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马骏托福听力课堂讲义


马骏托福听力课堂讲义
第三回 文学篇

安慰鼓励,坚持第一 → ⑴
影响学习,马上放弃 → ⑵
赞美夸奖,毫不谦虚 → ⑶
逢人便夸,从不打击 → ⑷
讲话直接,态度清晰 → ⑸
寻求帮助,乐于建议 → ⑹
品位高雅,音乐位居 → ⑺
生活窘迫,钱是难题 →


积极向上,善良正义 → ⑼
间接回答,不伤友谊 → ⑽
形象思维,理解习语 → ⑾
把握语调,听出语气 → ⑿
注释:
  ⑴ 是土壤部分,一种美国人的文化,在听力中多见。如,比赛一输要放弃了,第二人劝;课程太难坚持不住要quit了,第二人劝;小说人物复杂不想读了,第二人劝;减肥坚持不住,第二人劝等等。
  ⑵ 弘扬bright sides,听力中的美国学生永远是学习,有任何事情与之冲突都要放弃其它而学习;这么多年考试中,偶有一次例外,当然发生在男生身上,一女生邀他玩,他来了一句:"The book can wait"丢人的话来。除此之外,别无例外。比如:在第一人话中出现娱乐项目,而第二人话中出现学习类项目,可想而知下文是什么了。
  ⑶又是一个美国文化,区别与我们的文化对待。Thinking in American way
  ⑷见人有衣无衣都great;有头发无头发都great;体形好不好都great,所以理解后用于生活中,有美国人说:"Your English is good."千万别自喜,因为他们的文化就是这个。
  ⑸first thing first,用于抓态度,绕难点解题。应用于我们的写作中,先给point再develop。
  ⑹ ①学生生活中,困难是常有的,而互相帮助又是听力中传播的温情,别管事实怎样,解题用它。但车和钱很少外借,他可以载你去,但不会借你车。
②听力中的建议一定是考点,把所有的建议句式(干)背过,听觉上,一听见有建议,必抓之解题。而建议他人的四类是:时间、地点、人物、动作,在建议题型中会总结。
  ⑺ ①强调学生的high taste:吃饭去意/法餐馆;用香水;用天然的化装品;听音乐会;拒绝电视、电影。
②提到音乐会一定去看;音乐会票一定难买;音乐会一定人山人海(过道都是人);音乐会的赞美无与伦比(out of this world)。
  ⑻是解听力题一个永久的暗线。没钱等sale;买到sale极高兴;家具用二手;打工来挣钱;物价一涨就抱怨;租房屋子简布置;一定是小破房等等。
  ⑼出题基调,展示留学生生活的美好。
  ⑽一种常考的思维,常见的美国人讲话方式。
  ⑾ ①一种思维方式,值得我们在用词方面学习。比如,我们说贵very very expensive,土人们形象化cost a fortune来表达。
②在理解记忆习语及临场解决习语时运用。
⑿ 听力的至高境界,从一词一词听→一词组一词组听→一句话一句话听→一意群一意群听→一调子一调子听。闭上眼,只有调子在脑中乱飞去解题。以调子、重读、语气小词来把握。详见语气题型。
  
  
第四回 概念篇

(一)喜欢

be a big fun of sth.
be much of sth.
care for sth.
be in a mood for sth.
be raving about
be wild/crazy/mad about
think much/highly of sth.
can't get enough of sth.
couldn't put it down
 
 (二) 厌倦、厌烦
  be bored with
be fed up with
be sick of
  be tired of
have had enough (of) sth.
have had it with sth.
It's more than I can bear.
It's too much for me.
  I can no longer put up with.

(三) 忙
  忙的时段:考试前、学期初、刚工作

  get conflict in one's schedule
  up to one's neck/eyes/ears in work
  in the middle of doing sth.
  be overwhelmed/swamped with sth.
  be all tied up
  be all /completely booked
  can not fit it in
  have/get one's hands full
  have another appointment/commitment
  as busy as a bee
  hectic
  couldn't get around to doing sth.
  couldn't spare/squeeze time to do sth.

  Have you checked your schedule/academic calendar?
  have a heavy/tight schedule/work load/course load
(四) 忘

forgetful
  absent-minded
absent-minded professor
  slip one's memory
slip one's mind
  have a short/poor/bad memory
one's memory like sieve
  go in one ear and out the other
be not good with sth.
  be terrible with sth.
scatter brain

(五) 完成

be done with sth.
  be through with sth.
be finished with sth.
  to complete sth.
to finish doing sth.
  be over with sth.
be over and done with
end up

in the end wrap up
wind up

(六) 累
原因:学习、运动、打工
表达:

  I'm exhausted.
  I'm tired-out/over tired.
  I'm dog tired.
  I'm beat/dead beat.
  I'm burned out.
  run out of steam/energy
  be out of energy/shape
  I'm worn out.
  be tired out
  knock oneself out on sth.
  eyes are starting to blur
  hardly stay awake
  hardly concentrate
  I'm bushed.

(七) 学生学习用功

  around the clock
  on end = in a row
  day and night = night and day
  36/48 hours a day
  day in and day out
  put a lot of hours/time/days into...
  burn the midnight oil
  stay up/be up all night
  can't tear oneself away from...
  couldn't put down...
  glue one's eyes to...
选项特征:work hard for a long time for quite a while
真题:
97年1月15题
A:Is Louis going to join us for a shout break?
B:Yes, if she can tear herself away from her studies.
(选)She seldom stop studying.
95年8月25题
A:Did Linda ever finish that introductory chapter?
B:I'm not sure. She's spent hours on end rewriting it.
(选) She worked on the chapter for a quite while.
99年10月8题
A:Poring over your books.
B:I thought this was home.
(八) 弄不懂,搞不清楚

I'm confused./It's confusing.
Beyond sb./above sb.
beyond one's understanding
over one's head
couldn't make heads or trails of it
  Search me!
I have no clue/idea.
  I'm in the dark.
Your guess is as good as mine.
  get lost
I'm as in the dark as you are.
......is a mystery to me.
can't follow
  ......is more than I can figure out.
Lost track of the ......
  I wonder......
can't make my sense out of it
It doesn't make my sense to me.

(九) 坚持,别放弃
Don't give up! Don't give in!
hold on hold to it
stick to it stick with it
stick it out never drop it
It always seems hard when you've just starting out.
get going keeping going
(十) 安慰
If I were you, I've had done the same thing.
If I were in your shoes/position, I've had done the same thing.
sth. just can't be helped.
It could happen to anyone.
It happens all the time.
step out of sth. snap out of sth.
get over sth. quickly forget about it.
(十一) 心情好坏
"好"的原因:作业完成了;论文有眉目了;考试考好了;买到便宜货了;天气变好了
"好"的表达:glad/pleased/cheerful/cheer up/delighted/overjoyed
be in a good mood be in a high spirit
high-spirited on cloud nine
in the seventh heaven walk on air
"坏"的原因:作业太多;课程太难;工作没找到;考试没考好
"坏"的表达:
in low spirit low-spirited
feel down down cast
down hearted down and blue
down in the dumps/mouth have blue in one's eyes
under the cloud upset
depressed frustrated
worry not oneself
be in a bad/terrible mood out of spirits/sorts
(十二) 代替
fill one's position/vacancy/shoes fill in for sb.
Take the place of sb. take over
substitute =replace

第五回 场景篇
一、衣着场景
思 路 诗:
买衣价格选公道,
穿对场合少烦恼。
加衣换衣随天气,
洗衣程序要记牢。
买衣五话题:
1、price: on sale/big sale/discount/clearance sale/good buy(bargain)/great buy
2、 style: formal/causal/suit,pantsuit/dress
搭 配: go well with/be perfect with/match (suit/fit)
3、color: blue/navy blue/dark blue/light blue/solid blue/purplish
4、 size: small → medium → large
松 紧: tight → loose → baggy
调 换:change for a large one
     get next size up
5、material:(热爱天然)
     wool , cotton , silk,synthetic fabric, nylon , linen
穿对场合:
1、 formal: reception/interview/presentation/wedding/graduation ceremony
2、 causal: party/barbecue/picnic
3、 中 性: jacket
随天气加减:
1、 太 冷:(加衣服)
取 出 take / get out
2、 太 热:(收衣服)
pack (up) put/take away
收哪些 down jacket/overcoat/scarf/mittens/gloves/boots
洗衣程序:
1、 洗 衣:do the washing
2、 衣服脏了: stain / ink stain
3、 洗 衣 粉: laundry detergent
4、 洗 衣 机: washer , washing machine
5、 地 点:launderette
6、 设 备:main cleaning facility
7、 动 作:drop the coin in the slot
8、 意 外: ① over the normal load → 坏了
         坏了 out of order, doesn't work, break down, broken, give out
       ② 缩水 shrink
        掉色 fade / lose color / faint
        皱了 crumple →iron
        染了→ breach
二、宿舍场景
思 路 诗:
地点价钱很重要,
简单布置问题扰。
同屋相处多理解,
宿舍永远小脏吵。
地点价钱:
1、 on / off campus
2、close to the campus ; near the university
否则 too far away / out of the way
需要 commute → not reliable
3、 环境 → quiet
4、 价钱(生活窘迫,钱是难题)
便宜 reasonable 否则 couldn't afford
5、 费用(rent and utilities)
  electric fee/ water fee/ heating fee 上涨 go up
(备注):
① first year students usually live in dorm. After that they can move off.
② There are plenty of apartments freeing up after graduation.
简单布置问题扰:
1、 布置:furnish the apartment,
paint room, have it painted ,
vacuum the rug / carpet ,
polish the furniture,
挂一挂 framed posters
2、 问题:The window is stuck.
The shutters are loose.
The faucet / pipe is leaking.
The lock doesn't open.
There is some thing wrong with the wiring.
停电: black out / power failure
人物:technician / electrician / plumber / maintenance

相 处:
1、 室友首要条件: neat / considerate
2、 相 处 和 睦: get on / along well with / be on good term
3、 相 处 不 好: hold grudge / have hard feeling with sb. / picky / find fault in others
(备注):
噪音,聚会多为影响方式,另外东西乱放:put it all around / over
小、脏、吵:
1、 小: too tiny / cramped / I couldn't turn around / no space
2、 脏: too messy / mess up / dump / chaos
3、 吵: noisy / play music loudly / throw wild party


三、 选课场景
思 路 诗:
先初再高等同意,
热门提前抓时机。
太多太难基础课,
选修必修记仔细。
1、 选: register / sign up for
enroll / enlist in ;take
地点: registration office
人物:registrar → course catalog → course sheet
2、 初级课:intro course / basic course / prerequisite course
中级课:intermediate course
高级课:advanced course / upper level course
其它课:seminar / workshop / field / theater trip
3、 教授同意三形式:permission approval signature
师生对话三顾虑:workload is too much / bear too much / hard / too demanding
whether everything is on the right track.
4、 提 前: in advance / before hard / ahead of time
同时选:simultaneously
退 课: drop / quit / get out of it
5、 选修课:optional course / elective course / selective course / electives / selectives
必修课: required course / compulsory course
(备注):
听力中学生由于课程选的太难,话题会延伸到"排解"
① tutoring service / hiring a tutor
② stress management course




四、 生病场景
思 路 诗:
头痛脑热,发烧感冒,
预约在先,繁忙取消。
体育运动,家具搬动,
有病勿延,按时服药。
小 病: cold, flu, chills, ache
约:
1、 预 约:make / get / set up / have an appointment
2、 推 迟: put off / postpone
3、 取 消: cancel / get / have a cancellation
4、 重 约: reschedule / rearrange
外 伤:
1、 检 查: have it looked at / into / up / checked out
2、 部 位: head, shoulder, back, arm elbow, wrist , waist, leg, knee, ankle, foot, toe
3、 形 式: twist, break, strain, sprain, swelling, hurt, injure
4、 解决方式: see a doctor, take a rest, be on crutches
5、 避 免: don't put weight on your feet; stay off your foot
勿 延:don't put it off, it's pretty foolish not to see a doctor
服药:
1、 服:take: take two of these pills three times a day
2、 药效:
① 优点: Do any good, help, work, useful, make a difference
② 缺点: make me drowsy / headache (cut back)
(备注):
① 基于小病,故动用hospital 情况很少,一般 infirmary, clinic
② 住院 check in , be admitted in
出院 check out ,release from


五、 打工场景
思 路 诗:
工种选择多方向,
报纸熟人广培养。
简历面试要注意,
时间工资工作量。
工 种:
    校 内: TA/RA/LA library: cataloging department
    校 外:①restaurant waiter / waitress / cook / chef / do the dishes
     ②store stock shelf / hand-painter
    家 政: baby-sitter / house-sitter / house-painter
途 径:
1、 查 报纸 找工作 → job-hunting 登 广告 找室友 roommate
    2、朋 友 recommend 关系网 networking
    3、手 法 job / search technique
    4、等待 opening / position / vacancy / job offer / job creation
简历面试:
1、 resume 要 clean 是否有 typos / typing errors / typographic
如有修改 fix errors / revise / check / check out / correct
投 drop off
2、 ① 面试,着装得体
② 填表 fill out the form
③ 合格 be qualified for the job, meet their requirement
时间、工资、工作量:
1、 时 间:①冲突 work schedule conflict with class schedule
       ②合适 the hours are convenient
③早/晚班 morning shift / night shift
2、 工 资:The pay is handsome / decent
3、 工作量: workload
(备注):
   一般学生找的工作为 part-time, job on the side
   偶尔会谈到解雇问题 laid off, let sb. go, get one's marching orders
六、 教授场景
思 路 诗:
太多太难分太低,
课好课坏口不一。
偶有教授要休退,
淡淡离愁见惋惜。
教授特点:
1、 多: prof thinks we don't have any other class
2、 难: demanding / though / hard
3、 低: expecting just a passing grade, higher grade
4、 拖堂: run overtime, run late, let sb. go late
5、 准时: punctual, prompt, you can set your watch by the on start of his class, on the dot, nose
教授评价:
"十":
1、通用: be packed / crowded/ impressed/ well attended/ out of this world
  2、专用: fascinating, provoking, thought provoking, provide food for thought
"一":(tedious/boring)
1、 出现钟表类物品: keep watching the clock / keep looking at watch
2、 出现时间: keep counting the time
3、 coffee: before his lecture, I need two cups of coffee.
4、 注意力相关词: drop / doze off
stay / keep ←→ alert / away
5、 理解相关词: catch, follow, figure out, make any sense of it, make heads or tails of it
习语: be all Greek to sb. ; be at sea ; be in the dark
1、 won't find anyone to fill her shoes
2、 It's a pity / rare breed
3、 lead a few course



七、 天气场景
思 路 诗:
温度湿度降水量,
二谈天气四影响:
                衣着随时换,
                机场偶改点,
                学校受牵连,
                活动没法办。
单纯谈天气:
1、 温 度 temperature 湿度 humidity 降水 precipitation
2、 天气预报: forecast is for /forecast calls for / forecast says
3、 各种天气:
     晴 天 mild, sunny, let up, clear up 阴 天 cloudy, overcast
      雨 rainy, pour, downpour 雪 snowy, heavy snow, sleet
风 breeze, breezy, windy 冷 cold, ice cold, freezing, chilly
      热 scorching, sticky, muggy, stuffy
四影响:
1、 衣着:①冷了 get / take out
②热了 pack up, put away
2、 机场:①航班 flight was delayed / canceled.
②机场 airport was closed / reopen.
3、 学校:→ close
→ session: if there is one (语气)
4、 活动:①天气好 →利用 make the most/best/fullest use / of
②天气差 →影响 outdoor activities (beach/ outdoor concert/slorts/picnic)
八、 论文场景
思 路 诗:
题目太大难拟定,
资料难查路不明,
多找教授勤修改,
小小眉目换心情。
题目难定:
1、 句式 I have trouble / difficulty / a hard time / deciding on a topic
2、 太大 too broad → 缩小 narrow down the topic
资料难查:
1、 查____check、look up
2、 too much material to cover
教授同意:
1、 同意: give the green light
2、 修改:revise、proofread_
眉 目:
1、 有进展 get somewhere; when someone is on to sth.
2、 想出了 hit upon sth; come up with sth.
(备注): 换心情,参见心情好坏概念



九、 交作业
思 路 诗:
               作业马上要交递,
               迫在眉睫等延期。
1、 作 业:assignment, studies, course work, school work
论 文: essay → thesis → dissertation
报 告: lab report / book report
2、上 交: turn / hand in
到 期: be due
3、学生作业拖拉: drag one's feet; get backed up / put off
4、延 期:ask for extension
ask prof.to extend the deadline
理 由:A: sick B: computer is down; wipe out computer files
5、常见句式: put the finishing touches on the paper
There goes my social life







十、照相场景
思 路 诗:
拍照片,多角度,
                焦距、胶卷少错误。
洗照片,装相簿,
就怕曝光相模糊。
拍 照: take a picture of sb. (with ......as background) take a group picture
别动 sit still 笑 smile / cheese
对 焦: in focus / out of focus
胶 卷: 室内 film for indoor shots 室外 film for outdoor pictures
一卷 a roll of film 用光 ran out of film
冲 洗:v develop 放大 enlarge
     句式 drop off the film for developing / at photo studio
相 册: photo album
曝 光:
     不足 under exposed 过度 over exposed
模 糊:n blur adj blurry dark
     句式 the picture didn't come out well


十一、电话场景
思 路 诗:
电话簿,分多种,
盲音占线打不通。
挂不挂,看费用,
带着硬币找公共。
1、 电话簿表达: phone book , telephone book, directory, yellow page
2、 杂 音: static 线路差:the connection is bad 占线: the line is busy; keep getting the busy signal /the line is engaged.
3、 挂与不挂: hang up / hold on / hang on / hold the line
各种电话:local phone/ long distance phone/ collect call
4、 打 通: get through / reach 回 电:return the call
5、 电 话 亭: booth / kiosk 公共电话: pay phone
动 作: drop coin in the slot


十二、送礼物场景
思 路 诗:
送礼不选贵,
包装讲精美,
开包显惊讶,
是否对其味。
1、 场合 birthday party, dinner party 物品 flower , dessert, tie, scarf, sweater
2、 包装 have the gift wrapped; with silver, gold , brown paper, match bow.
3、 挑剔 picky; be particular about; have a high taste; well-dressed .




十三、养花草场景
思 路 诗:
花草长势有异样,
阳光水分和摆放,
窗前屋角挪一挪,
道是光线或阴凉。
1、 花草 plant, flower 问题 brown / do well
2、 光/水 sunlight, water, more away from the window; near the window; in front of the window; move over the window; get plenty of light; water it frequently.
3、 挪动
4、 解决

十四、减肥场景
思 路 诗:
减肥常常考,
节食不可少,
锻炼最重要,
坚持出成效。
1、 胖 big , huge , heavy, overweight, obese / obesity
2、 发福节食 put on some weight, gain some pounds
3、 锻炼 be on a diet; be a dieter; cut down on what you eat
4、 别放弃 work out in the gym





十五、借东西场景
思 路 诗:
借难借,还难还,
                健忘品性是因缘;
                女借男,小面额,
追着屁股特可怜。
1、 借东西句型 could I borrow your ---------
could you lend me your ------
could I use your ------------
Do you have ------, I could use -----------
I don't imagine that you have ----I could use-----
2、 两种难借 钱_____________________________________________
车____________________________________________
3、 给 期 限 as long as I get it back by -------
(备注):常与分享文化, 亲情文化结合。
十六、邀请场景
1、 邀请内容 dinner; academic; discussion;
 课外活动:电影、音乐会、海滩、爬山、网球
2、 邀请句式 care to do sth
would you like to do / come along?
Join me / us
Let's ......
Wanna do ......?
      
3、 回答思路
① 可以去 count me in; how could I turn down an offer like that ......
② 去不了 委婉拒绝 I wish, I could, but
③ 下次 any other time would be great, take a rain check, another time perhaps
十七、笔记场景
思路:记 → 借 → 考 → 认
1、 记 take notes; down; take notes, jot notes, put notes, put it on paper
2、 借 五大借东西句式 lend / borrow
3、 考 exams are based on lectures / notes
4、 认 make out handwriting; illegible

十八、吃饭场景
1、 外出吃 eat out / dine out / go out for dinner / try out that new place
2、 地 点 ① French place ② Italian place
预 约 book a table, book up
3、点 菜 order dishes
侍 者 take the order; bring one's order
4、程 序 appetizer, main course, dessert








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