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2008 年秋 (A) ASK LASKAS YOU?VE GOT QUESTIONS. SHE'S GOT ANSWERS My children go to a primary school where they are not Q allowed to play football in the playground for fear that a child might be hurt. Besides, now the school says there must be no homework because the local secondary school can't keep up with the amount of homework given in the primary school. Can the school do this? Puzzled Dad It can't if enough parents do something about it. It is not A just schools. We live in a society which wishes to get rid of risk. However, schools should have a little common sense and courage. Children need risk if they arc to grow up self-sufficient and confident. They need homework, too, if they are to fulfill their academic potential. Complain, loudly. I have a beautiful teenage daughter who spends an hour making up her face in front Q of the mirror every day. I tell her to go easy. She just gets mad or bursts into tears. How can I make her understand she's beautiful the way she is. Plain Mom You can't. Your daughter is at the age when she's trying to look beautiful, trying on new masks. And if her friends all dress up as she docs, you're in for an extra hard time. A Support her and tell her she's beautiful — even if she looks ridiculous for now. Then invite her to join you for a day at a spa (健康美容中心). Let her try various looks until she's comfortable in her own skin. 65. Why are the children not allowed to play football in the playground? A. The school is afraid that children might be injured. B. The school is not sensible and confident. C. The children don't have enough time to do homework. D. The children may fail to fulfill their academic potential. 66. What disturbs Plain Mom is that her daughter______. A. becomes mad B. cries a lot C. spends much rime before the mirror D. is not beautiful enough 67. The solution to Plain Mom's problem is to______. A. make her daughter look less ridiculous B. let her daughter dress up like her friends C. make her daughter go to a spa every week D. let her daughter feel herself what beauty is (B) Zoe Chambers was a successful PR (Public Relations) consultant and life was going well — she had a great job, a beautiful flat and a busy social life in London. Then one evening in June last year, she received a text message telling her she was out of work. The first two weeks were the most difficult to live through." she said. "After everything I'd done for the company, they dismissed me by text! I was so angry and I just didn't feel like looking for another job. I hated everything about the city and my life."

Then, Zoe received an invitation from an old school friend, Kathy, to come and stay. Kathy and her husband, Huw, had just bought a farm in north-west Wales. Zoe jumped at the chance to spend a weekend away from London, and now, ten months later, she is still on the farm. "The moment I arrived at Kathy's farm, I loved it and I knew I wanted to stay." said Zoe. "Everything about my past life suddenly seemed meaningless." Zoe has been working on the farm since October of last year and says she has no regrets. "It's a hard life, physically very tiring." she says. "In London 1 was stressed and often mentally exhausted. But this is a good, healthy tiredness. Here, all 1 need to put me in a good mood is a hot bath and one of Kathy's wonderful dinners." Zoe says she has never felt bored on the farm. Every day brings a new experience. Kathy has been leaching her how to ride a horse and she has learnt to drive a tractor. Since Christmas, she has been helping with the lambing — watching a lamb being born is unbelievable, she says, "It's one of the most moving experiences I've ever had. I could never go back to city life now." 68. When working as a PR consultant in London, Zoe thought she lived a______life. A. satisfying B. tough C. meaningless D. boring 69. The most important reason why Zoe went to visit Kathy's farm is that______. A. Zoe lost her job as a PR consultant B. Kathy persuaded her to do so C. Zoe got tired of the city life D. Zoe loved Wales more than London 70. How docs Zoe feel about the country life according to the passage? A. Tiresome and troublesome. B. Romantic and peaceful C. Mentally exhausting but healthy D. Physically tiring but rewarding. 71. Which of the following is closest to the main idea of the passage? A. A friend in need is a friend indeed. B. Where there is a will, there is a way. C. A misfortune may turn out a blessing. D. Kill two birds with one stone.

(C) A study involving 8,500 teenagers from all social backgrounds found thai most of them are ignorani when it comes to money. The findings, the first in a scries of reports from NatWesl that has started a five-year research project into teenagers and money, arc particularly worrying as this generation of young people is likely to be burdened with greater debts man any before. University tuition fees (学费) are currently capped at ? 3,000 annually, but this will be reviewed next year and the Government is under enormous pressure to raise the ceiling. In the research, the teenagers were presented with die terms of four different loans but 76 per cent failed to identify the cheapest. The young people also predicted that they would be earning on average ? 31.000 by the age of 25, although the average salary for those aged 22 to 29 is just ?17,815. The teenagers expected to be in debt when they finished university or training, although half said that they assumed the debts would be less than ?10.000. Average debts for graduates are ?12,363. Stephen Moir, head of community investment at the Royal Bank of Scotland Group which owns NatWest, said. "The more exposed young people are to financial issues, and the younger they become aware of them, the more likely they arc to become responsible, forward-planning adults who manage their finances confidently and effectively."

Ministers are deeply concerned about the financial pressures on teenagers and young people because of student loans and rising housing costs. They have just introduced new lessons in how to manage debts. Nikki Fairweathcr. aged 15. from St Helens, said that she had benefited from lessons on personal finance, but admitted thai she still had a lot to learn about money. 72. Which of the following can be found from the five-year research project? A. Students understand personal finances differently. B. University tuition fees in England have been rising. C. Teenagers tend to overestimate their future earnings. D. The students' payback ability has become a major issue. 73. The phrase "to raise the ceiling" in paragraph 2 probably means "______". A. to raise the student loans B. to improve the school facilities C. to increase the upper limit of the tuition D. to lift the school building roofs 74. According to Stephen Moir, students_______. A. are too young 10 be exposed 10 financial issues B. should learn 10 manage their finances well C- should maintain a positive attitude when facing loans D. benefit a lot from lessons on personal finance 75. What can we learn from the passage? A. Many British teenagers do not know money matters well B. Teenagers in Britain are heavily burdened with debts. C. Financial planning is a required course at college. D. Young people should become responsible adults.

(D) The world economy has run into a brick wall. Despite countless warnings in recent years about the need to address a potential hunger crisis in poor countries and an energy crisis worldwide, world leaders failed to think ahead. The result is a global food crisis. Wheat, corn and rice prices have more than doubled in the past two years. And oil prices have increased more than three times since the start of 2004. These food-price iricrcases. combined with increasing energy costs, will slow if not stop economic growth in many parts of the world and will even affect political stability. Practical solutions to these problems do exist, but we'll have to start thinking ahead and acting globally. Here are three steps to ease the current food crisis and avoid the potential for a global crisis. The first is to promote the dramatic success of Malawi, a country in southern Africa, which three years ago established a special fund to help its farmers get fertilizer and seeds with high productivity. Malawi?s harvest doubled after just one year. An international fund based on the Malawi model would cost a mere $10 per person annually in the rich world, or S10 billion altogether. Second, the U.S. and Europe should abandon their policies of paying partly for the change of food into biofuels. The U.S. government gives farmers a taxpayer-financed payment of 51 cents per gallon of ethanol (乙醇) changed from corn. There may be a case for biofuels produced on lands that do not produce foods — tree crops, grasses and wood products — but there's no case for the government to pay to put the world's dinner into the gas tank.

Third, we urgently need to weather-proof die world's crops as soon and as effectively as possible. For a poor farmer, sometimes something as simple as a farm pond — which collects rainwater to be used in dry weather — can make the difference between a good harvest and a bad one. The world has already committed to establishing a Climate Adaptation hind to help poor regions climate-proof vital economic activities such as food production and health care but has not yet acted upon the promise. 76. An international fund based on the Malawi model would______. A. cost each of the developed countries $10 billion per year B. aim to double the harvest in southern African countries In a year C. decrease the food prices as well as the energy prices D. give poor farmers access to fertilizer and highly productive seeds 77. With the second step, the author expresses the idea that ______. A. it is not wise to change food crops into gas B. it is misleading to put tree crops into the gas tank C. we should get alternative forms of fuel in any way D. biofuels should be developed on a large scale 78. Which of the following is true according to the passage? A. A rain-collecting pond is a simple safeguard against dry weal B. A Climate Adaptation Fund has been established to help poor C. The world has made a serious promise to build farm ponds. D. It makes a great difference whether we develop wood products or not. 79. In the passage, the author calls on us to______. A. slow down but not to stop economic. B. develop tree crops, grasses'and wood products C. achieve economic growth and political stability D. act now so as to relieve the global food shortage 2009 秋 (A) Even at school there had been an unhealthy competition between George and Richard. “I?ll be the first millionaire in Coleford!” Richard used to boast. “And you?ll be sorry you knew me,” George would reply “because I?ll be the best lawyer in the town!” George never did become a lawyer and Richard never made any money. Instead both men opened bookshops on opposite sides of Coleford High Street. It was hard to make money from books, which made the competition between them worse. Then Richard married a mysterious girl. The couple spent their honeymoon on the coast—but Richard never came back. The police found his wallet on a deserted beach but the body was never found. He must have drowned. Now with only one bookshop in town, business was better for George. But sometimes he sat in his narrow, old kitchen and gazed out of the dirty window, thinking about his formal rival(竞争对手). Perhaps he missed him? George was very interested in old dictionaries. He?d recently found a collector in Australia who was selling a rare first edition. When the parcel arrived, the book was in perfect condition and

George was delighted. But while he was having lunch, George glanced at the photo in the newspaper that the book had been wrapped in. He was astonished—the smiling face was older than he remembered but unmistakable! Trembling, George started reading. “Bookends have bought ten bookstores from their rivals Dylans. The company, owned by multi-millionaire Richard Pike, is now the largest bookseller in Australia.” 65. George and Richard were ______ at school.

68. What happened to George and Richard in the end? A. Both George and Richard became millionaires. B. Both of them realized their original ambitions. C. George established a successful business while Richard was missing. D. Richard became a millionaire while George had no great success. (B)

Welcome to Banff, Canada?s first, most famous and arguably most fascinating national park. If you?ve come to ski or snowboard, we?ll see you on the slopes. Skiing is a locals? favorite too. While you?re here, try other recreational activities available in our mountains. Popular choices include a Banff Gondola ride up Sulphur Mountain, bathe in the natural mineral waters at the Upper Hot Spring, horse-drawn sleigh ride, drive-your-own-team dog sled excursion, and snowmobile tour to the highland (but not in the national park). We also recommend you make time to enjoy simple pleasure. After looking around Banff Ave shops, walk a couple of blocks west or south to the scenic Bow River. Try ice skating on frozen Lake Louise where Ice Magic International Ice Sculpture Competition works are displayed after Jan 25. You can rent skates in Banff or at the sport shop in the Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise hotel. Banff?s backcountry paths access a wilderness world of silence and matchless beauty—cross

country skis and snowshoes provide the means. Banff sport shops rent equipment and clothes, or join an organized tour. Although we?ve been many times, we still find the cliffs and icefalls of our frozen canyons worth visiting. Wildlife watching also creates satisfying memories. We have seen hundreds of the elk and bighorn sheep that attract visitors, yet they still arouse a sense of wonder. And the rare spotting of a cougar, wolf or woodland caribou takes our breath away. See if simple pleasures work for you. Fight in the snow with your kids, walk beside a stream or climb to a high place and admire the view. —Banff Resort Guide Editors 69. According to the passage, Banff?s backcountry is accessible by _____.

(C) “Get your hands off me, I have been stolen,” the laptop, a portable computer, shouted. That is a new solution to laptop computer theft: a program that lets owners give their property a voice when it has been taken. The program allows users to display alerts on the missing computer?s screen and even to set a spoken message. Tracking software for stolen laptops has been on the market for some time, but this is thought to be the first that allows owners to give the thief a piece of their mind. Owners must report their laptop missing by logging on to a website, which sends a message to the model: a red and yellow “lost or stolen” banner pops up on its screen when it is started. Under the latest version(版本) of the software, users can also send a spoken message. The message can be set to reappear every 30 seconds, no matter how many times the thief closes it. “One customer sent a message saying, ?You are being tracked. I am right at your door?,” said Carrie Hafeman, chief executive of the company which produces the program, Retriever. In the latest version, people can add a spoken message. The default through the computer?s speakers is: “Help, this laptop is reported lost or stolen. If you are not my owner, please report me now.” The Retriever software package, which costs $29.95 (£21) but has a free trial period, has the functions of many security software programs. Owners can remotely switch to an alternative password prompt if they fear that the thief has also got hold of the access details. If a thief accesses the internet with the stolen laptop, Retriever will collect information on the internet service provider in use, so that the police can be alerted to its location.

Thousands of laptops are stolen every year from homes and offices, but with the use of laptops increasing, the number stolen while their owners are out and about has been rising sharply. Other security software allows users to erase data remotely or lock down the computer. 72. The expression “to give the thief a piece of their mind” can be understood as “_______”.

74. One function of the program is that it allows the owner to ______ at a distance. A. change some access details for switching on the laptop B. turn on the laptop by using the original password C. operate the laptop by means of an alternative password D. erase the information kept in the stolen laptop 75. Which of the following can best summarize the main idea of the passage? A. With no Retriever, thousands of laptops are stolen every year. B. A new software provides a means to reduce laptop theft. C. Retriever has helped to find thieves and lost computers. D. A new program offers a communication platform with the thief. (D) The latest research suggests a more prosaic, democratic, even puritanical view of the world. The key factor separating geniuses from the merely accomplished is not a divine spark. It?s not I.Q., a generally bad predictor of success, even in realms like chess. Instead, it?s deliberate practice. Top performers spend more hours (many more hours) rigorously practicing their craft. If you wanted to picture how a typical genius might develop, you?d take a girl who possessed a slightly above average verbal ability. It wouldn?t have to be a big talent, just enough so that she might gain some sense of distinction. Then you would want her to meet, say, a novelist, who coincidentally shared some similar biographical traits. Maybe the writer was from the same town, had the same ethnic background, or, shared the same birthday. This contact would give the girl a vision of her future self. It would give her some idea of a fascinating circle she might someday join. It would also help if one of her parents died when she was 12, giving her a strong sense of insecurity and fueling a desperate need for success. Armed with this ambition, she would read novels and life stories of writers without end. This would give her a primary knowledge of her field. She?d be able to see new writing in deeper ways and quickly perceive its inner workings. Then she would practice writing. Her practice would be slow, painstaking and error-focused. By practicing in this way, she delays the automatizing process. Her mind wants to turn conscious, newly learned skills into unconscious, automatically performed skills. By practicing slowly, by breaking skills down into tiny parts and repeating, she forces the brain to internalize a better pattern of performance. Then she would find an adviser who would provide a constant stream of feedback, viewing her performance from the outside, correcting the smallest errors, pushing her to take on tougher challenges. By now she is redoing problems—how do I get characters into a

room—dozens and dozens of times. She is establishing habits of thought she can call upon in order to understand or solve future problems. The primary trait she possesses is not some mysterious genius. It?s the ability to develop a purposeful, laborious and boring practice routine. The latest research takes some of the magic out of great achievement. But it underlines a fact that is often neglected. Public discussion is affected by genetics and what we?re “hard-wired” to do. And it?s true that genes play a role in our capabilities. But the brain is also very plastic. We construct ourselves through behavior. 76. The passage mainly deals with _____.

77. By reading novels and writers? stories, the girl could ______. A. come to understand the inner structure of writing B. join a fascinating circle of writers someday C. share with a novelist her likes and dislikes D. learn from the living examples to establish a sense of security 78. In the girl?s long painstaking training process, _____. A. her adviser forms a primary challenging force to her success B. her writing turns into an automatic pattern of performance C. she acquires the magic of some great achievements D. she comes to realize she is “hard-wired” to write 79. What can be concluded from the passage? A. A fuelling ambition plays a leading role in one?s success. B. A responsible adviser is more important than the knowledge of writing. C. As to the growth of a genius, I.Q. doesn?t matter, but just his/her efforts. D. What really matters is what you do rather than who you are. 2010 春 A All over the world, children in hospital are being treated with a new kind of medicine: laughter. Lucy is 23 and works for Theodora Children’s Trust. She is one of many clown(小丑) doctors who bring a smile to the faces of sick children. “I?m a Theodora clown doctor. I call myself Dr Looloo. I spend two days a week in children?s hospitals, making funny faces, telling jokes, and doing magic tricks. As I walk into the wards I blow bubbles, shake hands with the kids, and make up nonsense songs for those children well enough to sing. I take special balloons to make ?balloon animals? and tell funny stories about them. I?m naturally a very cheerful person. I?ve always been a clown. In fact my father?s a clown a d I started working with him when I was eight year old. I knew it was just the job for me and I became a clown doctor because I think it?s a great way to cheer up sick, frightened children in hospital. Being a clown in hospital is very tiring both physically and emotionally. We have to learn not to show our feelings, otherwise we?d be useless. Clown doctors are sensitive but this is not a side

most people see. To the children we?re happy all the time. I?m still learning to allow myself to feel sad occasionally. There are special kids you get really close to. At the moment I?m working with a very sick little girl from Bosnia who speaks no English, so our only common language is laughter. At weekends I participate in events to raise money for Theodora Children?s Trust. It?s a charity, so we are paid with the money people give. Being a clown doctor makes the worries of everyday life seem small. All in all, feel honoured to do this job. ” 65.Lucy works as a clown doctor because . A.her father is a clown B.she has been a clown since she was eight C.laughter is a great help to sick children D.working in hospital brings her extra money 66.What do clown doctors usually do in hospital? A.Teach kids how to speak English. B.Cheer kids up with funny stories. C.Join in activities to raise money. D.Develop kids? sense of humour. 67.Lucy thinks that being a clown doctor is . A.an honorable and meaningful practice B.an interesting job to make a living C.a good way of getting rid of her worries D.an experience of great fun C A 69-year-old grandmother with no teeth of her own has eventually won a long legal battle to stop a Scottish regional council(政务委员会)adding fluoride(氟化物)chemical to the public water supply. In a case which has already cost the taxpayer £1,000,000, the judge ruled that it was beyond the powers of the local authority to add the chemical to the water in order to reduce tooth decay. At her home last night Mrs Catherine fluoride to public drinking water made it into some kind of dirty soup. “Where would it stop?” she asked. “They might come up with the idea of putting drugs into the water to keep the unemployed quiet.” It was a horrible poison, she said, that could have caused al kinds of diseases, including cancer. The judge, however, concluded that there was no evidence to suggest that the inclusion of fluoride in the water supply would have had a negative effect on pulpier health. Although the chemical might serve as an efficient and convenient means of achieving a beneficial effect on the dental health of consumers generally, he said, and its use was greatly favored by the dental profession, he could also understand why some members of the public, Mrs McColl in particular, might be passionately opposed to the action of the Water Authority in assuming the right to improve public well-being without consulting t77he public in the first case. The Authority?s legal duty to provide “wholesome” water for public consumption which was both safe and pleasant to drink ,did not, he said, extend to their right to safeguard public health by chemical means. 72.Mrs McColll felt so strongly about the fluoride issue that she eventually . A.took the local council to court B.had a physical fight with the judge C.urged the authority to apologize D.spent much money removing the chemical 73.According to what the judge said in the passage, adding fluoride to the water . A.wasn?t proved to be harmful B.was the duty of the local authority C.was strongly poised by dentists D.was surely beneficial to the public

74.Form the passage we learn that people like Mrs McColl are more concerned about . A.the improvement of their personal health B.the problem of unemployment in their community C.the chemicals to be used for the improvement of water quality D.their right to be informed of the authorities? decisions D Stonehenge(巨石阵)may have been a prehistoric health center rather than a site for observing stars or a temple in honor of the dead, scientists said yesterday. New evidence unearthed at the World Heritage Site in more than 40 years suggests that the monument was a place where the diseased and injured went in groups, seeking cures. After a two-week dig, scientists have concluded that Stonehenge was “the ancient healthcare centre of southern England” because of the existence of “bluestones”---the smaller columns of dolerite(辉绿岩)that formed an earlier stone structure. By dating pieces of remains to around 7330BC, Tim Darvill, of Bournemouth University, and Goff Wainwright, of the Society of Amtiquaries have found that hunter-gatherers were at the site on Salisbury Plain 4,000 years earlier than thought. The first stage of Stonehenge, a round earthwork structure, was built around 3000BC. Professor Wainwright added: “I did not expect the degree of complexity we discovered. We?re able to say so much more about when Stonehenge was built and why---all of which changes our previous understanding of the monument.” The research reveals the importance of the henge?s famous bluestones. Hundreds of bluestone chips gathered at the site have led the team to conclude that the bluestones were valued for their curing effects---the key reason that about 80 of them, each weighing up to 4 tons and a half, were dragged more than 150 miles from the Preseli Hills to Wiltshire. After years of research, Professors Darvill and Wainwright have concluded that, for thousands of years, the Preseli mountain range was home to magical health centers and holy wells. Even today there are those who believe in the curing powers of the springs for coughs and heart disease, and people who use crystals and bluestones for self-curing. Radiocarbon tests have also revealed that the construction of the original bluestone circle took place around 2300BC, three centuries later than originally thought. Interestingly, on the same day died the “Amesbury Archer”---a sick traveler from the Swiss or German Alps who had an infected knee---whose remains were discovered about five miles from Stonehenge. The professors believe that he was a devoted religious person who was hoping to benefit from the curing powers of the monument. 76.Stonehenge is recently believed to be a place for people . A.to recover from poor health B.to observe star movements C.to hold religious ceremonies D.to gather huge bluestones 77.What can be inferred about Stonehenge from the passage? A.The springs could cure coughs and heart disease best. B.The new discovery was the same as what had been expected. C.Some huge bluestones were not produced at Stonehenge. D.The original bluestone circle was thought to be constructed around 2000BC.

78.The sick traveler in the passage is supposed to be . A.a devoted religious person from Stonehenge B.one of the earliest discoverers of Stonehenge C.the first explorer to test the magical power of bluestones D.a patient trying to cure his infection at Stonehenge 79.Which of the following might be the best title for the passage? A.Stonehenge: A New Place of Interest B.Stonehenge: Still Making News C.Stonehenge: Heaven for Adventurers D.Stonehenge: Still Curing Patients

2011 春 (A) They like using the Internet. They have lots of pocket money to spend. And they spend a higher proportion of it online than the rest of us. Teenagers are just the sort of people an online seller is interested in, and the things they want to buy-games, CDs and clothing-are easily sold on the Web. But paying online is a tricky business for consumers who are too young to own credit cards. Most have to use a parent?s card. They want a facility that allows them to spend money. That may come sooner than they think: new ways to take pocket money into cyber (网络的) space are coming out rapidly on both sides of the Atlantic. If successful, these products can stimulate online sales. In general, teenagers spend huge amounts: $153bn (billion) in the US last year and £20bn annually in the UK. Most teenagers have access to the Internet at home or at school-88 percent in the US, 69 percent in the UK. According to the Jupiter Research, one in eight of those with Internet access has bought something online-mainly CDs and books. In most cases, parents pay for these purchases with credit cards, an arrangement that is often unsatisfactory for them and their children. Pressing parents to spend online is less productive than pressing on the high street. They are more likely to ask “Why?” if you ask to spend some money online. One way to help teenagers change notes and coins into cybercash is through prepaid cards such as InternetCash in the US and Smart cards in the UK. Similar to those for pay-as-you-go mobile telephones, they are sold in amounts such as £20 or $50 with a concealed 14-digit number that can be used to load the cash into an online account. 65. What does the word “They” in paragraph 1 refer to? A. Sellers. B. Buyers. C. Teenagers. D. Parents. 66. According to the passage, which of the following statements is TRUE? A. More than half of the teenagers in the US and the UK have Internet access. B. Teenagers pay for goods online with their own credit cards. C. Most teenagers in the US and the UK have bought something online. D. Teenagers found it easier to persuade parents to buy online than in a shop. 67. A new way to help teenagers shop online is to use ______. A. a new machine B. special coins and notes C. prepaid cards D. pay-as-you-go mobile phones

68. What is the passage mainly about? A. Online shopping traps. C. New credit cards for parents.

B. Internet users in the US and the UK. D. The arrival of cyber pocket money. (B)

DONALD SLOAN Gates Hall After May 2009: University of Kansas 46 Clayton Drive Lawrence, KS 66045 St. Louis, MO 63130 913-243-1682 314-726-8840 Objective To work with the client (委托人) population in a social service position. Education B.A., University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 2009 Major: Social Services Minor: Applied Psychology Assistant Activities Supervisor, Fairview Nursing Home, Lawrence, KS, November 2006-present. Help organize and implement recreational activities for nursing home residents. Activities include crafts, dances, day trips, sing-alongs, and visiting performers. Hotline Volunteer. Teen Crisis Center, Lawrence, KS, September 2006May 2007. Handled crisis calls from teenagers in the community. Dealt with drug use, unwanted pregnancies, failing grades, and the breakdown of parent-teen relationships. Nurse’s Aide, Danyers General Hospital, St. Louis, MO, Summer 2006. Assisted nurses in patient care. Took histories, updated charts, and helped prepare patients for surgery. University Concert Board. Work with other board members to plan and implement on-campus concerts. Senior Gift Campaign. Help manage the campaign to raise funds for the senior class gift to the university. Residence Hall Programming Board. Planned social events for Eggar Residence Hall. Fluent in French. Water safety instructor. Skilled at working with people. Skiing, softball, classical music, and guitar.



Skills Interests

69. This passage is most probably ______. A. an advertisement for enrolling new employees B. a school report at the end of an academic year C. a self-introduction meant to apply for a job D. a part of a recommendation letter from a university

70. According to the “Experience” section, we can infer that Donald Sloan can be _____. A. a wise leader B. a skillful performer C. a gifted scientist D. a good social worker 71. From the passage we can learn that Donald Sloan ______. A. is good at singing and dancing B. is about to graduate from a university C. has an interest in being a surgeon D. specializes in psychology (C) Twenty-first century humanity has mapped oceans and mountains, visited the moon, and surveyed the planets. But for all the progress, people still don?t know one another very well. That brings about Theodore Zeldin?s “feast of conversation”-events where individuals pair with persons they don?t know for three hours of guided talk designed to get the past “Where are you from?” Mr. Zeldin, an Oxford University professor, heads Oxford Muse, a 10-year-old foundation based on the idea that what people need is not more information, but more inspiration and encouragement. The “feast” in London looks not at politics or events, but at how people have felt about work, relations among the sexes, hopes and fears, enemies and authority, the shape of their lives. The “menu of conversation” includes topics like “How have your priorities changed over the years?” Or, “What have you rebelled against the past?” As participants gathered, Zeldin opened with a speech: that despite instant communications in a globalized age, issues of human heart remain. Many people are lonely, or in routines that discourage knowing the depth of one another. “We are trapped in shallow conversations and the whole point now is to think, which is sometimes painful,” he says. “But thinking interaction is what separates us from other species, except maybe dogs…who do have generations of human interactions.” The main rules of the “feast”: Don?t pair with someone you know or ask questions you would not answer. The only awkward moment came when the multi-racial crowd of young adults to seniors, in sun hats, ties and dresses, looked to see whom with for hours. But 15 minutes later, everyone was seated and talking, continuing full force until organizers interrupted them 180 minutes later. “It?s encouraging to see the world is not just a place of oppression and distance from each other,” Zeldin summed up. “What we did is not ordinary, but it can?t be madder than the world already is.” Some said they felt “liberated” to talk on sensitive topics. Thirty-something Peter, from East London, said that “it might take weeks or months to get to the level of interaction we suddenly opened up.” 72. What can the “conversations” be best described as? A. Deep and one-on-one. B. Sensitive and mad. C. Instant and inspiring. D. Ordinary and encouraging. 73. In a “feast of conversations”, participants ______. A. pair freely with anyone they like B. have a guided talk for a set of period of time

C. ask questions they themselves would not answer D. wear clothes reflecting multi-racial features. 74. In paragraph 6, “they would be ‘intimate’” is closest in meaning to “______”. A. they would have physical contact B. they would have in-depth talk C. they would be close friends D. they would exchange basic information 75. From the passage, we can conclude that what Zeldin does is ______. A. an attempt to promote thinking interaction B. one of the maddest activities ever conducted C. a try to liberate people from old-fashioned ideas D. an effort to give people a chance of talking freely 2010 (A) The elephant was lying heavily on its side, fast asleep. A few dogs started barking at it. The elephant woke up in a terrible anger: it chased the dogs into the village whe re they ran for safety. That didn't stop the elephant. It destroyed a dozen houses and injured several people. The villagers were scared and angry. Then someone suggested calling Parbati, the elephant princess. Parbati Barua's father was a hunter of tigers and an elephant tamer. He taught Parbati to ride an elephant before she could even walk. He also taught her the dangerous art of the elephant round-up -- how to catch wild elephants. Parbati hasn't always lived in the jungle. After a happy childhood hunting with her father, she was sent to boarding school in the city. But Parbati never got used to being there and many years later she went back to her old fife. "Life in the city is too dull. Catching elephants is an adventure and the excitement lasts for days after the chase," she says. But Parbati doesn't catch elephants just for fun. "My work," she says, "is to rescue man from the elephants, and to keep the elephants safe from man." And this is exactly what Parbati has been doing for many years. Increasingly, the Indian elephant is angry: for many years, illegal hunters have attacked it and its home in the jungle has been reduced to small pieces of land. It is now fighting back. Whenever wild elephants enter a tea garden or a village, Parbati is called to guide the animals back to the jungle before they can kill. The work of an elephant tamer also involves love and devotion. A good elephant tamer will spend hours a day singing love songs to a newly captured elephant. "Eventually they grow to love their tamers and never forget them. They are also more loyal than humans," she said, as she climbed up one of her elephants and sat on the giant, happy animal. An elephant princess indeed! 65. For Parbati, catching elephants is mainly to . A. get long lasting excitement B. keep both man and elephants safe C. send them back to the jungle D. make the angry elephants tame 66. Before Parbati studied in a boarding school, . A. she spent her time hunting with her father B. she learned how to sing love songs C. she had already been called an elephant princess D. she was taught how to hunt tigers

67. Indian elephants are getting increasingly angry and they revenge because __________. A. they are caught and sent for heavy work B. illegal hunters capture them and kill them C. they are attacked and their land gets limited D. dogs often bark at them and chase them 68. The passage starts with an elephant story in order to explain that in India _________. A. people easily fall victim to elephants' attacks B. the man-elephant relationship is getting worse C. elephant tamers are in short supply D. dogs are as powerful as elephants (B) The following card includes a brief summary and a short assessment of a research paper. It can provide a guide for further reading on the topic. Trevor, C. O., Lansford, B. and Black, J. W., 2004, "Employee turnover ( 人事变更 ) and job performance: monitoring the influences of salary growth and promotion", Journal of Armchair Psychology, vol. 113, no.1, pp. 56-64. In this article Trevor et al. review the influences of pay and job opportunities in respect of job performance, turnover rates and employees' job attitude. The authors use data gained through organizational surveys of blue-chip companies in Vancouver, Canada to try to identify the main cause of employee turnover and whether it is linked to salary growth. Their research focuses on assessing a range of pay structures such as pay for performance and organizational reward plans. The article is useful as Trevor et al. suggest that there are numerous reasons for employee turnover and a variety of differences in employees' job attitude and performance. The main limitation of the article is that the survey sample was restricted to mid-level management, thus the authors indicate that further, more extensive research needs to be undertaken to develop a more in-depth understanding of employee turnover and job performance. As this article was published in a professional journal, the findings can be considered reliable. It will be useful additional information for the research on pay structures. 69. The research paper published is primarily concerned with A. the way of preventing employee turnover B. methods of improving employee performance C. factors affecting employee turnover and performance D. pay structures based on employee performance 70. As is mentioned in the card, the limitation of the research paper mainly lies in that A. the data analysis is hardly reliable B. the research sample is not wide enough C. the findings are of no practical value D. the research method is out-of-date 71. Who might be most interested in this piece of information? A. Job hunters. B. Employees in blue-chip companies. C. Mid-level managers. D. Researchers on employee turnover.


(C) The 2012 London Olympics had enough problems to worry about. But one more has just been added - a communications blackout caused by solar storms. After a period of calm within the Sun, scientists have detected the signs of a flesh cycle of sunspots that could peak in 2012, just in time for the arrival of the Olympic torch in London. Now scientists believe that this peak could result in vast solar explosions that could throw billions of tons of charged matter towards the Earth, causing strong solar storms that could jam the telecommunications satellites and interact links sending five Olympic broadcast from London. "The Sun's activity has a strong influence on the Earth. The Olympics could be in the middle of the next solar maximum which could affect the functions of communications satellites," said Professor Richard Harrison, head of space physics at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire. At the peak of the cycle, violent outbursts called coronal mass ejections (日冕物质抛射) occur in the Sun's atmosphere, throwing out great quantities of electrically-charged matter. " A coronal mass ejection can carry a billion tons of solar material into space at over a million kilometres per hour. Such events can expose astronauts to a deadly amount, can disable satellites, cause power failures on Earth and disturb communications," Professor Harrison added. The risk is greatest during a solar maximum when there is the greatest number of sunspots. Next week in America, NASA is scheduled to launch a satellite for monitoring solar activity called the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), which will take images of the Sun that are 10 times clearer than the most advanced televisions available. The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory helped to make the high-tech cameras that will capture images of the solar flares (太阳耀斑) and explosions as they occur. Professor Richard Hold away, the lab's director, said that the SDO should be able to provide early warning of a so lar flare or explosion big enough to affect satellite communications on Earth "If we have advance warning, we'll be able to reduce the damage. What you don't want is things switching off for a week with no idea of what's caused the problem," he said. 72. The phrase "communications blackout" in paragraph 1 most probably refers to during the 2012 Olympics. A. the extinguishing of the Olympic torch B. the collapse of broadcasting systems C. the transportation breakdown in London D. the destruction of weather satellites 73. What can be inferred about the solar activity described in the passage? A. The most fatal matter from the corona falls onto Earth. B. The solar storm peak occurs in the middle of each cycle. C. It takes several seconds for the charged matter to reach Earth. D. The number of sunspots declines after coronal mass ejections. 74. According to the passage, NASA will launch a satellite to _ _ A. take images of the solar system B. provide early warning of thunderstorms C. keep track of solar activities D. improve the communications on Earth

75. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage? A. Solar Storms: An Invisible Killer B. Solar Storms: Earth Environment in Danger C. Solar Storms: Threatening the Human Race D. Solar Storms: Human Activities to Be Troubled

2011 秋 A The teacher who did the most to encourage me was, as it happened, my aunt. She was Myrtle C. Manigault, the wife of my mother?s brother Bill. She taught in second grade at all-black Summer School in Camden, New Jersey. During my childhood and youth, Aunt Myrtle encouraged me to develop every aspect of my potential, without regard for what was considered practical or possible for black females. I liked to sing; she listened to my voice and pronounced it good. I couldn?t dance; she taught me the basic dancing steps. She took me to the theatre not just children?s theatre but adult comedies and dramas—and her faith that I could appreciate adult plays was not disappointed. My aunt also took down books from her extensive library and shared them with me. I had books at home, but they were all serious classics. Even as a child I had a strong liking for humor, and I?ll never forget the joy of discovering Don Marquis?s Archy & Mehitabel through her. Most important, perhaps, Aunt Myrtle provided my first opportunity to write for publication. A writer herself for one of the black newspapers, she suggested my name to the editor as a “youth columnist”. My column, begun when I was fourteen, was supposed to cover teenage social activities—and it did—but it also gave me the freedom to write on many other subjects as well as the habit of gathering material, the discipline of meeting deadlines, and, after graduation from college six years later, a solid collection of published material that carried my name and was my passport to a series of writing jobs. Today Aunt Myrtle is still an enthusiastic supporter of her “favourite niece”. Like a diamond, she has reflected a bright, multifaceted (多面的) image of possibilities to every pupil w ho has crossed her path. 50. Which of the following did Aunt Myrtle do to the author during her childhood and youth? A. She lent her some serious classics. B. She cultivated her taste for music. C. She discovered her talent for dancing. D. She introduced her to adult plays. 51. What does Archy and Mehitabel in Paragraph 3 probably refer to? A. A book of great fun. B. A writer of high fame. C. A serious masterpiece. D. A heartbreaking play. 52. Aunt Myrtle recommended the author to a newspaper editor mainly to ______. A. develop her capabilities for writing B. give her a chance to collect material C. involve her in teenage social activities D. offer her a series of writing jobs 53. We can conclude from the passage that Aunt Myrtle was a teacher who ______. A. trained pupils to be diligent and well-disciplined B. gave pupils confidence in exploiting their potential C. emphasized what was practical or possible for pupils. D. helped pupils overcome difficulties in learning
[来源:学&科&网 Z&X&X&K]

B Humpback whales

Humpback whales are sometimes called performers of the ocean. This is because they can make impressive movements when they dive. The name “humpback”, which is the common name for this whale, refers to the typical curve shape the whale?s back forms as it dives.

Quick Facts
Size: Living

[来源:Z§ xx§ k.Com]

14m~18m in length 30~50 tons in weight Open ocean and shallow coastline waters From warm tropical (热带 的 ) waters, where they breed, to cold polar waters, where they eat. Shellfish, plants and fish of small size Sometimes in groups, in which several whales form a circle under the water, blowing bubbles that form a “net” around a school of fish. The fish are then forced up to the surface in a concentrated mass. endangered; it is estimated that there are about 5000~7000 humpback



Sometimes the humpback will dive with a fantastic movement, known as a breach. During breaching the whale uses its powerful tail flukes to lift nearly two-thirds of its body out of the water in a giant leap. A Diet: breach might also include a sideways twist with fins stretched out like wings, as the whale reaches the height Hunting: of the breach. A humpback whale breathes air at the surface of the water through two blowholes which are located near the top of the head. It blows a double stream of water that can rise up to 4 meters above the water. The humpback has a small dorsal fin located towards the tail flukes about two-thirds of the way down its back. Other distinguishing features include large Current state: pectoral fins, which may be up to a third of the body length, and unique black and white spots on the underside of the tail flukes. These markings are like fingerprints: no two are the same. Humpback whales live in large groups. They communicate with each other through complex “songs”.

whales worldwide.

54. According to Quick Facts, a humpback whale ______. A. cannot survive in waters near the shore B. doesn?t live in the same waters all the time C. lives mainly on underwater plants D. prefers to work alone when hunting food

55. To make a breach, a humpback whale must ______. A. use its tail flukes to leap out of the water B. twist its body sideways to jump high. C. blow two streams of water D. communicate with a group of humpbacks. 56. From the passage we can learn that a humpback whale ______. A. has its unique markings on it tail flukes B. has black and white fingerprints C. gets its name from the way it hunts D. is a great performer due to its songs C Human remains of ancient settlements will be reburied and lost to science under a law that threatens research into the history of humans in Britain, a group of leading archeologists (考古学 家) says. In a letter addressed to the justice secretary, Ken Clarke, 40 archaeologists write of their “deep and widespread concern” about the issue. It centers on the law introduced by the Ministry of Justice in 2008 which requires all human remains unearthed in England and Wales to be reburied within two years, regardless of their age. The decision means scientists have too little time to study bones and other human remains of national and cultural significance. “Your current requirement that all archaeologically unearthed human remains should be reburied, whether after a standard period of two years or a further special extension, is contrary to basic principles of archaeological and scientific research and of museum practice,” they write. The law applies to any pieces of bone uncovered at around 400 dig sites, including the remains of 60 or so bodies found at Stonehenge in 2008 that date back to 3,000 BC. Archaeologists have been granted a temporary extension to give them more time, but eventuallly the bones will have to be returned to the ground. The arrangements may result in the waste of future discoveries at sites such as Happisburgh in Norfolk, where digging is continuing after the discovery of stone tools made by early humans 950,000 years ago. If human remains were found at Happisburgh, they would be the oldest in northern Europe and the first indication of what this species was. Under the current practice of the law those remains would have to be reburied and effectively destroyed. Before 2008, guidelines allowed for the proper preservation and study of bones of sufficient age and historical interest, while the Burial Act 1857 applied to more recent remains. The Ministry of Justice assured archaeologists two ye ars ago that the law was temporary, but has so far failed to revise it. Mike Parker Pearson, an archaeologist at Sheffield University, said: “Archaeologists have been extremely patient because we were led to believe the ministry was sorting out this problem, but we feel that we cannot wait any longer.” The ministry has no guidelines on where or how remains should be reburied, or on what records should be kept. 57. According to the passage, scientists are unhappy with the law mainly because ______. A. it is only a temporary measure on the human remains B. it is unreasonable and thus destructive to scientific research C. it was introduced by the government without their knowledge D. it is vague about where and how to rebury human remains 58. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage? A. Temporary extension of two years will guarantee scientists enough time. B. Human remains of the oldest species were dug out at Happisburgh.

C. Human remains will have to be reburied despite the extension of time. D. Scientists have been warned that the law can hardly be changed. 59. What can be inferred about the British law governing human remains? A. The Ministry of Justice did not intend it to protect human remains. B. The Burial Act 1857 only applied to remains uncovered before 1857. C. The law on human remains hasn?t changed in recent decades. D. The Ministry of Justice has not done enough about the law. 60. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage? A. New discoveries should be reburied, the government demands. B. Research time should be extended, scientists require. C. Law on human remains needs thorough discussion, authorities say. D. Law could bury ancient secrets for ever, archeologists warn.

2012 春 (A) For six hours we shot through the landscape of the Karoo desert in South Africa. Just rocks and sand and baking sun. Knowing our journey was ending, Daniel and I just wanted to remember all we had seen and done. He used a camera. I used words. I had already finished three notebooks and was into the fourth, a beautiful leather notebook I'd bought in a market in Mozambique. Southern Africa was full of stories and visions. We were almost drunk on sensations. The roaring of the water at Victoria Falls, the impossible silence of the Okavango Delta in Botswana. And then the other things: dogs in the streets, whole families in Soweto living in one room, a kilometre from clean water. As we drove towards the setting sun, a quietness fell over us. The road was empty -- we hadn't seen another car for hours. And as I drove, something caught my eye, something moving next to me. I glanced in the mirror of the car; I glanced sideways to the right, and that was when I saw them. Next to us, by the side of the road, thirty, forty wild horses were racing the car, a cloud of dust rising behind them -- brown, muscular horses almost close enough to touch them, to smell their hot breath. I didn't know how long they had been there next to us. I shouted to Dan: "Look!", but he was in a deep sleep, his camera lying useless by his feet. They raced the car for a few seconds, then disappeared far behind us, a memory of heroic forms in the red landscape. When Daniel woke up an hour later I told him what had happened. "Wild horses?" he said. "Why didn't you wake me up?" "I tried. But they were gone after a few seconds." "Are you sure you didn't dream it?" "You were the one who was sleeping!" 'Typical, he said. "The best photos are the ones we never take." We checked into a dusty hotel and slept the sleep of the dead. 65. During their journey in Africa, the two travelers . A. made friends with local residents B. complained about the poor living conditions C. enjoyed the sunset in the Karoo desert most D. recorded their experiences in different ways

66. What does the phrase "heroic forms" in Paragraph 4 refer to? A. Racing cars. B. Wild horses. C. Eye-catching locals. D. Running dogs. 67. What did Daniel think when he woke up and was told what had happened? A. He always missed out on the best thing. B. He had already taken beautiful pictures. C. A sound sleep was more important. D. The next trip would be better. 68. What is the passage mainly about? A. How to view wildlife in Africa. B. Running into wildlife in Africa. C. Tourist attractions in southern Africa. D. Possible dangers of travelling in the desert. (B) The Age of Unreason Charles Handy In his book The Age of Unreason Professor Handy describes the dramatic changes that are taking place in our lives today and warns that we must adapt to these changes if we want to survive in the future. Handy believes that in the future less than 50% of the workforce will be employed full-time by an organization. These full-time employees will be the qualified professionals, technicians, and managers who are essential to an organization. Their working lives will be a lot more demanding than today, but in return they will be well-paid and they will retire earlier. The rest of the workforce will be self-employed or will work part-time, providing organizations with the products and services they require on a contract basis. Handy forecasts a big increase in the number of working mothers in future and believes there will be a large number of unemployed. Handy gives us plenty of figures to worry about. He estimates that by the year 2040, one person in five will retire, and one in ten will be over seventy-five years old. There will be one retiree to every three people of working age, and even more than that in countries such as Germany and Switzerland, where the proportion will be as much as one to two. Retirees will remain healthy and active for longer than they do today and many will live to be a hundred years old, a fact which leads Handy to suggest that the term retirement will no longer be appropriate. He suggests the third age is a more appropriate description, since it will be as important a part of our lives as the first age of learning and the second age of working are for us today. 69. Professor Handy wrote the book most probably to . A. warn us of potential social problems in the future B. predict the leading professions in the coming years C. describe the effect of unemployment on society D. suggest a better term for future retirement 70. According to Professor Handy, the future workforce will . A. adapt to the changes in retirement easily B. be mainly self-employed C. have fewer full-time workers than today D. work on a contract basis 71. From the last paragraph, we learn that about 30 years from now, . A. the number of retirees will double in many countries B. ageing will be a common and serious problem

C. 10% of the population will live to be 100 years old D. the third age will be the most important part of our lives (C) Frederic Mishkin, who's been a professor at Columbia Business School for almost 30 years, is good at solving problems and expressing ideas. Whether he's standing in front of a lecture hall or engaged in a casual conversation, his hands are always waving and pointing. When he was in graduate school, one of his professors was so annoyed by this constant gesturing that he made the young economist sit on his hands whenever he visited the professor's office. It turns out, however, that Mishkin's professor had it exactly wrong. Gesture doesn't prevent but promotes clear thought and speech. Research demonstrates that the movements we make with our hands when we talk form a kind of second language, adding information that's absent from our words. It's learning's secret code: Gesture reveals what we know. It reveals what we don't know. What's more, the agreement (or lack of agreement) between what our voices say and how our hands move offers a clue to our readiness to learn. Many of the studies establishing the importance of gesture to learning have been conducted by Susan Goldin-Meadow, a professor of psychology at the University of Chicago. "We change our minds by moving our hands," writes Goldin-Meadow in a review of this work. Particularly significant are what she calls "mismatches" between oral expression and physical gestures. A student might say that a heavier ball falls faster than a light one, for example, but make a gesture indicating that they fall at the same rate, which is correct. Such differences indicate that we're moving from one level of understanding to another. The thoughts expressed by hand motions are often our newest and most advanced ideas about the problem we're working on; we can't yet absorb these concepts into language, but we can capture them in movement. Goldin-Meadow's more recent work stresses not only that gesture shows our readiness to learn, but that it actually helps to bring learning about. It does so in two ways. First, it elicits (引出) helpful behavior from others around us. Goldin-Meadow has found that adults respond to children's speech-gesture mismatches by adjusting their way of instruction. Parents and teachers apparently receive the signal that children are ready to learn, and they act on it by offering a greater variety of problem-solving techniques. The act of gesturing itself also seems to quicken learning, bringing new knowledge into consciousness and aiding the understanding of new concepts. A 2007 study by Susan Wagner Cook, an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Iowa, reported that third-graders who were asked to gesture while learning algebra( 代数 ) were nearly three times more likely to remember what they'd learned than classmates who did not gesture. 72. According to Paragraph 1, Frederic Mishkin was asked to sit on his hands because _ _. A. he could little express his ideas that way B. he always pointed his finger at his professor C. his professor did not like his gesturing D. his gestures prevented his professor from thinking 73. How is gesturing important in acquiring knowledge? A. It draws tasteful responses from others and increases learning speed. B. It promotes second language learning and quickens thinking. C. It provides significant clues for solving academic problems.

D. It reduces students' reliance on teachers' instruction. 74. What can be inferred from the passage about gesture-speech mismatches? A. They can stimulate our creativity. B. Instructors should make full use of them. C. Teachers can hardly explain new concepts without them. D. They serve as a stepping stone to solving real life problems. 75. What could be the best title of the passage? A. Hand Motions, a Second Language B. Gesturing: Signal of Understanding C. New Uses of Gesturing D. The Secret Code of Learning 2012 秋 (A) Phil White has just returned from an 18,OOO-mile, around-the-world bicycle trip. White had two reasons for making this epic journey. First of all, he wanted to use the trip to raise money for charity, which he did. He raised ~70,000 for the British charity, Oxfam. White's second reason for making the trip was to break the world record and become the fastest person to cycle around the world. He is still waiting to find out if he has broken the record or not. White set off from Trafalgar Square, in London, on 19th June 2004 and was back 299 days later. He spent more than l,300 hours in the saddle(车座) and destroyed four sets of tyres and three bike chains. He had the adventure of his life crossing Europe, the Middle East, India, Asia, Australia, New Zealand and the Americas. Amazingly, he did all of this with absolutely no support team. No jeep carrying food, water and medicine. No doctor. Nothing! Just a bike and a very, very long road. The journey was lonely and desperate at times. He also had to fight his way across deserts, through jungles and over mountains. He cycled through heavy rains and temperatures of up t0 45 degrees, all to help people in need. There were other dangers along the road. In Iran, he was chased by armed robbers and was lucky to escape with his life and the little money he had. The worst thing that happened to him was having to cycle into a headwind on a road that crosses the south of Australia. For l,000 kilometres he battled against the wind that was constantly pushing him. This part of the trip was slow, hard work and depressing, but he made it in the end. Now Mr.White is back and intends to write a book about his adventures. 65. When Phil White returned from his trip, he _ A. broke the world record B. collected money for Oxfam C. destroyed several bikes D. travelled about l,300 hours 66. What does the word "epic" in Paragraph l most probably mean? A. Very slow but exciting. B. Very long and difficult. C. Very smooth but tiring. D. Very lonely and depressing. 67. During his journey around the world, Phil White _ . A. fought heroically against robbers in Iran B. experienced the extremes of heat and cold C. managed to ride against the wind in Australia D. had a team of people who travelled with him 68. Which of the following words can best describe Phil White? A. Imaginative. B. Patriotic. C. Modest. D. Determined.

(B) The value-packed, all-inclusive sight-seeing package that combines the best of Sydney's harbour, city, bay and beach highlights.

A SydneyPass gives you unlimited and flexible travel on the Explorer Buses: the 'red' Sydney Explorer shows you around our exciting city sights wlrile the 'blue' Bondi Explorer visits Sydney Harbour bays and famous beaches. Take to the water on one of three magnificent daily harbour cru/ses(游船). You can also travel free on regular Sydney Buses,Sydney Ferries or CityRail services (limited area), so you can go to every corner of this beautiful city. Imagine browsing at Darling Harbour, sampling the famous seafood at Watsons Bay or enjoying the city lights on an evening ferry cruise. The possibilities and plans are endless with a SydneyPass. Wherever you decide to go, remember that bookings are not required on any of our services so tickets are treated on a first in, first seated basis. SydneyPasses are avai-lable for 3, 5 0r 7 days for use over a 7 calendar day period. With a 3 or 5 day pass you choose on which days out of the 7 you want to use it. All SydneyPasses include a free Airport Express inward trip before starting your 3, 5 0r 7 days, and Lhe return trip is valid (育效的) for 2 months from the first day your ticket was used. SydneyPass Fares

*A child is defined as anyone from the ages of 4 years to under ~6 ye rs. Children under 4 years travel free. **A family is defined as 2 adults and any number of children from 4 to under 16 years of age from the same family. 69. A SydneyPass doesn7t offer unlimited rides on A. the Explorer Buses B. the harbour cruises C. regular Sydney Buses D. CityRail services 70. With a SydneyPass, a traveller can _. A. save fares from and to the airport B. take the Sydney Explorer to beaches C. enjoy the famous seafood for free D. reserve seats easily in a restaurant 71. If 5-day tickets were to be recommended to a mother who travelled with her colleague and her children, aged 3, 6 and 10, what would the lowest cost be? A. $225. B. $300. C. $360. D. $420.

(C) Researchers in the psychology department at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) have discovered a major difference in the way men and women respond to stress. This difference may explain why men are more likely to suffer from stress-related disorders. Until now, psychological research has maintained that both men and women have the same "fight-or-flight" reaction to stress. In other words, individuals eicher react with aggressive behavior, such as verbal or physical conflict ("fight"), or they react by withdrawing from the stressful situation ("flight"). However, the UCLA research team found that men and women have quite different biological and behavioral responses to stress. While men often react to stress in the fight-or-flight response, women often have another kind of reaction which could be called "tend and befriend." That is, they often react to stressful conditions by protecting and nurturing their young ("tend"), and by looking for social contact and support from others - especially other females《'befriend"). Scientists have long known that in the fight-or- flight reaction to stress, an important role is played by certain hormones(澈素) released by the body. The UCLA research team suggests that the female tend-or-befriend response is also based on a hormone. This hormone, called oxytocin,has been studied in the context of cFuldbirt.h, but now it is being studied for its role in the response of both men and women to stress. The principal investigator, Dr. Shelley E. Taylor,explained that "animals and people with high levels of oxytocin are calmer, more relaxed, more social, and less anxious." While men also secrete【分泌) oxytocin, its effects are reduced by male hormones. In terms of everyday behavior, the UCLA study found that women are far. more likely than men to seek social contact when they are feeling stressed. They may phone relatives or friends, or ask directions if they are lost. The study also showed how fathers and mothers responded differently when they came home to their family after a stressful day at work. The typical father wanted to be left alone to enjoy some peace and quiet. For a typical mother, coping with a bad day at work meant focusing her attention on her children and their needs. The differences in responding to stress may explain the fact that women have lower frequency of stress-related disorders such as high blood pressure or aggressive behavior. The tend-and-befriend regulatory(调节的) system may protect women against stress, and this may explain why women on average live longer than men. 72. The UCLA study shows that in response to stress, men are more likely than women to . A. turn to friends for help B. solve a conflict calmly C. find an escape from reality D. seek comfort from children 73. Which of the following is true about oxytocin according to the passage? A. Men have the same level of oxytocin as women do. B. Oxytocin used to be studied in both men and women. C. Both animals and people have high levels of oxytocin. D. Oxytocin has more of an effect on women than on men.

74. What can be learned from the passage? A. Male hormones help build up the body's resistance to stress. B. In a family a mother cares more about children than a father does. C. Biological differences lead to different behavioral responses to stress. D. The UCLA study was designed to confirm previous research findings. 75. Which of the following might be the best ti.tle of the passage? A. How men and women get over stress B. How men and women suffer from stress C. How researchers overcome stress problems D. How researchers handle stress-related disorders

2013 Section B A For some people, music is no fun at all. About four percent of the population is what scientists call “amusic.” People who are amusic are born without the ability to recognize or reproduce musical notes (音调). Amusic people often cannot tell the difference between two songs. Amusics can only hear the difference between two notes if they are very far apart on the musical scale. As a result, songs sound like noise to an amusic. Many amusics compare the sound of music to pieces of metal hitting each other. Life can be hard for amusics. Their inability to enjoy music set them apart from others. It can be difficult for other people to identify with their condition. In fact, most people cannot begin to grasp what it feels like to be amusic. Just going to a restaurant or a shopping mall can be uncomfortable or even painful. That is why many amusics intentionally stay away from places where there is music. However, this can result in withdrawal and social isolation. “I used to hate parties,” says Margaret, a seventy-year-old woman who only recently discovered that she was amusic. By studying people like Margaret, scientists are finally learning how to identify this unusual condition. Scientists say that the brains of amusics are different from the brains of people who can appreciate music. The difference is complex, and it doesn?t involve defective hearing. Amusics can understand other nonmusical sounds well. They also have no problems understanding ordinary speech. Scientists compare amusics to people who just can?t see certain colors. Many amusics are happy when their condition is finally diagnosed ( 诊断 ). For years, Margaret felt embarrassed about her problem with music. Now she knows that she is not alone. There is a name for her condition. That makes it easier for her to explain. “When people invite me to a concert, I just say, ?No thanks, I?m amusic,?” says Margaret. “I just wish I had learned to say that when I was seventeen and not seventy.” 65. Which of the following is true of amusics? A. Listening to music is far from enjoyable for them. B. They love places where they are likely to hear music. C. They can easily tell two different songs apart. D. Their situation is well understood by musicians.

66. According to paragraph 3, a person with “defective hearing” is probably one who __________. A. dislikes listening to speeches B. can hear anything nonmusical C. has a hearing problem D. lacks a complex hearing system 67. In the last paragraph, Margaret expressed her wish that __________. A. her problem with music had been diagnosed earlier B. she were seventeen years old rather than seventy C. her problem could be easily explained D. she were able to meet other amusics 68. What is the passage mainly concerned with? A. Amusics? strange behaviours. B. Some people?s inability to enjoy music. C. Musical talent and brain structure.D. Identification and treatment of amusics Home Laundry Automatic Dryer Product Full Two Year Warranty (保修) Limited Five Year Warranty on Cabinet(机箱) Warranty Provides for: FIRST TWO YEARS Amana will repair or replace any faulty part free of charge. THIRD THRU FIFTH YEARS Amana will provide a free replacement part for any cabinet which proves faulty due to rust (生锈)。 Warranty Limitations: ? Warranty begins at date of original purchase. ? Applies only to product used within the United States or in Canada if product is approved by Canadian Standards Association when shipped from factory. ? Products used on a commercial or rental basis not covered by this warranty. ? Service must be performed by an Amana B servicer. ? Adjustments covered during first year only. Warranty Does Not Cover It If: ? Product has damage due to product alteration, connection to an improper electrical supply, shipping and handling, accident, fire, floods, lightning or other conditions beyond the control of Amana. ? Product is improperly installed or applied. Owner’s Responsibilities: ? Provide sales receipt. ?Normal care and maintenance. ? Having the product reasonably accessible for service. ? Pay for service calls related to product installation or usage instructions. ? Pay for extra service costs, over normal service charges, if servicer is requested to perform service outside servicer?s normal business hours. In no event shall Amana be responsible for consequential damages.﹡ *This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may have others which vary from state to state. For example, some states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of consequential damages, so this exclusion may not apply to you.

69. According to Warranty Limitations, a product can be under warranty if __________. A. shipped from a Canadian factory C. repaired by the user himself B. rented for home use D. used in the U.S.A.

70. According to Owner’s Responsibilities, an owner has to pay for __________. A. the loss of the sales receipt C. the product installation B. a servicer?s overtime work D. a mechanic?s transportation

71. Which of the following is true according to the warranty? A. Consequential damages are excluded across America. B. A product damaged in a natural disaster is covered by the warranty. C. A faulty cabinet due to rust can be replaced free in the second year. D. Free repair is available for a product used improperly in the first year. C A team of engineers at Harvard University has been inspired by Nature to create the first robotic fly. The mechanical fly has become a platform for a series of new high-tech integrated systems. Designed to do what a fly does naturally, the tiny machine is the size of a fat housefly. Its mini wings allow it to stay in the air and perform controlled flight tasks. “It?s extremely important for us to think about this as a whole system and not just the sum of a bunch of individual components (元件),” said Robert Wood, the Harvard engineering professor who has been working on the robotic fly project for over a decade. A few years ago, his team got the go-ahead to start piecing together the components. “The added difficulty with a project like this is that actually none of those components are off the shelf and so we have to develop them all on our own,” he said. They engineered a series of systems to start and drive the robotic fly. “The seemingly simple system which just moves the wings has a number of interdependencies on the individual components, each of which individually has to perform well, but then has to be matched well to everything it?s connected to,” said Wood. The flight device was built into a set of power, computation, sensing and control systems. Wood says the success of the project proves that the flying robot with these tiny components can be built and manufactured. While this first robotic flyer is linked to a small, off-board power source, the goal is eventually to equip it with a built-in power source, so that it might someday perform data-gathering work at rescue sites, in farmers? fields or on the battlefield. “Basically it should be able to take off, land and fly around,” he said. Wood says the design offers a new way to study flight mechanics and control at insect-scale. Yet, the power, sensing and computation technologies on board could have much broader applications. “You can start thinking about using them to answer open scientific questions, you know, to study biology in ways that would be difficult with the animals, but using these robots instead,” he said. “So there are a lot of technologies and open interesting scientific questions that are really what drives us on a day to day basis.” 72. The difficulty the team of engineers met with while making the robotic fly was that __________. A. they had no model in their mind C. they had no ready-made components A. consists of a flight device and a control system B. can just fly in limited areas at the present time C. can collect information from many sources B. they did not have sufficient time D. they could not assemble the components

73. It can be inferred from paragraphs 3 and 4 that the robotic fly __________.

D. has been put into wide application 74. Which of the following can be learned from the passage? A. The robotic flyer is designed to learn about insects. B. Animals are not allowed in biological experiments. C. There used to be few ways to study how insects fly. D. Wood?s design can replace animals in some experiments. 75. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage? A. Father of Robotic Fly C. Robotic Fly Imitates Real Life Insect B. Inspiration from Engineering Science D. Harvard Breaks Through in Insect Study

2014 (A) Most people agree that honesty is a good thing. But does Mother Nature agree? Animals can't talk, but can they lie in other ways? Can they lie with their bodies and behavior? Animal experts may not call it lying, but they do agree that many animals, from birds to chimpanzees, behave dishonestly to fool other animals. Why? Dishonesty often helps them survive. Many kinds of birds are very successful at fooling other animals. For example, a bird called the plover sometimes pretends to be hurt in order to protect its young. When a predator(猎食动 物)gets close to its nest, the plover leads the predator away from the nest. How? It pretends to have a broken wing. The predator follows the "hurt" adult, leaving the baby birds safe in the nest. Another kind of bird, the scrub jay, buries its food so it always has something to eat. Scrub jays are also thieves. They watch where others bury their food and steal it. But clever scrub jays seem to know when a thief is watching them. So they go back later, unbury the food, and bury it again somewhere else. Birds called cuckoos have found a way to have babies without doing much work. How? They don't make nests. Instead, they get into other birds' nests secretly. Then they lay their eggs and fly away. When the baby birds come out, their adoptive parents feed them. Chimpanzees, or chimps, can also be sneaky. After a fight, the losing chimp will give its hand to the other. When the winning chimp puts out its hand, too, the chimps are friendly again. But an animal expert once saw a losing chimp take the winner's hand and start fighting again. Chimps are sneaky in other ways, too. When chimps find food that they love, such as bananas, it is natural for them to cry out. Then other chimps come running. But some clever chimps learn to cry very softly when they find food. That way, other chimps don't hear them, and they don't need to share their food. As children, many of us learn the saying "You can't fool Mother Nature." But maybe you can't trust her, either. 66. A plover protects its young from a predator by______. A. getting closer to its young B. driving away the adult predator C. leaving its young in another nest D. pretending to be injured

67. By "Chimpanzees, or chimps, can also be sneaky" (paragraph 5), the author means______. A. chimps are ready to attack others B. chimps are sometimes dishonest C. chimps are jealous of the winners D. chimps can be selfish too 68. Which of the following is true according to the passage? A. Some chimps lower their cry to keep food away from others. B. The losing chimp won the fight by taking the winner's hand. C. Cuckoos fool their adoptive parents by making no nests. D. Some clever scrub jays often steal their food back. 69. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage? A. Do animals lie? B. Does Mother Nature fool animals? C. How do animals learn to lie? D. How does honesty help animals survive? (B)

Let's say you want to hit the gym more regularly this year. How do you make that happen? Consider putting the habit loop to use. Here's how it works: A habit is a 3-step process. First, there's a cue, something that tells your brain to operate automatically. Then there's a routine. And finally, a reward, which helps your brain learn to desire the behavior. It's what you can use to create-or break-habits of your own. Here's how to apply it: Choose a cue, like leaving your running shoes by the door, then pick. a reward-say, a piece of chocolate when you get home from the gym. That way, the cue and the reward become interconnected. Finally, when you see the shoes, your brain will start longing for the reward, which will make it easier to work

out day after day. The best part? In a couple of weeks, you won't need the chocolate at all. Your brain will come to see the workout itself as the reward. Which is the whole point, right? 70. Which of the following best fits in the box with a “?” in THE HABIT LOOP? A. Pick a new cue. B. Form a new habit. C. Choose a new reward. D. Design a new resolution. 71. According to THE HABIT LOOP, you can stick to your plan most effectively by______. A. changing the routine B. trying it for a week C. adjusting your goal D. writing it down 72. What's the purpose of putting the habit loop to use? A. To test out different kinds of cues. B. To do something as a habit even without rewards. C. To work out the best New Year's resolution. D. To motivate yourself with satisfactory rewards. 73. “This year when I see the Harry Potter poster, I will read 30 pages of an English novel or an English newspaper in order to watch TV for half an hour." What is the cue in this resolution? A. The Harry Potter poster. B. Reading 30 pages of an English novel. C. An English newspaper. D. Watching TV for half an hour. (C) If you could be anybody in the world, who would it be? Your neighbour or a super star? A few people have experienced what it might be like to step into the skin of another person, thanks to an unusual virtual reality (虚拟现实) device. Rikke Wahl, an actress, model and artist, was one of the participants in a body swapping experiment at the Be Another lab, a project developed by a group of artists based in Barcelona. She swapped with her partner, an actor, using a machine called The Machine to Be Another and temporarily became a man. "As I looked down, I saw my whole body as a man, dressed in my partner's pants," she said. "That's the picture I remember best." The set-up is relatively simple. Both users wear a virtual reality headset with a camera on the top. The video from each camera is sent to the other person, so what you see is the exact view of your partner. If she moves her arm, you see it. If you move your arm, she sees it. To get used to seeing another person's body without actually having control of it, participants start by raising their arms and legs very slowly, so that the other can follow along. Eventually, this kind of slow synchronised(同步的)movement becomes comfortable, and participants really start to feel as though they are living in another person's body. Using such technology promises to alter people's behaviour afterwards-potentially for the better. Studies have shown that virtual reality can be effective in fighting racism-the bias(偏见)that humans have against those who don't look or sound like them. Researchers at the University of Barcelona gave people a questionnaire called the Implicit Association Test, which measures the strength of people's associations between, for instance, black people and adjectives such as good,

bad, athletic or awkward. Then they asked them to control the body of a dark skinned digital character using virtual reality glasses, before taking the test again. This time, the participants' bias scores were lower. The idea is that once you've "put yourself in another's shoes" you're less likely to think ill of them, because your brain has internalised the feeling of being that person. The creators of The Machine to Be Another hope to achieve a similar result. "At the end of body swapping, people feel like holding each other in their arms," says Arthur Pointeau, a programmer with the project. "It's a really nice way to have this kind of experience. I would really, really recommend it to everyone." 74. The word "swapping" (paragraph 1) is closest in meaning to______. A. building B. exchanging C. controlling 75. We can infer from the experiment at the Be Another lab that______. A. our feelings are related to our bodily experience B. we can learn to take control of other people's bodies C. participants will live more passionately after the experiment D. The Machine to Be Another can help people change their sexes 76. In the Implicit Association Test, before the participants used virtual reality glasses to control a dark skinned digital character, ______. A. they fought strongly against racism B. they scored lower on the test for racism C. they changed their behaviour dramatically D. they were more biased against those unlike them 77. It can be concluded from the passage that______. A. technology helps people realize their dreams B. our biases could be eliminated through experiments C. virtual reality helps promote understanding among people D. our points of view about others need changing constantly

D. transplanting

2015 年 A

66. According to the passage, why did snowmen become a phenomenon in the Middle Ages? A. People thought of snow as holy art supplies. B. People longed to see masterpieces of snow. C. Building snowmen was a way for people to express themselves. D. Building snowmen helped people develop their skill and thought. 67. “The heyday of the snowman” (paragraph 4) means the time when______. A. snowmen were made mainly by artists B. snowmen enjoyed great popularity C. snowmen were politically criticized D. snowmen caused damaging floods 68. In Zurich, the blowing up of the Boogg symbolizes_______. A. the start of the parade B. the coming of a longer summer C. the passing of the winter D. the success of tradesmen 69. What can be concluded about snowmen from the passage? A. They were appreciated in history B. They have lost their value C. They were related to movies D. They vary in shape and size (B)

The Curse of the Were-Rabbit(2005) is the first full length feature film made by directors Nick Park and Steve Box with their amazing plasticine ( 粘 土 ) characters Wallace and Gromit. It won an Oscar in 2006, and if you watch it, you?ll understand why. It?s an absolutely brilliant cartoon comedy. Cheese-loving inventor Wallace and his brainy dog Gromit have started a company to protect the town?s vegetables from hungry rabbits. However, just before the annual Giant Vegetable Competition, an enormous rabbit begins terrorizing the town. It is attacking all the vegetables and destroying everything in its path. The competition organizer, Lady Tottington, hires Wallace and Gromit to catch the monster alive. But they will have to find the were-rabbit before gun-crazy hunter Victor Quartermaine who is desperate to kill it. The screenplay is witty and full of amusing visual jokes. As usual, the voice of Peter Sallis is absolutely perfect for the role of Wallace, and Gromit is so beautifully brought to life, he can express a huge range of emotions without saying a word. And both Helena Bonham-Carter, who plays the part of Lady Tottington, and Ralph Fiennes as Victor are really funny. To sum up, The Curse of the Were-Rabbit is an amazing film which is suitable for both children and adults. If you liked Wallace and Gromit?s previous adventures and you appreciate the British sense of humour, you?ll love this film. Don?t miss it! 70. In the film review, what is paragraph A mainly about? A. The introduction to the leading roles B. The writer?s opinion of acting C. The writer?s comments on the story D. The background information 71. According to the film review, “monster” (paragraph B) refers to ______. A. a gun-crazy hunter B. a brainy dog C. a scary rabbit D. a giant vegetable 72. Which of the following is a reason why the writer recommends the film? A. It?s full of wit and humour. B. Its characters show feelings without words. C. It is an adventure film directed by Peter Sallis. D. It is about the harmony between man and animals. (C) One of the executives gathered at the Aspen Institute for a day-long leadership workshop using the works of Shakespeare was discussing the role of Brutus in the death of Julius Caesar. “Brutus was not an honorable man,” he said. “He was a traitor (叛徒) . And he murdered someone in cold blood.” The agreement was that Brutus had acted with cruelty when other options were available to him. He made a bad decision, they said—at least as it was presented by Shakespeare—to take the lead in murdering Julius Caesar. And though one of the executives

acknowledged that Brutus had the good of the republic in mind, Caesar was nevertheless his superior. “You have to endeavor,” the executives said, “our policy is to obey the chain of command.” During the last few years, business executives and book writers looking for a new way to advise corporate America have been exploiting Shakespeare?s wisdom for profitable ends. None more so than husband and wife team Kenneth and Carol Adelman, well-known advisers to the White House, who started up a training company called “Movers and Shakespeares”. They are amateur Shakespeare scholars and Shakespeare lovers, and they have combined their passion and their high level contacts into a management training business. They conduct between 30 and 40 workshops annually, focusing on half a dozen different plays, mostly for corporations, but also for government agencies. The workshops all take the same form, focusing on a single play as a kind of case study, and using individual scenes as specific lessons. In Julius Caesar , sly provocation(狡诈的挑唆) of Brutus to take up arms against the what was a basis for a discussion of methods of team building and grass roots organism. Although neither of the Adelmans is academically trained in literature, the programmes, contain plenty of Shakespeare tradition and background. Their workshop on Henry V, for example, includes a helpful explanation of Henry?s winning strategy at the Battle of Agincourt. But they do come to the text with a few biases (偏向): their reading of Henry V minimizes his misuse of power. Instead, they emphasize the story of the youth who seizes opportunity and becomes a masterful leader. And at the workshop on Caesar, Mr. Adelmans had little good to say about Brutus, saying “the noblest Roman of them all” couldn?t make his mind up about things. Many of the participants pointed to very specific elements in the play that they felt related Caesar?s pride, which led to his murder, and Brutus?s mistakes in leading the after the murder, they said, raise vital questions for anyone serving as a business when and how do you resist the boss? 73. According to paragraph 1, what did all the executives think of Brutus? A. Cruel. B. Superior. C. Honorable. D. Bade 74. According to the passage, the Adelmans set up “Movers and Shakespeares” to ________. A. help executives to understand Shakespeare?s plays better B. give advice on leadership by analyzing Shakespeare?s plays C. provide case studies of Shakespeare?s plays in literature workshops D. guide government agencies to follow the characters in Shakespeare?s plays. 75. Why do the Adelmans conduct a workshop on Henry V? A. To highlight the importance of catching opportunities. B. To encourage masterful leaders to plan strategies to win. C. To illustrate the harm of prejudices in management. D. To warn executives against power misuse. 76. It can be inferred from the passage that ____. A. the Adelmans? programme proves biased as the roles of characters are maximized. B. executives feel bored with too many specific elements of Shakespeare?s plays. C. the Adelmans will make more profits if they are professional scholars. D. Shakespeare has played an important role in the management field. 77. The best title for the passage is _____. A. Shakespeare?s plays: Executives reconsider corporate culture B. Shakespeare?s plays: An essential key to business success C. Shakespeare?s plays: a lesson for business motivation D. Shakespeare?s plays: Dramatic training brings dramatic results

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