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2016高考英语4.2GrammarEverydayEnglish Functions同步课件 外研版必修5


Module 4
Carnival

第二课时
Grammar & Everyday English & Functions

课前新知预习

难点解析 方法警示探究

课内要点探究

巩固提升

重点短语

r />课后强化作业

课前新知预习

Ⅰ.重点单词 1.时代;年代(n.)________ 2.日历;月历(n.)________ 3.(烹调用的)原料(n.)________ 4.使人放松的(adj.)________→感到放松的 (adj.)________→使放松(vt.)________ 5.美味可口的(adj.)________ 6.(庆祝)游行(n.)________

答案:1.era relaxed;relax

2.calendar 5.tasty

3.ingredient

4.relaxing;

6.parade

Ⅱ.重点短语 1.consist ________ 由??组成;由??构成 2.give ________ 放弃 3.go ________ about 疯狂喜欢?? 4.more ________ less 或多或少;大约 5.________ one's blood 6.wash ________ 冲下 7.walk ________ 散步消食; 愤然离去
答案:1.of 2.up 3.wild 4.or 5.in 6.down 7.off

天生就有;遗传

Ⅲ.语篇感知 用所给词的正确形式填空 1.Some rocks in the sea may ________(see) in the daytime. 2.These machines ________(show) at the exhibition last year. 3.An accident ________(happen) on this road last week. 4.“Do you have any clothes ________ (wash)

today?”asked the maid.

5.George had his secretary ________(arrange meeting.

)a

答案:1.be seen washed 5.arrange

2.were shown

3.happened

4.to be

课内要点探究

重点词汇 1.follow v. 1)跟随;跟从;(表示时间、顺序)接着;随着 ①Follow me, please. 请随我来。 ②In the year that followed I lived with my mother in the countryside. 在随后的几年里,我和我的母亲住在农村。

2)听得懂;领悟 The foreigner spoke too fast. I couldn't follow him. 那个外国人说话太快。我没听懂。 3)接受;采纳 Patients should follow doctor's orders. 病人应该遵照医生的要求。 4)沿着??而行 Follow the street and you will arrive there. 沿着这条街走,你就会到那儿的。

5)遵照;服从 You should follow the instructions on the bottle. 你应该遵照瓶子上的说明书。 6)仿效 We all had to follow the teacher. 我们全都得跟着那位老师做。

即学即用 Everyone ought to have some principles to________. A.follow C.get B.do D.go

答案:A

2.relaxing adj. 令人轻松的;轻松愉悦的 ①I find stamp collecting relaxing and it takes my mind off my work. 我觉得集邮是一种放松,因为它可以使我的注意力从工 作中转移开来。 ②We spent a relaxing evening together. 我们一起度过了一个轻松的夜晚。

知识拓展 1)relax v.(使)放松 A holiday will help you relax after your exams. 考试之后放个假有助于缓解紧张情绪。

2)relaxed adj. 放松的,轻松的,冷静的 I felt relaxed lying in the sun. 躺在阳光下,我觉得很放松。

即学即用 翻译句子 这是一个令人感到轻松的夜晚。 _________________________________________________
答案:This is a relaxing evening.

重点短语

1.consist of 由??组成,由??构成常见用法: ?一般用整体作主语,表示“整体由部分组成”, ? ?没有被动语态和进行时态 ?相当于be made up of, be composed of, comprise ?

①The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 联合王国由大不列颠与北爱尔组成。 ②The picnic consisted of chicken, salad, vegetables, cakes, and drinks. 野餐有鸡肉、沙拉、蔬菜、蛋糕和饮料。

知识拓展 consist in 在于??,存在于?? consist with 与??一致;符合 ①The excellence of the novel consists in its ending. 这本小说的精彩之处在于它的结尾。 ②Theory should consist with practice. 理论应该和实践相一致。

即学即用 The opening province which ________ thirteen counties and three coastal cities will quicken its paces of economic development. A.consists of C.is included B.makes up of D.is contained

答案:A

2.give up 放弃;认输;递上去;交出 ①You mustn't give up studying foreign languages for even a day. 你们甚至一天也不能放弃外语的学习。 ②She gave up her seat to an old man. 她把座位让给了一位老人。

知识拓展 give away 赠送;捐献;分发;泄密 give off 散发出;放射出 give out 分发;分配;发表;精疲力竭;发出 give in 投降,屈服 give sb. a hand 帮忙 give way to 让路于;被??代替

即学即用 —Smoking is bad for your health. —Yes. I know. But I simply can't________. A.give it up C.give it out B.give it in D.give it away

答案:A

3.more or less 该短语常在句中作状语,表示数量时相当于about, not

exactly;表示程度时相当于somewhat, almost。可单独使用, 也可修饰形容词、副词或动词。 ①I've more or less finished the work you gave me. 我差不多完成了你交给我的那项工作。 ②The trip will take five days more or less. 这次旅行大约需要五天时间。

知识拓展 more and more 越来越多 more than 不止;多于 no more than 仅仅;只不过 not more than 不超过;不多于

即学即用 —Have you finished designing the machine? —________ finished but there's still something to improve. A.More or less C.Less than B.Sooner or later D.More than

答案:A

4.would rather为情态动词,常用于以下结构 ? ?do sth. ?not do sth. would rather? ?do sth. than... ? ??=would do sth. rather than...? ①Tom would rather not tell him the truth. 汤姆宁愿不对他讲实情。 ②I would rather play football than basketball. 我愿意踢足球而不愿意打篮球。

注意: 1)than后可跟名词、代词、副词、介词短语或不带to的不 定式。 2)would rather后接从句时,从句中的谓语动词要用虚拟 语气——一般过去时表示现在或将来的动作或状态;过去完 成时表示过去的动作或状态。

①I'd rather you went there tomorrow morning. 我宁愿你明天早上去那儿。 ②I'd rather I went home right now. 我宁愿我马上就回家。

即学即用 He would rather________TV at home than________to the cinema. A.to watch, to go C.watch, go B.watch, to go D.to watch, go

答案:C

5.prefer...to...比起??来还是??好;喜欢??而不喜 欢?? 1)prefer+A+to+B I prefer cats to dogs. 我喜欢猫而不喜欢狗。 2)prefer doing...to doing... I would prefer playing outside to watching TV at home. 我宁愿出去玩也不愿意待在家里看电视。

3)prefer to do...rather than do... I prefer to stay at home rather than go out to see a film. 我宁愿待在家里也不愿意出去看电影。

即学即用 I prefer________TV rather than________to see a film in the cinema. A.to watch, go C.watching, going B.to watch, going D.watching, go

答案:A

难点解析

1.Use the tapes to practise pronunciation as well as listening. 使用磁带来练习发音和听力。 1)as well as意为“也;还”;as well复合副词,意为 “也”,as well只能用于肯定结构中。 He is a doctor, and a professor as well. 他是一名医生,也是一位教授。 2)as well as是关联词,常连接对称的单词和短语,还可 连接并列分句。

(1)当as

well

as连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词常和as

well as前的主语保持一致。 The teacher, as well as his students, has gone to see the film. 老师和他的学生们一样,去看电影了。 (2)可表示“与??一样好”,修饰动词。 Mary dances as well as Betty. 玛丽跳舞与贝蒂一样好。

即学即用 John plays football________, if not better than, David. A.as well C.so well B.as well as D.so well as

答案:B

2.If possible, record yourself as you speak, and compare your version with the original. 如果可能的话,当你说话的时候自己把它录下来,并且 (把你的发音)和原始版本对比。 if possible是状语从句中的省略句式,其完整形式应为if it is possible。 If(it is)possible, please hand in your papers this morning. 如果可能的话,请于今天上午上交你们的论文。

注意:我们还可以用so或not代替上文内容,构成if+ not/so的省略形式。 Get up early tomorrow.If not,you will miss the first bus. 明天早起,如果不这样的话,你就会错过第一班公交 车。

知识拓展 状语从句中的省略情况如下: 1)若状语从句的主语是it,动词是系动词be,则通常省去 主语it及系动词be,留下其余部分。 I will buy a TV set, if(it is)possible. 如果有必要,我将会买一台电视机。

2)如果状语从句的主语与主句的主语一致;同时从句又 含有系动词be,则通常可省去从句的主语和系动词be,留下 其余部分。 She stood at the gate as if(she was)waiting for someone. 她站在门口,好像在等某个人。 3)若状语从句的部分内容与主句的部分内容相同,可将 从句的此部分内容省去。 He has no money, if(he has)any, he will give us. 他没有钱,如果有,他会给我们的。

即学即用 —I hear Johnson was badly injured in the accident. —________, let's go and see him. A.What's more C.Where possible B.If so D.When necessary

答案:B

单元课标语法

图解语法助记

被动语态

被动语态

被动语态

表解语法助记 复习被动语态 1.各种时态的被动语态 被动语态由“be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。其时态 变化都是围绕着be进行的。各种时态和被动语态见下表:

时态名称 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 过去将来时 现在进行时

被动语态形式 am/is/are+过去分词 was/were+过去分词 will/shall+be+过去分词 would+be+过去分词 am ? ? is ?+being+过去分词 are? ?

过去进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时

was ? ? ?+being+过去分词 were? ? have? ? ?+been+过去分词 has ? ? had+been+过去分词

2.用法 使用被动语态的情况 当不知道谁是动作 的执行者时 没有必要或不想指出 谁是动作的执行者时 例句 His bag was stolen yesterday. 他的包昨天被偷了。 China was liberated in 1949. 中国是1949年解放的。

使用被动语态的情况 出于礼貌而避免说出 动作的执行者 当动作的执行 者不是人时

例句 Enough has been said about this question. 关于这个问题大家说得已经够多了。 We were all shocked by the news that he died suddenly. 我们都被他突然去世的消息震惊了。

3.主动语态和被动语态的转换 主动语态 被动语态 例句 They will discuss the plan at the 主语+谓 语+宾语 主语+be done...(+ by...) meeting. →The plan will be discussed at the meeting (by them). 这个问题将在会议上讨论。

主动语态

被动语态 主语+be

例句 We gave the student some books.→The student was

主语+谓语 done +间接宾语 +直接宾 +直接宾语 语? (+by...)或?

given some books (by us).或 Some books were given to the student(by us).我们给了这

个学生几本书。

主动语态

被动语态 主语+be

例句 We regarded him as the best doctor in town. →He was

主语+谓语 done

+宾语+宾 +主语补足 regarded as the best doctor in 语补足语 语? (+by...) town (by us). 他被认为是城里最好的医生。

主动语态

被动语态 We must

例句 operate this

主语+谓语 主语+情态动

machine

with

care.→This

(包含情态动 词+be done... machine must be operated 词)+宾语 (+by...) with care (by us).这台机器 必须小心操作。

主动语态

被动语态

例句 We haven't decided when we

主语+谓语 +宾语从句

It+be done +that/what/

should

go

camping.→It

hasn't been decided when we 什么时候去野营尚未决定。

when...+从句 should go camping.

4.“get+过去分词”的被动语态 规则说明 常用在口语和非正式的 语体中表示被动语态, 其中get相当于be动词, 起助动词的作用。这种 形式一般用来讨论突然 发生的事,通常只表示 动作,不表示状态。 ①Be careful not to get burnt in the sun. 在太阳下小心不要被晒伤。 ②I got caught in a heavy rain last night. 昨天晚上我遇上了大雨。 例句

5.没有被动语态的动词 情况 系动词与不及 物动词(短语) 例词 如:be, look, feel, sound, appear, die, fail, happen, sit, stand, break out, take place, come true, lost heart等没有被动语态。 如:hold, marry, wish, cost, notice, watch, agree with, suffer from, belong to等也没有被 动语态。

有些及物动词 (短语)

情况 带同源宾语或以反身 代词、相互代词、不 定式为宾语的动词没 有被动语态。

例词 ①He has decided to go and study abroad. 他已决定出国留学。 ②He laughed a hearty laugh. 他由衷地笑了笑。

6.系表结构与被动语态的区别

高考链接 1.(2013· 北京)Shakespeare's play Hamlet ________ into at least ten different films over the past years. A.had been made B.was made C.has been made D.would be made
答案:C 本题考查动词时态语态。句意:莎士比亚的戏 剧《哈姆雷特》在近几年来已经被拍成了至少10部不同的电 影。由时间状语over the past years可知本句要用现在完成 时,故正确答案为C项。

2.(2013· 北京)—So what is the procedure? —All the applicants ________ before a final decision is made by the authority. A.interview C.are interviewed B.are interviewing D.are being interviewed

答案:C

本题考查动词时态语态。句意:——那么程序

是什么样?——所有的应征者都被采访后官方才作出最后的 决定。主语applicants与interview之间为动宾关系,排除A、B 两项;并且此处表示的是具体的程序,要用一般现在时态, 故正确答案为C。

3.(2013· 湖南)If nothing ________, the oceans will turn into fish deserts. A.does C.will do B.had been done D.is done

答案:D 考查动词的时态语态。句意:如果不采取措 施,海洋将变成鱼的沙漠。If条件状语从句表示将来的事用一 般现在时,排除B、C两项;另外,主语nothing与do之间为动 宾关系,所以用被动语态,D项正确。

4.(2012· 辽宁)Mum, I was wondering if you could lend me a few dollars until I ________ on Friday. A.get paid C.have paid
答案:A

B.got paid D.had been paid

本题考查系表结构。句意:妈妈,我在想你能

否借我几美元直到我星期五领薪水。get paid 为系表结构, 而B项时态不对。

即学即用 (1)His sister left home in 1998, and________since. A.had not been heard of B.has not been heard of C.had not heard of D.has not heard of

答案:B 句意:他的妹妹在1998年离开家,自从那时就 没有音讯了。句末since作副词,这时主句用现在完成时。另 外,hear of与she是被动关系。

(2)The way the guests________in the hotel influenced their evaluation of the service. A.treated C.would treat B.were treated D.would be treated

答案:B

句意:这家饭店招待那些客人的方式影响了他

们对饭店服务的评估。本题考查被动语态的用法。客观地陈 述发生在过去的一件事,所以采用一般过去时。

(3)All visitors to this village ________ with kindness. A.treat C.are treating
答案:B

B.are treated D.had been treated

本题考查动词的时态和语态。句意:所有来到

这个村子的游客都受到友好的接待。首先是被动关系要体现 出来,而没有具体的时间状语,表明这是这个村子一直存在 的事实,故一般现在时最合适。

(4) —What do you think of store shopping in the future? —Personally, I think it will exist along with home shopping but ________. A. will never replace B. would never replace C. will never be replaced D. would never be replaced

答案:C

考查时态和语态。句意:——你是怎样看待未

来的商店购物的?——依我个人的看法,我认为它会与居家 购物并存但不会被取代。由句意看是未来不会被取代,故应 用一般将来时态的被动语态。

(5)Experiments of this kind ________ in both the U.S. and Europe well before the Second World War. A. have conducted B. have been conducted C. had conducted D. had been conducted

答案:D

本题考查动词的时态和语态。句意:在二战前

这种试验在美国和欧洲都实施的很好。二战本身是一个过去 的时间,故“在二战前”应该用过去完成时态,排除A、B两 项;“试验”与“实施”之间是被动关系,故用被动语态。

巩固提升

Ⅰ.完成句子 1.The apple ________________(尝起来很好吃)and

________________(销路很好). 2.Cleaning workers in big cities usually ______________ (获得报酬)by the hour. 3.Fewer University. students ________________(录取)Beijing

4.A new building ________________(正在被建)now and is expected to open on October 1. 5.The new film is ________________(值得看). 6.He was made ________________(整天工作). 7.A lot of money ________________(筹集)since the news came out. 8.The toys were so attractive that they _______________ (卖光)in no time.

答案:1.tastes admitted into day long

good;sells

well

2.get

paid

3.are

4.is being built

5.worth seeing 8.were sold out

6.to work all

7.has been collected

Ⅱ.单项填空 1.—What's that noise? —Oh, I forgot to tell you. The new machine________. A.was tested C.is being tested B.will be tested D.has been tested

答案:C 考查时态与语态。现在进行时表示正在发生的 动作或存在的状态。根据所提供的情景What's that noise?可 判断出新机器正在被检测,所以要用现在进行时的被动语 态。

2.He________as a national hero for winning the first gold medal for his country in the Olympics. A.regarded C.has regarded
答案:B

B.was regarded D.had been regarded

本题主要考查动词的时态与语态的用法。句

意:因为在奥运会上为国家赢得了第一块金牌,所以(当时)他 被认为是民族英雄。was regarded表示“当时被认为”,而

had been regarded则表示“先前被认为”。因此选B。

3.—Do you have any problems if you____this job? —Well, I'm thinking about the salary. A.offer C.are offered B.will offer D.will be offered

答案:C 考查时态和语态。if引导的条件状语从句一般 应用现在时表示将来时,故可排除B、D两项;又根据句意 “你被提供一份工作”应选C。

4.I like these English songs and they____many times on the radio. A.taught C.are taught
答案:D

B.have taught D.have been taught

考查时态和语态。由句意可知应用被动语态,

排除A、B;由many times判断应用完成时态,因此D正确。

5.Now a lot of new technology can ________ problems in industry. A.be applied to solve B.be applied to solving C.apply to solve D.apply to solving
答案:B new 本题考查被动语态和短语apply sth. to...。主语 technology和动词apply之间是被动关系,所以用被动语

态,短语apply sth. to中to是介词,其后加名词或动名词作宾 语,所以选B项。

6.—Where can I get your new novel? —I'm sorry, but it ________ and will soon come out. A.has printed C.is printed B.has been printing D.is being printed

答案:D 本题考查现在进行时态的被动语态。句意为: ——我在哪里能买到你的新小说呢?——真不巧,它正在印 刷之中,不久就会问世的。根据it(the new novel)与动词print 之间的关系判断应该用被动,所以排除A项。根据语境的时 态,这本小说应该正在被印刷,故应为现在进行时且用被动 语态,故选D项。

7.—You ________ when you should go in to see the doctor. —OK. A.will be told C.had told B.will tell D.had been told

答案:A 本题考查一般将来时的被动语态的用法。句 意:——你将会被告知什么时候进来看病。——好的。根据 语境需要,“你将被告知??”判断应选A项。

8.To our disappointment, every possible means _______ to prevent the air pollution, but the sky is still not clear. A.has used C.has been used B.are used D.have been used

答案:C 本题考查现在完成时的被动语态。句意:令我 们失望的是预防空气污染的各种方法都用过了,但天空仍然 没有晴朗起来。根据but后面的分句的时态可判断,这些方式 是到现在为止都被使用过了,所以用现在完成时的被动语 态。又因为主语是第三人称单数,故选C。


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