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基本语法知识


基本语法知识
主讲人: 徐剑平

冠词
? 泛指和特指问题 ? A computer is vital ? Computers are of great importance ? The computer is significant ? 真善美和假恶丑并存 ? The true, the good and the beautiful w

ould not exist without the false, the evil and the ugly.

? In summary, 科技英语中,表示泛指用法有: ? 1 不定冠词+ 单数可数名词 ? An ox is a useful animal. ? 2. the +单数可数名词 ? The horse has been replaced by the railroad, the windship and the steamship. ? 3.the +adj ? The rich get rich, and the poor get children ? 4.零冠词+复数名词 ? Doctors are badly needed at the front

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

5.零冠词+不可数名词 Unity is strength Knowledge is power 科技论文,英文科技论文的冠词处理 泛指单数名词前必须加不定冠词。 不可数名词前不加不定冠词,但可加some 在名词与其前面定语构成名词词组时,冠词 应放在最前面: a highly turbulent gas zone, the iron source region ? 当名词前有形容词,形容词前还有too, how ,so, 或as时,该名词前必须有不定冠词, 但应放在形容词之后 ? It is too hard and too brittle a steel

? 特指的名词(单数可数名词,复数可数名 词,不可数名词)需加定冠词 ? 泛指复数名词和不可数名词前不同冠词 ? 以基数词编号的名词前不用冠词: Fig. 2 shows the apparatus used for photoelectronchemical measurements/ experiments 35 to 42 in Tables 5 and 6 show the relevant results of research ? 形容词或副词最高级前需加定冠词: The most widely used method of transporting …

每日一练
? Subways are underground systems of high speed trains, which are mostly found in large cities such as New York, London, Paris, Beijing, Sydney, and Tokyo. Subway trains move more quickly and efficiently than buses; they will deliver you to within walking distance of almost any place in the city. They are inexpensive and help solve city traffic problems. The one drawback of subway trains is that they are often crowded and noisy. ? Taxis are more expensive than subways, but they will deliver you to the exact location you want in the shortest time possible. Taxis are convenient if you are in a hurry or if you are taking along a number of suitcases or packages. And as an added attraction , many cab drivers will tell you their adventures as taxi drivers or even the details of their lives. However, taxis are rather hard to find during rush hours.

?

不定式和分词用法
? 现在分词和过去分词
? (1) 在句中的位置 ? 单个的过去分词作定语时,位于它所修饰的名词或代词前 面;过去分词短语作定语时,位于它所修饰的名词或代词 后面。

a broken heart 一颗破碎的心 a risen sun 已升起的太阳

? in the given time
在既定的时间内 ? a concerned look ? 关切的神情 ? the people concerned ? 有关人士 boiling water boiled water They found a damaged car at the gate of the park.

? (2) 所表示的时间 ? 过去分词作定语时,所表示的动作在谓语所表 示的动作之前发生,(或者没有一定的时间性)。 ? The letter posted yesterday will soon reach him. ? (3)语法功能 ? 过去分词或过去分词短语作定语时,其功能相 当于一个定语从句。 ? The problem discussed is vital ? The problem to be discussed is vital ? The problem being discussed is vital

? I know the people building the house there.(主动、进行) ? The house being built over there is a shop. (被动、正在建) ? The house built over there is a shop. (被动、已建好) ? Anyone wanting to pass it must work hard. ? Based on the research, this paper aims at…

? 独立结构和with 结构 ? The last bus having gone, we had to walk home. ? 那么多学生缺课,所以课不得不推迟。 ? So many students being absent, the meeting had to be put off. ? The students are watching the blackboard, their eyes (being) wide open. ? 雨下得很大,引起了那个地区的严重洪水泛滥。 ? It rained heavily, causing severe flooding in that area.

? With the tree growing tall, we get more shade. ? 他坐着,两臂放在两侧。 ? He sat with arms hanging straight down by his sides ? 工作完了之后,我们就直接回家了。 ? The job finished, we went home straight away. ? Absorbed in his work, Jim neglected food and sleep. ? They sat in the room with the curtains drawn. ? 我回到家,又累又饿。 ? I came home, hungry and exhausted.

assignments
? We were delayed by heavy trucks which were being loaded onto the ship ? Mrs. Wilson sat down quickly, because she suddenly felt dizzy. ? Since I had worked hard all day, I was ready for bed by 8 o’clock ? Any driver who does not have a license ought to be sent to jail right away.

? 语序的变换 ? 汉译英时,对原文的句子成分和词语的先后 顺序,必须按照英语的语序习惯重新安排, 而不可照搬。原文中的某一语序在译文中变 换成另一种语序,这就叫做语序的变换。 ? 一、定语位置的变换 ? 在汉译英中,定语位置的变换是一个相当复 杂的问题。要不要变换,如何变换,应根据 英语的语序习惯来决定。

? (一)汉语的定语,无论是单用或是几个 连用,通常都放在所修饰的名词前面。英 语则不然,单词作定语时,一般放在所修 饰的名词之前,短语和从句作定语时则放 在所修饰的名词之后。汉语的定语译成英 语时,有的可能是单词,有的可能是短语, 有的可能是从句。怎样安排?前置还是后 置?这就要依照英语的习惯来处理。

? 1.英国是第一个承认人民中国的西方大国 ? Britain was the first Western power to recognize People’s China ? (二)汉译英时,英语的单词定语并不是无例外 地全部放在所修饰的名词之前。在下面一些特殊 情况下,单词作定语可以甚至必须放在所修饰的 名词之后。 ? 1.单词作定语所修饰的名词是由some, any, every, no等构成的复合代词时,定语可后置。 ? 1)他想找一个可靠的人帮助工作。 ? He wanted to get someone reliable to help in the work.

? ? ? ?

3)咱们到一个安静的地方去。 Let’s go somewhere quiet. (4)医生为救病人,尽到了一切必要的努力。 The doctor did everything necessary to save the patient

? 2 .通常作表语的形容词,用作定语时必须后 置。例如: ? (1)他是当今最伟大的诗人。 ? He is the greatest poet alive. ? 2)到场的来宾中有一些外国记者。 ? The guests present included a few foreign newsmen. ? (3)仅这个委员会就有三名女委员。 ? On this committee alone there are three women.

? 3.在某些固定词组中,单个形容词作定语时, 习惯上放在所修饰的词的后面。例如: ? 联合国)秘书长 ? Secretary General (of the U.N.) ? (世界卫生组织)总干事 ? Director-General (of the WHO) ? 当选(而尚未就职的)总统 ? The president elected ? 大家对比: ? The used material//the material used

? 昨天我碰巧遇见了那位我在一次聚会上认识的教 授 ? Yesterday, I happened to meet the professor whom I got know at a party . ? 有些在语言学习上很有成就的人,在其他领域诸 如物理,数学之类却一窍不通。 ? Some people who are successful language learners often fail in other fields such as physics and mathematics. ? 猿(ape)已经能用声音交流了,这些声音有意义但 不是词。 ? Apes have been able to communicate in sounds which have a specific meaning and yet are no words

? 女服务员把警察领到了发生谋杀案的那个旅馆房 间 ? The waitress lead police to the hotel room where the murder happened. ? 人们会永远记住南方和北方重新团结起来的那一 时刻。 ? People will always remember the time when (on which) the south and the north reunited 。 ? 那是一座我曾经在那儿有过许多梦想的美丽的校 园 ? That is a beautiful campus where(on

壮语成分
? 二、 状语位置的变换 ? 汉译英时,状语位置的变换极为复杂。因 为汉英两种语言的状语位置差别较大;而 且汉英两种语言中,状语的位置都不那么 固定,出于强调的程度、句子的平衡和上 下文的关联等方面的考虑,状语的位置会 发生一些变化。因此,在翻译时首先要熟 悉英汉两种语言状语位置的差异,然后按 英语的习惯来调整安排。

? (一)汉语里,状语通常放在主语之后、谓语之 前,但有时为了强调可放在主语之前。英语的状 语位置则十分复杂,汉译英时,译文中的状语须 按照英语语法和惯用法来安排。 ? (1)她整天待在家里。 ? She stays at home all day long. ? (2) 过去我们五月总是到海滨去度假。 ? We always used to go for a holiday to the seaside in May. ? We used to always go for a holiday to the seaside in May. ? (3)他从口袋里取出一本书,给了他的小女儿 ? He took out a book from his pocket and gave it to his little daughter.

? (4) 我是在北京工作时认识他的。 ? I made him acquaintance when I was working in Beijing. ? (5)他们因为下雨取消了那次郊游。 ? They cancelled the outing because of the rain. ? (二)汉语句子里如果有一系列状语,译成英语 时,它们的顺序要按照英语的排列习惯加以变动: ? 汉语句子中同时含有时间状语和地点状语,时间 状语一般放在地点状语之前。英语则相反,通常 把时间状语放在地点状语之后。

? (1)我们得早点到达那里。 ? We have to be there earlier. ? (2)这部电影我是去年夏天在武汉看的。 ? I saw the film in Wuhan last summer. ? 3)会议将于明天下午 在教室举行。 ? The meeting will be held in the classroom tomorrow afternoon ? 2.除了地点状语和时间状语外,如果还有方式 状语,在汉语里的顺序通常是:时间、地点、方 式。而英语则一般是:方式、地点、时间。 ? (1)她每天早晨 在室外 高声朗读。 ? She reads aloud in the open every morning.

(2)我们上星期天 在他家 饱 餐了一顿 ? We ate to our hearts’ content at her home last Sunday. ? (3)我们明天早上七点钟动身。 ? We shall start at seven tomorrow morning. ? (4)她出生在绍兴附近一个小村子里。 ? She was born in a small village near Shaoxing ? (三)汉译英时,有时为了强调,把译文中的状 语移至主语之前,即放在句首。 ? ( 1)青年团在党的领导下,积极参加各方面的 革命工作,作出了很大成绩。

? (四)在汉语里,一个句子如果有两个状语,通 常连在一起放在句子之中。英语则不然,往往是 把两个状语分别放在句首和句末,或分别放在句 首和主语后,以免句子出现头重脚轻的不平衡现 象。 ? ( 1)中国人民正在中国共产党的领导下,团结 一致地进行着伟大的社会主义建设。 ? Led by the Chinese Communist Party, the Chinese people, united as one, are engaged in the great task of building socialism.

练习题

? 翻译下列各句,注意划线部分在句中的位置: ? 1 他们最近的成就表明它们所取得的巨大进 步。 ? 2. 你最好还是询问那些消息灵通人士。 ? 3. 他谈到双方在所讨论的一切问题上都取得 了一致的意见。 ? 1.Their recent achievements showed the great progress made. ? 2. You had better ask those better informed. ? 3. He said that the two sides had unanimous views on all problems

? 4 这是唯一可能的解决办法。 ? 5 老少工人都出去参加罢工了。 ? 6 这是再好没有的东西。 ? 7 它是当时唯一醒着的人。 ? 4. It is the only solution possible. ? 5. All the workers, young and old, went out to strike. ? 6. It is the best thing imaginable. ? 7. He was the only person awake at the moment


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