Learning about Language
Sara acknowledged her mistake and made an apology immediately.萨拉马上承认了她的错误并道歉。 1．apology n．道歉；谢罪
our apologies for any inconvenience we
have caused.若有不便，敬请原谅。 拓展 make an apology to sb.for sth./doing sth.因某事向某人 道歉 offer an apology 主动道歉；表示歉意 make one's apology 道歉
make an apology to her ①You'd better, in my opinion, ____________________ (向她道歉)
as soon as possible. offered an apology ②They both made mistake.One ________________ ( 主动道 made his apology 歉) soon while the other ________________ (道歉) a week later.
Xie Lei found she could adjust to the routine of life in
England because her host family were so helpful.谢蕾发现她能 适应英国的日常生活，因为她的寄宿家庭对她帮助很大。 2．routine 解析 (1)n.常规；日常事务
John's departure upset their daily routine.
约翰的离去打乱了他们的日常生活。 (2)adj.通常的；例行的 A major electrical fault was found during a routine safety inspection.
拓展 a break in the routine 打破常规 routine work 日常工作
运用 完成句子 old routine He just follows the ________________ (老规矩) without any
a break in the routine creativity.We hope he can make __________________ (打破常规)．
Day in and day out I follow almost the same routine.日 复一日地，我遵循几乎同样的常规。 3．day in and day out 日复一日 典例
No matter what the weather is like, she walks ten miles
day in and day out. 不管天气如何，她每天总是步行十英里。 拓展 day after day 日复一日 day by day 一天天地 day and night 夜以继日
from day to day 天天，每天
every other day 每隔一天
运用 完成句子 day by day ①Her health was improving ________________ (一天天地)． day and night ②He was attended by nurses ________________ ( 夜 以 继
日)． day in and day out/day after day ③I couldn't stand doing the same job __________________________
The dogs all of which were small and white with long hair barked loudly.这些长着白色长毛的小狗都大声叫着。 4．bark 解析 (1)vi.(指狗等)吠叫；咆哮 The dogs always bark at the strangers. 这些狗总朝陌生人叫。 (2)n.犬吠声；树皮 Those trees have very beautiful white bark. 那些树长着非常漂亮的白色树皮。
拓展 bark out 吼出 bark at 对??吠叫/吼 bark up the wrong tree 找错了人，错怪了人；弄错
bark at the moon 狂犬吠月；徒劳无功
sb.'s bark is worse than his bite 刀子嘴，豆腐心 运用 完成句子 barked out ① The police officer ________________ ( 大 声 吼 出 ) a warning to the kidnapper. barking dog ②A ______________ (吠叫的狗) seldom bites. are barking at ③The dogs ________________ (正对着??吠叫) the boy in the backyard.
译法上 译成先行词的定语：??的 先行词 普通名词或代词 关系词
作宾语可省；可用 that；可用 who 代 作宾语不可省；不用 that/why； 替 whom 不可用 who 代替 whom
二、引导非限制性定语从句的关系词 1．指人：who, whom (不能用 who 代替), whose 2．指物：which, as 3．指地点：where＝相应介词＋which 4．指时间：when＝相应介词＋which 5．指原因：for which (切不可用 why)
注意：关系代词 that 和关系副词 why 不能引导非限制性定
三、as 和 which 引导的非限制性定语从句 1．as 和 which 都可以指代整个主句，在从句中作主语或宾 语。如： He married her, as/which was natural. 他娶了她，这是很自然的事。 2．as 引导的非限制性定语从句，可放在主句前面或主句后
which 引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。如： John, as you know, is a famous wrier. 你知道，约翰是一个著名的作家。
3．as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时，从句中的 谓语动词必须是系动词；若从句谓语动词为行为动词，则从句
The abacus is invited by Chinese, which/as is well-known to all.众所周知算盘是中国人发明的。 He left this morning, which surprised me. 他今早离开了，这让我吃惊。 注意：当主句和从句存在逻辑上的因果关系时，常用 which。 如： Tom was always late for school, which made his teacher angry. 汤姆总是上学迟到，这一点令他的老师很生气。
一、用适当的关系词填空 where 1 ．We went to the small town, ________ we lived two years ago. which 2．He came to the street, in ______ he had first met Sue.
3．The earth is a huge water-covered globe, ________ we can as/which
see. which 4．I wronged the honest young man, for ________ I was very sorry afterwards.
who 5 ． Owen, ________ is my best friend, will come to see me tomorrow. whose 6 ．The car, ________ handbrake ( 手闸) wasn't very reliable, began to slide backwards. which 7 ． She measured off three yards, with ________ she could make the dress. whom 8 ． Chaplin, for ________ life had once been very hard, directed a film about life in an American factory.
二、将下列每组句子合并成含有非限制性定语从句的复合 句 1．The weather turned out to be very good.It was more than we
The weather turned out to be very good, which was more than we could expect. 2．Bernard Shaw died in 1950.He wrote a lot of plays. Bernard Shaw, who died in 1950, wrote a lot of plays.
3．The scientist's work is very important.He has been given a
medal recently. The scientist, whose work is very important, has been given a medal recently.
4 ． This poem was written by Tennyson.Almost everybody knows the poems. This poem, which almost everybody knows, was written by Tennyson. 5．He has four children.They all went to the same school. He has four children, all of whom went to the same school. 6．Whenever I met him, I liked his sweet and hopeful smile.It
was fairly often.
Whenever I met him, which was fairly often, I liked his sweet and hopeful smile.
7 ．Chess is quite a difficult game.More and more people are learning to play it. Chess, which more and more people are learning to play, is quite a difficult game.
8 ．Laura has had her car damaged in an accident.She is very
upset about it.
Laura has had her car damaged in an accident, about which she
is very upset.
9 ． My father advises me to study medicine.I have great confidence in his judgment. My father advises me to study medicine, whose judgment I have great confidence in.
10．Oxford University is well known all over the world.Many
famous scholars graduated from the university.
Oxford University, from which many famous scho-lars
graduated, is well known all over the world.