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chapter 2 Reproduction in


Chapter 2
Reproduction in Plants 植物的繁殖

Contents 主要内容
Self- and Cross-fertilization in Plants 植物的自花和异花受精 Mechanisms Influencing Pollination 影响授粉的机制 Asexual Reproduction 无

性繁殖 Determination of Pollination Systems 授粉体系的确定

1 Self- and Cross-fertilization in Plants 植物的自花和异花受精

A.

B.

C.

Conceptions 概念 Pollination: Transfer of pollen from anther to stigma 授粉:花粉从花药向柱头的转移过程 Fertilization: Union of male and female gametes 受精:雌雄配子的结合 Pollination does not ensure fertilization 授粉不能保证受精

D.

E.

Self-fertilization: Union of gametes produced on the same flower or between flowers on the same plant 自花受精:同一朵花或同一植 株上不同花产生的雌雄配子之 间的结合 Cross-fertilization: Union of gametes produced between flowers of different plants 异花受精:不同植株上的花所 产生的雌雄配子之间的结合

F.

G.

H.

I.

Homozygote: having same alleles on homologous chromosomes 纯合体:特定基因位点上具有相同等位基因的生物体 Heterozygote: having different alleles on homologous chromosomes 杂合体:特定基因位点上具有不同等位基因的生物体 Homogeneous: having uniform genotype in population 同质的:整个群体内所有植株的基因型都相同 Heterogeneous: having different genotypes in population 异质的:群体内包括具有不同基因型的植株



Impact of self- and cross-fertilization on plant characteristics 自花和异花受精对植株特性的影响 Self-fertilized
自花受精

Characteristic 植物特性 Natural population 自然群体 Single plants from natural population 自然群体中的每个植株 Individual plants from natural population 自然群体中的单株

Cross-fertilized
异花受精

Homogeneous Heterogeneous
同质 异质

Homogeneous Heterogeneous Homozygous Heterozygous
同质、纯合 异质、杂合

Homozygous
纯合

Heterozygous
杂合

Characteristic 植物特性 2n genotype 体细胞的基因型

Self-fertilized 自花受精 Homozygous 纯合

Cross-fertilized 异花受精 Heterozygous 杂合 All different 所有都不同 Expected 应该有 Common 普遍存在

Genotype of haploid gametes All the same 单倍体配子的基因型 所有都相同 None Inbreeding depression 自交衰退 无 Self-incompatibility None 自交不亲和 无

2 Mechanisms Influencing Pollination 影响授粉的机制


Morphological Mechanisms 形态学机制 A. Self-fertilization 自花受精 a. Cleistogamy: Fertilization finished before anthesis 闭花受精:受精在开花前完成 b. Stamens completely surround the pistil 花药将花柱完全包围 c. Stigma protrudes beyond the ring of anthers 柱头从花药环中伸出 d. There is a sticky exudates on the stigmatic surface 柱头表面有粘性分泌物

B.

Cross-fertilization异花受精 a. Separation of the male and female organs雌雄器官分离 a) Monoecious: Male and female organs locate at separate locations on the same plant 雌雄同株:雄花和雌花着生于同一植株的不同位置 b) Dioecious: Bearing only one sex flowers on a plant 雌雄异株:一个植株上只着生一种性别的花 b. Unequal maturation of male and female flowers 雌雄花的花期不一致 a) Protandry: Pollen release earlier than stigma maturation 雄蕊先熟:花粉释放早于柱头成熟 b) Protogyny: Stigma maturation earlier than pollen release 雌蕊先熟:柱头成熟早于花粉释放

c.

Feature of the arrangement of stigmas and anthers 花柱和花药的排列特征 a) Valvular arrangement: Stamens and pistil can project from keel petal under the pressure of visiting bee 瓣状排列:在蜜蜂的压力下雄蕊和雌蕊够从龙骨瓣中伸出 b) Pump arrangement: Thickened ends of filament can press pollen release from keel tip in successive visits by insect 叶轮状排列:在昆虫持续压力下,花丝加粗的末端压迫花 粉从龙骨瓣尖端伸出 c) Brush arrangement: Pubescence or hair on the style can sweeps the pollen from the keel tip 刷子状排列:花柱上的软毛或细毛能将花粉从龙骨瓣尖端 扫出

d)

e)

A protective film over the stigmatic surface: can prevented selfpollination but encouraged crosspollination when the film is ruptured by insect 柱头表面的保护膜:可以阻止自花 授粉,而昆虫可以破坏保护膜从而 促进异花授粉 Lodicules: expand and force open the flower, allowing pollen from adjacent plants to enter 浆片,位于子房基部和内稃对面的 两个小腺,张开时迫使花开放,使 邻近植株的花粉能够进入



Physiological Mechanisms 生理学机制
A.

Self-incompatibility: Failure to produce zygotes after self-pollination with normal and viable pollen 自交不亲和:花粉正常且有活力,但自花授粉后不能 产生种子 ? Zygotic inviability 合子无活力 ? Embryo abortion 胚败育 ? Endosperm abnormalities 胚乳不正常

a.

Homomorphic Incompatibility: Controlled by different alleles of S locus 同形不亲和性: 由S位点的不同等位基因控制 a) If the pollen and the pistil contain the same S allele, the combination is incompatible 包含相同S位点等位基因的花粉和柱头表现为不亲和 b) Gametophytic incompatibility: Determined by the genotype of gametophytic pollen itself 配子体不亲和:由配子体花粉本身的基因型决定 c) Sporophytic incompatibility: Determined by the genotype of sporophytic plant that produce the pollen 孢子体不亲和:由产生花粉的孢子体植株的基因型决定

b.

Heteromorphic incompatibility: Controlled by different flower forms 异形不亲和性: 由花的不同形状控制 ? Pin flower: With long style and short stamen 针形花:长花柱、短花药 ? Thrum flower: With short style and long stamen 线形花:短花柱、长花药 ? All crosses between flowers with identical morphologies are sterile, while those of between flowers with different morphologies are fertile 同种形态花表现为不亲和,不同种形态花表现为亲和

Type 类型
Compatible 亲和 Pin (ss) ×thrum (Ss) 针形×线形

Progeny 后代
1 pin (ss): 1 thrum (Ss) 1 针形:1 线形

Thrum (Ss) × pin (ss) 线形×针形
Pin (ss) × pin (ss) 针形×针形 Thrum (Ss) ×thrum (Ss) 线形×线形

1 pin (ss): 1 thrum (Ss) 1 针形:1 线形
No progeny 无后代 No progeny 无后代

Incompatible 不亲和

c.

Dimophic pollen 同种二形花粉 a) Wild grape, dioecious, but both male and female plants can produce pollen 野生葡萄,雌雄异株,但雌株和雄株都会产生花粉 b) Pollen from female plants is incapable of germinating 雌株的花粉没有活力 c) The sculpturing on the nonviable pollen appears more dense, but pollen size is similar 没有活力的花粉密度较大,但花粉大小相似

B. Male Sterility means that the pollen is sterile or non-functional in plants with monoclinous flower 两性花植物中,雄性器官表现退化、畸形或丧生 功能的现象 a).Genetic Male Sterility (GMS) 核不育型
?Controlled by single locus with two alleles (Ms, ms) system. The recessive homozygous ms/ms is male sterile whereas Ms/ms or Ms/Ms genotype male fertile. ?不育性受一对隐性核基因控制。隐性纯合基因型 (ms/ms)为雄性不育,杂合(Ms/ms)或显性(Ms/Ms)基因 型为可育。

b).Cytoplasmic Male Sterility (CMS) 细胞质不育型
Conditioned by an interaction between a recessive nuclear gene and a cytoplasmic factor. The cytoplasmic factor is designated as N or F for normal or fertile and S for the sterile cytoplasm. ? 不育性由隐性核基因和胞质因子交互作用产生。 胞质因子N或F为可育型,S为不育型
?

3 Asexual Reproduction 无性繁殖


Techniques for achieving asexual reproduction 用于无性繁殖的技术 A. Vegetative propagation: Plant tissue other than a seed is used to produce a clone 营养体繁殖:用种子以外的其它植物组织来繁殖 B. Apomixis: Plant embryos developed without fertilization 无融合生殖:不经过授精过程发育成的植物胚 a. Facultative apomicts: the same ovule is capable of either sexual or apomictic reproduction 兼性无融合生殖:可以同时进行有性和无融合生殖 b. Obligate apomicts: reproduction only by apomictic 专性无融合生殖:只能进行无融合生殖



Four mechanisms of apomictic seed development 无融合种子发育的四种机制 A. Adventitious embryony: Embryo developed from the cell of integuments in the presence of the haploid embryo sac 不定胚生殖:在单倍体胚囊存在的条件下,由珠被细 胞发育而来 B. Apospory: Embryo developed from the cell of integuments in the absence of the haploid embryo sac 无孢子生殖:在无单倍体胚囊存在的条件下,由珠被 细胞发育而来

C.

D.

Diplospory: Embryo sac developed from the diploid mother cell without meiosis or reduction division 倍数孢子形成:胚囊由未减数分裂的大孢子母细 胞发育而来 Parthenogenesis: the development of an individual from a gamete without fertilization 单性生殖:新个体由未受精单倍体配子发育而来

4 Determination of Pollination Systems 授粉方式的确定
A.

B.

The amount of variability will determine how much of the existing variability is available for exploitation 变异的大小决定有多少变异可用于进一步开发 It is more important to determine the major type of reproduction or fertilization system rather than the details of how much self- or cross-fertilization occurs 确定物种的主要繁殖或受精方式比确定自花或异花受精 出现的确切比例更为重要

C.

D.

E.

Morphological markers: flower morphology, size, brightness or coloring 形态标记:花的形态、大小、亮丽或颜色 Isolation: isolating or bagging a single plant from fertilized by foreign pollen, and then observing the amount of seed obtained 隔离:将植株隔离,防止外来花粉授粉,然后观察所得 种子的数量 Genetic markers: a plant with known genetic marker could be planted among plants without the same marker 遗传标记:将带有已知遗传标记的植株与不带标记的植 株混合种植

Exercise 思考题
?

? ?

What is the characters of self- and cross-fertilized crops? 自花和异花受精作物的特点是什么? What is the difference between pollination and fertilization? 授粉与受精的区别是什么?


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