b. The maximum hanger spacing is 10 ft. on center. c. The total weight supported by the trapeze bar is 25 lbs/ft or less. D2.1 – 5.6.4 Trapeze Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Categories E and F: (Sections 9.6.16, 9.6.3.11.4-d2 and 9.6.3.11.4-d3) [Sections 13.1.4-5, 13.6.8-2a, and 13.6.8-2c]

1. For trapeze supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Categories E and F, which have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.5, and for which the nominal size is 1 in. (25 mm) or less, no seismic restraint is required if: a. The trapeze bar is supported by 3/8-16 UNC, or larger, hanger rods. b. The maximum hanger spacing is 7 ft. on center. c. The total weight supported by the trapeze bar is 4 lbs/ft or less. 2. For trapeze supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D, which have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0, and for which the nominal size is 3 in. (76 mm) or less, no seismic restraint is required if: a. The trapeze bar is supported by 1/2-13 UNC, or larger, hanger rods. b. The maximum hanger spacing is 10 ft. on center. c. The total weight supported by the trapeze bar is 11 lbs/ft or less. D2.1 – 5.7 Summary:

The exemptions and allowances outlined in this section can, with careful planning save a lot of time and money. They may also mean the difference between making a profit on a project and breaking even, or worse, losing money. In order to take proper advantage of these exemptions,

EXEMPTIONS FOR PIPING SYSTEMS PAGE 5 of 6
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 5.0
RELEASED ON: 05/27/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
the Seismic Design Category to which the project has been assigned must be known. This is readily available from the structural engineer. Also, the design professional who is responsible for the piping system must assign an appropriate Component Importance Factor to the system.

As a sidebar to the previous statement, it should be noted that the specification for the building may increase the Seismic Design Category in order to ensure an adequate safety margin and the continued operation of the facility. This is a common practice with schools, government buildings, and certain manufacturing facilities. Also, the building owner has the prerogative, through the specification, to require all of the piping systems to be seismically restrained. So, careful attention to the specification must be paid, as some or all of the exemptions in this section may be nullified by specification requirements that are more stringent than those provided by the code.

EXEMPTIONS FOR PIPING SYSTEMS PAGE 6 of 6
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 5.0
RELEASED ON: 05/27/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
EXEMPTIONS FOR HVAC DUCTWORK
D2.1 – 6.1 Introduction:

The 2000/2003/2006 IBC has some general exemptions that apply to HVAC ductwork based on Component Importance Factor and the size of the duct. At present, there are not as many exemptions for ductwork as there are for piping. The number of exemptions for ductwork changed with SMACNA being dropped as a reference document in the 2003/2006 IBC. This will be discussed below in the appropriate section. D2.1 – 6.2 The 12 Rule (Section 9.6.3.10-a) [Section 13.6.7-a]1:

No seismic restraints will be required for ductwork with a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0 that meets the requirements of the 12 Rule for the entire run of ductwork. The 12 Rule is said to apply to a run of ductwork if:

1. The HVAC ducts a suspended for hangers that are 12 (305 mm) or less in length for the entire run of ductwork. This is usually measured from the supporting structure to the top of the trapeze bar that is supporting the ductwork. 2. The hangers have been detailed and constructed in order to avoid significant bending of the hanger and its attachments. As with the 12 rule applied to piping, the industry generally interprets this to mean that the connection of the hanger to the structure must be “nonmoment generating”, or free swinging.

1

References in brackets (Section 9.6.3.10-a) [Section 13.6.7-a] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 respectively which forms the basis for the seismic provisions in 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC respectively.

EXEMPTIONS FOR HVAC DUCTWORK PAGE 1 of 3
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 6.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
D2.1 – 6.3 Size Exemption (Section 9.6.3.10-b) [Section 13.6.7-b]:

No seismic restraints are required for ductwork with a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0 if the cross-sectional area is less than 6 ft2 (0.557 m2).

D2.1 – 6.4 Further Exemptions for Ductwork (Sections 9.6.1.1.2 and 9.6.3.10) [Section 13.6.7]:

There are no further exemptions for ductwork in 2006 IBC. The SMACNA Seismic Restraint Manual does have exemptions for ductwork that has been assigned a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.5. For 2000 IBC the SMACNA Seismic Design Manual was an accepted standard, and ductwork with a cross-sectional area of less than 6 ft2 (0.557 m2) may be exempted from the need for seismic restraint. However for 2003 IBC and 2006 IBC, the SMACNA Seismic Design Manual was removed from the design portion of the code and was, instead, incorporated as an Accepted Standard in Section 9.6.1.1.2 of ASCE 7-02, which applies to 2003 IBC. The SMACNA Seismic Restraint Manual is not specifically identified in ASCE 7-05, 2006 IBC instead the following statement was inserted into the design portion of the code.

“HVAC duct systems fabricated and installed in accordance with standards approved by the authority having jurisdiction shall be deemed to meet the lateral bracing requirements of this section.”

In other words, it will be up to the local building authority to approve or disapprove SMACNA or any other reference documents. So, the HVAC design professional and contractor will need to petition the local building authority for permission to use the exemptions in the SMACNA Seismic Restraint Manual.

EXEMPTIONS FOR HVAC DUCTWORK PAGE 2 of 3
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 6.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
D2.1 – 6.5 Restraint Allowance for In-Line Components (Section 9.6.3.10) [Section 13.6.7]:

This allowance deals with components, such as fans, heat exchangers, humidifiers, VAV boxes, and the like, that are installed in-line with the ductwork. Components that have an operating weight of 75 lbs (334 N) or less may be supported and laterally, seismically, braced as part of the duct system. Where the lateral braces, seismic restraints, have been designed and sized to meet the requirements of ASCE 7-98/02 Section 9.6.1.3 or ASCE 7-05 Section 13.3.1. The following requirements will also apply to these components.

1. At least one end of the component must be hard, rigidly, attached to the ductwork. The other end may have a flex connector or be open. The flex connected, or open end, of the component must be supported and laterally braced. This requirement is not mentioned as part of ASCE 7-98, -02, or -05, but is a requirement that is born out of common sense. 2. Devices such as diffusers, louvers, and dampers shall be positively attached with mechanical fasteners. 3. Unbraced piping and electrical power and control lines that are attached to in-line components must be attached with flex connections that allow adequate motion to accommodate the expected differential motions. D2.1 – 6.6 Summary:

As with the piping exemptions these exemptions and allowances, with careful planning, can save the contractor and the building owner a great deal of effort and money. There is also a great advantage to petition the local building authority to allow the SMACNA Seismic Design Manual to become a reference document for the project. This will allow the exemptions spelled out in the SMACNA Seismic Design Manual to be utilized to best advantage

EXEMPTIONS FOR HVAC DUCTWORK PAGE 3 of 3
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 6.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
EXEMPTIONS FOR ELECTRICAL
D2.1 – 7.1 Introduction:

The exemptions mentioned in both ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 are actually implied exemptions that are stated as requirements. This section is an attempt to more fully define these provisions for the design professional responsible for the design of the electrical components and distribution systems, and also for the installing contractor who is responsible for bidding and installing the restraints. D2.1 – 7.2 “Implied” Blanket Exemption Based on Component Importance Factor I P (Section 9.6.3.14) [Sections 13.6.4 and 13.6.5]1:

Section 9.6.3.14 of ASCE 7-98/02 states that;

“Attachments and supports for electrical equipment shall meet the force and displacement provisions of Sections 9.6.1.3 and 9.6.1.4 and the additional provisions of this Section. In addition to their attachments and supports, electrical equipment designated as having I P = 1.5 , itself, shall be designed to meet the force and displacement provisions of Sections 9.6.1.3 and 9.6.1.4 and the additional provisions of this Section.”

In this statement, there really are no implied exemptions for electrical equipment, except that if the supports for the equipment have been designed by the manufacturer to meet the seismic load requirements with the specified mounting hardware, no further analysis and restraint will be required.

In Section 13.6.4 of ASCE 7-05, the text reads as follows.
1

References in brackets (Section 9.6.3.14) [Sections 13.6.4 and 13.6.5] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 respectively which forms the basis for the seismic provisions in 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC respectively.

EXEMPTIONS FOR ELECTRICAL PAGE 1 of 4
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 7.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
“Electrical components with I P greater than 1.0 shall be designed for the seismic forces and relative displacements defined in Sections 13.3.1 and 13.3.2 ….”

ASCE 7-05 Section 13.6.5 states the following; “Mechanical and electrical component supports (including those with I P = 1.0 ) and the means by which they are attached to the component shall be designed for the forces and displacements determined in Sections 13.3.1 and 13.3.2. Such supports including structural members, braces, frames, skirts, legs, saddles, pedestals, cables, guys, stays, snubbers, and tethers, as well as elements forged or cast as part of the mechanical or electrical component.”

ASCE 7-05 Section 13.6.4 implies that electrical components that have been assigned a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0, regardless of the Seismic Design Category to which they have been assigned, will not require seismic restraints beyond the attachment provisions normally included with the component, provided that a qualified component is selected. This means that if the component has four mounting feet with holes for the component should be attached to the structure with four nothing further is required. 3/8 mounting hardware, then

3/8 bolts, or anchors. Beyond that

However, ASCE 7-05 Section 13.6.5 insists that the supports must be designed to withstand the code mounted forces and displacements. So, as with ASCE 7-98/02 this is not a general blanket exemption. The manufacturer of the component must be able to certify that the supports designed as part of the component will withstand the seismic requirements for the project using hardware of the appropriate size and strength.

So, while additional analysis and restraint may not be required for electrical components with I P = 1.0 , the supports for this equipment must be designed by the manufacturer with sufficient strength to meet the code mandated requirements. After this the design professional of record for a project and the contractor may provide attachment hardware of the appropriate type, size, and

EXEMPTIONS FOR ELECTRICAL PAGE 2 of 4
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 7.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
strength, as recommended by the manufacturer of the equipment, without doing any further analysis, or providing any further restraint.

While this sounds rather “wishy-washy”, it’s really not. If the manufacturer of the equipment and its supports certifies that is was design to handle accelerations in excess of the design acceleration for the project, then it may be exempted from the need for further seismic restraint or analysis. D2.1 – 7.3 Conduit Size Exemption [13.6.5.5-6a]:

There are no specific size exemptions for electrical conduit in 2000/2003 IBC, ASCE 7-98/02. However, 2006 IBC, ASCE 7-05 does have exemptions for electrical conduit. They seem to follow the exemptions, in terms size, that are used for piping. Therefore, it is reasonable to use the exemptions in 2006 IBC for 2000/2003 IBC since it is the most recent version, and takes into account any new testing or analysis.

For 2006 IBC, ASCE 7-05, seismic restraints are not required for conduit that has been assigned a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.5, and whose trade size is 2.5 in. (64mm) or less. When sizing and selecting restraints for electrical conduit, that the weight per linear foot of conduit varies greatly depending on the exact type of conduit being used. Also, when computing the total weight per foot of the conduit plus the cabling, it standard practice to assume that there will be ~40% copper fill for the cabling.

D2.1 – 7.4 Trapeze Supported Electrical Distribution Systems [13.6.5.5-6b]:

As with conduit, no specific exemptions for trapeze supported electrical distribution systems exist in 2000/2003 IBC, ASCE 7-98/02. However, an exemption is allowed under 2006 IBC, ASCE 705. It makes sense to argue for the use of this exemption in 2000/2003 IBC as well. The exemption matches the weight limits proposed for trapeze supported pipe in Section 5.6 of this guide.

EXEMPTIONS FOR ELECTRICAL PAGE 3 of 4
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 7.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
No restraints are required for conduit, bus ducts, or cable trays that are supported on trapeze bars, that have been assigned a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.5, and that have a total weight that is 10 lb/ft (146 N/m) or less. This total weight includes not only the conduit, bus duct, or cable trays, but also includes the trapeze bars as well.

D2.1 – 7.5 Summary:

All of the implied exemptions above are made without regard for the Seismic Design Category to which the building has been assigned. Further, a complete reading of the project specification is in order to ensure that these exemptions have not been negated by the wishes of the building owner.

EXEMPTIONS FOR ELECTRICAL PAGE 4 of 4
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 7.0
RELEASED ON: 05/06/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
SESIMIC DESIGN FORCES
D2.1 – 8.1 Introduction:

The code based horizontal seismic force requirements for MEP systems and components are either calculated by the seismic restraint manufacturer as a part of the selection and certification process, or may be determined by the design professional of record for the MEP systems under consideration.

This is an informational section. It will discuss the code based horizontal seismic force demand equations and the variables that go into them. This discussion will provide a deeper understanding for the designer responsible for selecting the seismic restraints for MEP systems and their components and the nature of the seismic forces and the factors that affect them. D2.1 – 8.2 Horizontal Seismic Design Force (Section 9.6.1.3) [Section 13.3.1]1:

The seismic force is a mass, or weight, based force, and as such is applied to the MEP component at its center of gravity. Keep in mind that the earthquake ground motion moves the base of the building first. Then the motion of the building will accelerate the MEP component through its supports and/or seismic restraints. The horizontal seismic force acting on an MEP component will be determined in accordance with Equation 9.6.1.3-1 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Equation 13.3-1 of ASCE 7-05.
FP = 0.4a P S DS W P ? z? ?1 + 2 ? h? ? RP ? ? ? ? ?I ? ? P ?

Equation 8-1 (9.6.1.3-1) [13.3-1]

1

References in brackets (Section 9.6.1.3) [Section 13.3.1] refer to sections and/or tables in ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 respectively which forms the basis for the seismic provisions in 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC respectively.

SEISMIC DESIGN FORCES PAGE 1 of 9
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 8.0
RELEASED ON: 07/18/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
ASCE 7-98/02, and -05 define and upper and lower bound for the horizontal force that is to be applied to the center of gravity of a component. The horizontal seismic force acting on an MEP component is not required to be greater than; F P = 1.6 S DS I P W P

Equation 8-2 (9.6.1.3-2) [13.3-2]

And the horizontal seismic force acting on an MEP component is not to be less than; F P = 0.3 S DS I PW P

Equation 8-3 (9.6.1.3-3) [13.3-3]

Where:

FP = the design horizontal seismic force acting on an MEP component at its center of gravity.
S DS = the short period design spectral acceleration.

a P =the component amplification factor. This factor is a measure of how close to the natural period
of the building the natural period of the component is expected is expected to be. The closer the natural period of the component is to that of the building, the larger a P will be. Conversely, the further the natural period of the component is away from that of the building, the smaller a P will be. Typically a P will vary from 1.0 to 2.5, and is specified by component type in ASCE 7-98/02 and -05 and listed in Table 8-3.

I P = the component importance factor which be either 1.0 or 1.5. W P = the operating weight of the MEP system or component that is being restrained. R P = the response modification factor which varies from 1.25 to 5.0 in ASCE 7-98, 1.5 to 5.0 in
ASCE 7-02, and 1.50 to 12.0 in ASCE 7-05 by component type. This factor is a measure of the ability of the component and its attachments to the structure to absorb energy. It is really a measure of how ductile or brittle the component and its attachments are. The more flexible, ductile the component and its supports and/or restraints are the larger R P will be. And conversely, the more brittle and inflexible the component and its supports and/or restraints are, the smaller R P will

SEISMIC DESIGN FORCES PAGE 2 of 9
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 8.0
RELEASED ON: 07/18/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
be. The values are specified by component type in Table 8-1 for ASCE 7-98, Table 8-2 for ASCE 7-02, and Table 8-3 for ASCE 7-05.

z = the structural attachment mounting height of the MEP component in the building relative to the
grade line of the building.
h = the average height of the building roof as measured from the grade line of the building.

The 0.4 factor was introduced as a modifier for S DS as a recognition that the MEP components inside the building would react more strongly to the long period earthquake ground motion than to the short period motion. The 0.4 factor brings the design level acceleration for the MEP components more in line with the design level acceleration that is applied to the building structure itself.

z? ? The ? 1 + 2 ? term in Equation 8-1 is recognition of the fact that all buildings and structures become h? ?
more flexible as they increase in height. That is they are much stiffer, stronger, at the foundation level than the roof. Since the ground motion from an earthquake enters the building structure at the foundation level, the actual accelerations imparted an MEP component will be greater the higher in the building they are attached. A building may be likened to a vertically mounted cantilever beam that is being shaken by the bottom. It is a vibrating system that will have a certain natural period that is, in a general fashion, based on its mass and stiffness. If the natural period of the building is at, or close too, the earthquake period, the motion of the building could be extreme. This was the case in the Mexico City earthquake of September 19, 1985.

The horizontal seismic design force must be applied independently to the component in at least two perpendicular directions in the horizontal plane. The horizontal seismic design force must be applied in conjunction with all of the expected dead loads and service loads. The idea here is that the horizontal seismic design force is to be applied in the direction that causes the highest stress in the supports and restraints, and thus produces the most conservative results.

SEISMIC DESIGN FORCES PAGE 3 of 9
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 8.0
RELEASED ON: 07/18/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
D2.1 – 8.3 Vertical Seismic Design Force (Sections 9.5.2.7 and 9.6.1.3) [Sections 12.4.2.2 and 13.3.1]:

The MEP component, its supports, and its restraints must also be designed for a vertical seismic design force that acts concurrently with the horizontal seismic design force. This vertical seismic design force must be directed such that it also produces the highest stress in the supports and restraints, thus producing the most conservative result. This vertical seismic design force is defined as follows. FV = ±0.2 S DS W P

Equation 8-4 (9.5.2.1-1/-2) [12.4-4]

Where: FV = the vertical seismic design force.

D2.1 – 8.4 The Evolution of a P and R P Factors (Sections 9.6.1.3 and 9.6.3.2 and Table 9.6.3.2) [Sections 13.3.1 and 13.6.1 and Table 13.6-1]:

The MEP component, along with its supports, will also form a vibrating system with a natural period that depends on the mass of the component and the stiffness of the supports. The component amplification factor ( a P ) is a measure of how closely the natural period of the component and its supports matches the natural period of the building. For a P = 1.0 the natural periods are not close, while for a p = 2.5 the natural period of the MEP component and their support is very close to that of the building. The component response modification factor( R P )is a measure of how much energy the MEP component along with its supports and attachments can absorb without sustaining crippling damage. A common term used throughout the HVAC industry is fragility. As the term implies, it is concerned with how fragile a component might be. That is, how easily a component may be

SEISMIC DESIGN FORCES PAGE 4 of 9
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 8.0
RELEASED ON: 07/18/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
damaged, and to what degree it might be damaged by a specified load and loading rate. The R P factor, then, is considered to be an indicator of how fragile an MEP component might be. For R P = 1.0 the component is extremely fragile. For R P = 12.0 , on the other hand, would be a component that is very robust. The values for a P and R P are assigned by the ASCE 7 committee based on accumulated experience throughout the building industry. The evolution of these factors may be traced through Tables 8-1; 8-2, and 8-3 which represent 2000 IBC, ASCE 7-98; 2003 IBC, ASCE 7-02; and 2006 IBC, ASCE 7-05 respectively. The different values for the same items in the three tables indicate the lack of knowledge and understanding concerning these components throughout the industry. Only time, experience, and shake table testing will produce true usable values for a P and R P .

D2.1 – 8.5 LRFD versus ASD: (Sections 2.3 and 2.4) [Sections 2.3, 2.4 and 13.1.7]

This topic was briefly touched upon in Section 4.8 of this guide. However, more should be said about it in this section dealing the design seismic forces that will be applied to the MEP components. The Civil and Structural Engineering community has adopted the LRFD, Load Resistance Factor Design, philosophy. With this design philosophy the factors controlling the serviceability of the structure as assigned to the design loads. ASD, Allowable Stress Design, is the design philosophy which preceded LRFD. In ASD, the factors controlling the serviceability of the structure are assigned to the yield strength or to the ultimate strength of the material. Traditionally the factors controlling the serviceability of the structure have been known as the Safety Factors, or Factors of Safety.

The forces calculated using Equations 8-1, 8-2, 8-3, and 8-4 will have magnitudes that correspond to LRFD. Many standard components such a concrete anchors, bolts, screws, and etc. will have their capacities listed as ASD values. Components whose capacities are listed as ASD values may be compared to the LRFD results from Equations 8-1 through 8-4 by multiplying the ASD values by 1.4.

SEISMIC DESIGN FORCES PAGE 5 of 9
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 8.0
RELEASED ON: 07/18/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP

Table 8-1; Component Amplification and Response Modification Factors for 2000 IBC (Table 9.6.3.2) Mechanical & Electrical Component2
General Mechanical Equipment
Boilers and furnaces. Pressure vessels on skirts and free-standing. Stacks & cantilevered chimneys Other

aP 3
----1.0 2.5 2.5 1.0

RP 4
----2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

Piping Systems
High deformability elements and attachments (welded steel pipe & brazed copper pipe). Limited deformability elements and attachments (steel pipe with screwed connections, no hub connections, and Victaulic type connections). Low deformability elements and attachments (iron pipe with screwed connections, and glass lined pipe).

----1.0 1.0 1.0

----3.5 2.5 1.25

HVAC Systems
Vibration isolated. Non-vibration isolated. Mounted-in-line with ductwork. Other

----2.5 1.0 1.0 1.0

----2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

General Electrical
Distributed systems (bus ducts, conduit, and cable trays). Equipment. Lighting fixtures.

----2.5 1.0 1.0

----5.0 2.5 1.25

Components mounted on vibration isolators shall be restrained in each horizontal direction with bumpers or snubbers, and the horizontal seismic design force shall be equal to 2FP. 3 The value for aP shall not be less than 1.0. Lower values shall not be used unless justified by a detailed dynamic analysis. A value of aP=1.0 is to be applied to equipment that is rigid or rigidly attached. A value of aP=2.5 is to be applied to equipment regarded as flexible or flexibly attached. 4 A value of RP=1.25 is to be used for component anchorage design with expansion anchor bolts, shallow chemical anchor, shall low deformability cast in place anchors, or when the component is constructed of brittle materials. Shallow anchors are those with an embedment depth to nominal diameter ratio that is less than 8.

2

SEISMIC DESIGN FORCES PAGE 6 of 9
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 8.0
RELEASED ON: 07/18/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP

Table 8-2; Component Amplification and Response Modification Factors for 2003 IBC (Table 9.6.3.2) Mechanical & Electrical Component5
General Mechanical Equipment
Boilers and furnaces. Pressure vessels on skirts and free standing. Stacks and cantilevered chimneys. Other

aP 6
----1.0 2.5 2.5 1.0

RP
----2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

Piping Systems
High deformability elements and attachments (welded steel pipe & brazed copper pipe). Limited deformability elements and attachments (steel pipe with screwed connections, no hub connections, and Victaulic type connections). Low deformability elements and attachments (iron pipe with screwed connections, and glass lined pipe).

----1.0 1.0 1.0

----3.5 2.5 1.5

HVAC Systems
Vibration isolated. Non-vibration isolated. Mounted-in-line with ductwork. Other

----2.5 1.0 1.0 1.0

----2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

General Electrical
Distribution systems (bus ducts, conduit, and cable trays). Equipment Lighting fixtures.

----2.5 1.0 1.0

----5.0 2.5 1.5

Components mounted on vibration isolators shall be restrained in each horizontal direction with bumpers or snubbers. If the maximum bumper/snubber clearance, or air gap, is greater than 1/4 in., the horizontal seismic design force shall be equal to 2FP. If the maximum bumper/snubber clearance, air gap, is less than or equal to 1/4 in., the horizontal seismic design force shall be taken as FP. 6 The value for aP shall not be less than 1.0. Lower values shall not be used unless justified by a detailed dynamic analysis. A value of aP=1.0 is to be applied to equipment that is rigid or rigidly attached. A value of aP=2.5 is to be applied to equipment regarded as flexible or flexibly attached.

5

SEISMIC DESIGN FORCES PAGE 7 of 9
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 8.0
RELEASED ON: 07/18/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
Table 8-3; Component Amplification and Response Modification Factors for 2006 IBC [Table 13.6-1]
MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
Air-side HVAC – fans, air handlers, and other mechanical components with sheet metal framing. Wet-side HVAC – boilers, chillers, & other mechanical components constructed of ductile materials. Engines, turbines, pumps compressors, and pressure vessels not supported on skirts. Skirt supported pressure vessels. Generators, batteries, transformers, motors, & other electrical components made of ductile materials. Motor control cabinets, switchgear, & other components constructed of sheet metal framing. Communication equipment, computers, instrumentation and controls. Roof-mounted chimneys, stacks, cooling and electrical towers braced below their C.G. Roof-mounted chimneys, stacks, cooling and electrical towers braced below their C.G. Lighting fixtures. Other mechanical & electrical components.

aP 7
2.5 1.0 1.0 2.5 1.0 2.5 1.0 2.5 1.0 1.0 1.0

RP 8
6.0 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 6.0 2.5 3.0 2.5 1.5 1.5

Vibration Isolated Components & Systems
Components & systems isolated using neoprene elements & neoprene isolated floors with elastomeric snubbers or resilient perimeter stops Spring isolated components & systems & vibration isolated floors closely restrained with elastomeric snubbing devices or resilient perimeter stops. Internally isolated components or systems. Suspended vibration isolated equipment including in-line duct devices & suspended internally isolated components.

----2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

----2.5 2.0 2.0 2.5

Distribution Systems
Piping in accordance with ASME B31, this includes in-line components, with joints made by welding or brazing. Piping in accordance with ASME B31, this includes in-line components, constructed of high or limited deformability materials with joints made by threading, bonding, compression couplings, or grooved couplings. Piping & tubing that is not in accordance with ASME B31, this includes in-line components, constructed with high deformability materials with joints made by welding or brazing. Piping & tubing that is not in accordance with ASME B31, this includes in-line components, constructed of high or limited deformability materials with joints made by threading, bonding, compression couplings, or grooved couplings. Piping & tubing of low deformability materials, such as cast iron, glass, or non-ductile plastics. Ductwork, including in-line components, constructed of high deformability materials, with joints made by welding or brazing. Ductwork, including in-line components, constructed of high or limited deformability materials, with joints made by means other than welding or brazing. Duct work constructed of low deformability materials such as cast iron, glass, or non-ductile plastics. Electrical conduit, bus ducts, rigidly mounted cable trays, & plumbing. Suspended cable trays.
7

----2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 1.0 2.5

----12.0 6.0 9.0 4.5 3.0 9.0 6.0 3.0 2.5 6.0

The value for aP shall not be less than 1.0. Lower values shall not be used unless justified by a detailed dynamic analysis. A value of aP=1.0 is to be applied to components that are rigid or rigidly attached. A value of aP=2.5 is to be applied to components regarded as flexible or flexibly attached. 8 Components mounted on vibration isolators shall be restrained in each horizontal direction with bumpers or snubbers. If the maximum bumper/snubber clearance, or air gap, is greater than 1/4 in., the horizontal seismic design force shall be equal to 2FP. If the maximum bumper/snubber clearance, air gap, is less than or equal to 1/4 in., the horizontal seismic design force shall be taken as FP.

SEISMIC DESIGN FORCES PAGE 8 of 9
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 8.0
RELEASED ON: 07/18/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
D2.1 – 8.6 Summary:

This section has provided an insight into the way in which the seismic design forces for MEP systems and components are to be computed. It is generally not necessary for a designer to actually run the computations for the seismic design forces. These forces are normally computed by the manufacturer of the seismic restraint devices as part of the selection and certification process to ensure that the proper components are selected per the code and the specification.

SEISMIC DESIGN FORCES PAGE 9 of 9
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com

D2.1 – 8.0
RELEASED ON: 07/18/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
ANCHORAGE OF MEP COMPONENTS TO THE BUILDING STRUCTURE
D2.1 – 9.1 Introduction:

The anchorage, or attachment, of the MEP components and their seismic restraints to the building structure has always been a gray area generally left to the installing contractor with little or no guidance from the design professionals responsible for the MEP systems or the building structure. ASCE/SEI 7-05 does give some general guidance for the making these attachments. However, the design professionals involved with the MEP systems and the building structure must share the responsibility for ensuring the adequacy of these attachments. This section will cover the guidance provided to the design professionals of record in ASCE/SEI 7-05. D2.1 – 9.2 General Guidelines for MEP Component Anchorage (Section 9.6.1.6 and 9.6.3.4) [Section 13.4]1:

1. The MEP component, its supports, and seismic restraints must be positively attached to the building structure without relying on frictional resistance generated by the dead weight of the component. The following are some of the acceptable ways and means of attachment. a. Bolting b. Welding c. Post installed concrete anchors d. Cast in place concrete anchors 2. There must be a continuous load path of sufficient strength and stiffness between the component and the building structure to withstand the expected seismic loads and displacements. This means that when cable restraints are used for distributed MEP systems, the cables can not bend or wrap around any other component or structure in a straight line path between the component and the structure.
1

References in brackets (Sections 9.6.1.6 and 9.6.3.4) [Section 13.4] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 respectively which forms the basis for the seismic provisions in 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC respectively.

ANCHORAGE OF MEP COMPONENTS TO THE BUILDING STRUCTURE PAGE 1 of 4 D2.1 – 9.0
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASED ON: 07/18/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
3. The local areas of the building structure must be designed with sufficient strength and stiffness to resist and transfer the seismic restraint forces from the MEP systems and components to the main force resisting structure of the building. It is at this point that the design professional of record, and the installing contractor for the MEP system must work closely with the structural engineer of record to make sure that the intended anchorage points for the MEP system seismic restraints have sufficient capacity. D2.1 – 9.3 Anchorage in (Cracked) Concrete and Masonry (Section 9.6.1.6) [Section 13.4.2]:

1. Anchors for MEP component seismic restraints and supports are to be designed and proportioned to carry the least of the following: a. A force equal to 1.3 times the seismic design forces acting on the component and its supports and restraints. b. The maximum force that can be transferred to the anchor by the component and its supports. 2. R P ≤ 1.5 will be used to determine the component forces unless: a. The design anchorage of the component and/or its restraints is governed by the strength of a ductile steel element. b. The design of post installed anchors in concrete used for the anchorage of the component supports and restraints is prequalified for seismic applications according to ACI 355.2. i. Anchors that have been prequalified per ACI 355.2 will have an ICC-ES ESR Report issued for that anchor stating the fact that it is suitable for seismic applications for the current version of IBC. It will also give the allowable loads, embedments, and edge distances pertinent to the allowable loads. ii. Anchors from different manufacturers may not be directly substituted on a oneto-one basis. Each manufacturer will have a different design that will have different allowable loads when tested under ACI 355.2. The allowable loads for equivalent anchor sizes may be radically different.

ANCHORAGE OF MEP COMPONENTS TO THE BUILDING STRUCTURE PAGE 2 of 4 D2.1 – 9.0
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASED ON: 07/18/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
c. The anchor is designed in accordance with Section 14.2.2.14 of ASCE 7-05.

For 2000 IBC, ASCE 7-98, the “cracked” concrete anchors are not required, and standard post installed wedge type anchors may be used for seismic restraint as long as there is an ICC Legacy report stating that the anchors may be used in seismic applications. For 2003 IBC, ASCE 7-02, there are no specific statements in ASCE 7-02 that require the use of “cracked” concrete anchors in seismic applications. However, ASCE 7-02 Section 9.9 adopts ACI 318-02 as a reference document. ACI 318-02 specifies that the post installed anchors meet ACI 355.2 and “are required to be qualified for moderate or high seismic risk zone usage.” ACI 355.2 is the test standard by which post installed anchors are to be pre-qualified for seismic applications in cracked concrete. So, by inference, “cracked” concrete anchors should also be used for 2003 IBC. However, that has not yet been widely enforced since few if any post installed anchors had been qualified to this standard before 2006 IBC was issued.

D2.1 – 9.4 Undercut Anchors (Section 9.6.3.13.2-c) [Section 13.6.5.5-5]:

For both 2000 IBC, ASCE 7-98, and 2006 IBC, ASCE 7-05, post installed expansion, wedge, anchors may not be used for non-vibration isolated mechanical equipment rated over 10 hp (7.45 kW). However, post installed undercut expansion anchors may be used.

For 2003 IBC, ASCE 7-02, post installed expansion, wedge, anchors may not be used for nonvibration isolated mechanical equipment. However, post installed undercut expansion anchors are permitted. D2.1 – 9.5 Prying of Bolts and Anchors (Section 9.6.1.6.3) [Section 13.4.3]:

The design of the attachment of the MEP component supports and restraints must take into account the mounting conditions such as eccentricity in the supports and brackets, and prying of the bolts or anchors.

ANCHORAGE OF MEP COMPONENTS TO THE BUILDING STRUCTURE PAGE 3 of 4 D2.1 – 9.0
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASED ON: 07/18/2008

Member

KINETICS? Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP
D2.1 – 9.6 Power Actuated or Driven Fasteners (Section 9.6.1.6.5) [Section 13.4.5]:

Power actuated or driven fasteners, such as powder shot pins, may not be used for tensile load applications in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F unless specifically approved for this application.

D2.1 – 9.7 Friction Clips (Section 9.6.3.13.2-b) [Section 13.4.6]:

Friction clips may not be used to attach seismic restraints to the component or the building structure. A typical example would be the attachment of a cable restraint to a structural beam with a standard beam clamp. A beam clamp with a restraint strap or safety strap, capable of resisting the applied seismic load that will ensure that the clamp will be prevented from walking off the beam may be used.

D2.1 – 9.8 Summary:

Attachment of the MEP components and their seismic restraints to the building structure is of the utmost importance to maintaining the building function following an earthquake. It is the responsibility of the design professionals of record for the MEP systems to work with the structural engineer of record and the architect of record for the building to ensure that the anchorage points for the MEP component supports and restraints have been properly designed to transfer the design seismic loads as well as any other dead weight and service loads.

ANCHORAGE OF MEP COMPONENTS TO THE BUILDING STRUCTURE PAGE 4 of 4 D2.1 – 9.0
Toll Free (USA Only): International: FAX World Wide Web: E-mail: Dublin, Ohio, USA Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 800-959-1229 614-889-0480 614-889-0540 www.kineticsnoise.com sales@kineticsnoise.com RELEASED ON: 07/18/2008

Member

IBC 2000/2003 Piping Restraint Rules
The following information is based on the 2000 IBC Code. (The same data is present in the 2003 IBC and/or Chapter 9 of ASCE 7-02, but the citation references would vary). These do not take into account more stringent specifications or local requirements. Systems relating to power piping; process piping; liquid transportation systems for hydrocarbons, LPG, anhydrous ammonia and alcohol; refrigeration; slurries; or gas transmission are subject to ASME standards that should also be consulted where applicable. Should such requirements exist, they would need to be evaluated independently. For the remainder of this document “ piping”refers only to piping not related to those items above. Prior to using this document, the appropriate (SDS) design spectral response for the project in question must be determined. This is a function of the mapped short period spectral response and the soil classification factor. If the soil type is unknown, type “ D” should be assumed. In addition, the project must be classified according to “ seismic use group.” Refer to the code or separate documentation for a detailed breakdown as to the definitions of various “ seismic use groups.” Lastly, the piping system’ s importance factor must be determined. This factor is now tied more closely to the use of, or hazard generated by, the piping rather than the use of the structure. There are two levels of importance: 1.0 and 1.5. The importance factor of 1.5 is used under the following conditions: 1) The component is a life-safety component that must function after an earthquake. 2) The component contains hazardous or flammable material in excess of exempted limits. 3) Components needed for continued operation of Group III occupancy structure. 4) Components whose failure could result damage to a system or space required for continued operation of Group III occupancy structure. 5) All other conditio

相关文章:
IsoMaxSpec
Sound isolation clips specified shall be designed and manufactured by Kinetics Noise Control, Dublin, Ohio. Product shall be Model Iso-Max Sound Isolation ...
Theoretical Analysis of Noise of Piston Knocking Cy...
diagnosing the noise of piston knocking cylinder ...Kinetics Equations of Piston System On the plane ...application in fault diagnosis[J].NDT& E ...
化学工程与工艺专业英语课后答案(1)
distillation columns pumps control and instrumentation... Kinetics, Catalysis, Rector Design and Analysis,... High noise levels Continuous or batch operation,...
更多相关标签: