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高中英语必修四Unit1 Learning about language


高一人教新课标版必修四

Unit 1 Women of achievement
Learning about language

Discovering useful words and expressions
1 Find the word or phrase from the previous pages of

this unit for each of these meanings.

1. _____ bond close connection that people have with each other. 2. _____ nest home made in a tree usually for a bird.

3. ________ institute organization with a special
purpose, especially for research or

teaching
4. _________ crowd in (of thoughts, questions, etc)

to fill one’s mind.
5. ___________ childhood the period of time when

someone is a child

6. _________ outspoken giving opinions openly and
honestly

7. ________ move off to move away from a place;
to leave welfare happiness and health of people; 8. _______ money paid by the government 9. _______ project task that requires a lot of time and effort.

2 Fill in the chart with the proper verb or noun form. verb noun verb noun
connection

achieve achievement connect

behave behaviour

organize organization

verb
observe specialize

noun
observation specialist

verb

noun

inspire inspiration argue argument

advertise advertisement permit permission

Key for Exercise 3: 1. observed 2. worthwhile

3. argue
4. respect

Grammar
Subject – verb agreement

Finish the following exercises.
The boy ___ is diving. are diving. They ____ are diving. Both Jack and Tim ___
Neither Jack nor Tim ___ is walking. All of them ____ are diving.

The team ____ has some good players. (have) The team ____ are handsome. (be)

The singer and dancer _____ is on the stage.

A knife and fork ____ is used to have meals.

Bob _____ is a worker. Mike and Bob _____ are workers. Bob Both Mike and Bob _______ are workers. Neither Mike nor Bob _______ is a teacher. Mike Neither of them ___________ knows/know (know) how to teach English. knows/know None of them ___________ (know) how to teach English.

Neither dog _____ big. is Neither of them ______ is/are big.

Neither rabbit _____ is handsome.

Neither of the rabbits ______ is/are handsome.

主谓一致是指谓语在人称和数上必须 和主语的人称和数保持一致。这是英语 语法中必须遵循的基本规则。主谓一致 主要有以下几种情况: 主 谓 一 致 一、语法一致原则

二、意义一致原则
三、就近原则

一、语法一致 主语为单数形式, 谓语动词也用单数形式; 主语为复数形式, 谓语动词也用复数形式。 e.g. I often help him and he often helps me. We often help each other. 不可数名词作主语, 谓语动词用单数; 可数名词的复数形式作主语, 谓语动词 用复数。

二、意义一致 主语形式虽为单数, 但意义为复数, 谓语 动词用复数; 主语形式为复数, 而意义 为单数, 谓语动词用单数。如: The crowd were surrounding the government official. 人群包围了这位政府官员。 Maths is hard to learn. 数学难学。

三、就近原则 就近原则即谓语动词的单复数形式 取决于最靠近它的主语。 There is a pen and two pencils on the desk. 桌子上有一支钢笔和两支铅笔。

注意: 1. and连接两个或两个以上单数

名词或代词作主语时, 谓语动词有以下
两种情况:

1) and连接两个或两个以上不同的人或
物作主语时, 谓语动词用复数。如: He and I are both students of this school. Time and tide wait for no man. 岁月不饶人。

2) 如果连接两个或两个以上的并列结构 是指同一个人或物, 或指同一概念时, 谓语动词 用单数, 这时and后面的名词前不加冠词。 如: 表整体概念的并列结构 bread and butter knife and fork iron and steel law and order 配套事物: a watch and chain a needle and thread The knife and fork is on the desk. 刀叉放在桌子上。

2.主语后面带有with, along with, together with,

as well as, besides, like, without, except,
including, but 等引导的短语时, 谓语动词必须 与前面的主语在人称和数上保持一致。 e.g. The teacher, together with his students, is planting trees in the garden. 老师和同学们正在花园里种树。 E-mail, as well as the telephones, ______ playing is an important part in daily communication.

3. 如果主语是不定式, 动词-ing形式或
主语从句时, 谓语动词用单数。 What he is doing seems very important.

他正在做什么看起来很重要。
Serving the people is my great happiness.

为人民服务是我最大的幸福。

4. 用连接的并列主语被each, every 或no 修饰时, 谓语动词用单数。 Every boy and every girl in the class is diligent. 班里的每个男孩女孩都很用功。 5. each of + 复数代词, 谓语动用单数。 复数代词+ each, 谓语动词用单数。 Each of us has something to say. We each have something to say. 我们每个人都有些话要说。

6. 不定代词 all, more, some, any, none等 作主语时, 谓语动词视情况而定。可用 单数, 也可用复数; 但当它指代不可数名词 时看作单数, 谓语动词用单数。 ?All the apples are rotten. ?All the apple is rotten. ?None of us are /is perfect. ?None of the money is left.

7. 复合不定代词作主语时, 谓语动词

用单数。
Someone is calling you. 有人叫你。 Nothing is found in the room. 在屋里找不到什么东西。

8. 名词如trousers, scissors, clothes, goods, glasses 等作主语时, 谓语动词必须用复数;

而形复义单的名词如news, 以-ics结尾的 学科名称如physics, politics, 国名如 the United States; 报纸名如the New Times; 书名如Great Expectations《远大前程》, 以及the United Nations作主语时, 谓语动词 用单数。

如:
?The

scissors are sharp.

?No

news is good news.
Expectations was written by

?Great

Charles Dickens in 1860.

9. 集体名词作主语, 谓语动词可用单数,

也可用复数, 主要由句子的意思决定。 强调整体时用单数, 强调整体中的个体 的用复数。这类名词有people, family, class, population, crowd, team, ground等。 ? His family is going out. 他们全家要外出。 ? His family are all music lovers. 他们全家都是音乐爱好者。

10. 有些名词单复数形式相同, 作主语时,

谓语动词由上下文决定。这类名词有 means, deer, sheep, Chinese, Japanese, fish等。如: ? Not every means is useful. 并非每种方法都有效。 ? Not all means are useful. 并非所有的方法都有效。

11. 表示一类人的 “the +形容词(分词)” 作主语时, 谓语动词用复数。
?

The sick in the accident have been
taken to the hospital.

?

The lost have been found.

12. 表示时间、金钱、距离、度量等名词 作主语时, 不管单复数形式, 其谓语动词 用单数。如: ? Thirty years is not a long time. 30年的时间并不长。 ? Two hours is enough for me to finish the work.两个小时对我来说完成 这项工作足够了。

13. the rest of, half of, majority of, part of, a lot of, lots of, one of, a number of, a plenty of, percent of 以及分数词等作 主语时, 谓语动词的单复数取决于后面 名词的数, 即就近原则。如: A part of the students have arrived. A part of the apple has been eaten by the mouse.

14. 在表存在的there be 句式中, 主语是 两个或多个并列名词(短语), be的形式 与最近的一个名词(短语)保持一致。 There is a pen, two pencils and several books on the desk. =There are two pencils, a pen and several books on the desk. =There are several books, a pen and two pencils on the desk.

15. 由here, there等引导的倒装句中,
若主语不止一个时, 谓语动词与最近的 主语保持一致。如:
? ?

Here comes the bus.
Here is a pen and two books for you.

16. 用连词 or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also等连接并列主语时, 谓语动词应与最近的主语保持一致。如: ? Neither you nor I am wrong. Neither I nor you are wrong. ? Not only the students but also the teacher enjoys listening to the music. Not only the teacher but also the students enjoy listening to the music.

用所给动词的正确形式填空。 1. He as well as his two friends ___ is (be)

going for a picnic this Saturday.
2. According to the report, three hours

of outdoor exercise a week ____ is (be)
good for one’s health.

3. The teacher, with 6 girls and 8 boys of her class, __________ was visiting (visit) a museum when the earthquake struck. 4. 70 percent of the students in our class

_____ are (be) girls.
5. Most of his time was ________ spent (spend) on computer games in the past.

6. The football team ____ is (be) made up of 22 players and the team ____ are (be)

very young.
7. Every man and every woman ___________ was asked (ask) to help when the earthquake broke out. 8. Either he or you ____ are (be) interested in playing football in our class.

9. At present the police __________ are looking (look)

for the lost boy whose trousers ____ are (be)
blue.

10. Physics ___ is (be) difficult to learn and
every means _____________ has been tried (try) to improve it.

Choose the best answer. 1. One or two days ____ A enough to see the city. A. is B. are C. am D. be 2. Neither my wife nor I myself ____ C able to persuade my daughter to change her mind. A. is B. are C. am D. be

3. Not only I but also Jane and Mary ____ B tired of having one examination after another. A. is B. are C. am D. be 4. Not the teacher, but the students ____ B

looking forward to seeing the film.
A. is B. are C. am D. be

5. Nobody but Betty and Mary ____ A late
for class yesterday. A. was B. were C. has been D. have been

6. A woman with some children ____ A soon.
A. is coming C. has come B. are coming D. have come

7. No one except my parents ____ B anything about this. A. know B.knows C. is known D. are known 8. The teacher as well as the students ____ A the book already. A. has read B. have read C. are reading D. is reading 9. All but one ____ B in the accident. A. was killed B. were killed C. will be killed D. are killed

10. When and where to build the new factory

_____ A yet.
A. is not decided B. are not decided

C. has not been decided D. have not decided
11. The number of people invited _____fifty, C

but a number of them ___ absent for
different reasons. A. were; was C. was; were B. was; was D. were; were

12. ____ C of the land in that district ____

covered with trees and grass.
A. Two fifth; is C. Two fifths; is B. Two fifth; are D. Two fifths; are

For more exercises, click here.

高考链接

1. (10湖南) Listening to loud music at rock concerts ___ C caused hearing loss in some teenagers. A. is B. are C. has D. have A 2. (10四川) Such poets as Shakespeare ___ widely read, of whose works, however, some______ difficult to understand. A. are; are B. is; is C. are;is D. is; are

3. (10全国Ⅱ) Barbara is easy to recognize as she’s the only one of the women who B ________evening dress. A.wear B. wears C. has worn D. have worn For more exercises, click here.

Homework
1. Finish exercises on page 5.

2. Finish exercises in workbook
on page 43 using structures 1 and 2.


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