表示与事实相反的假设或将来不太可能实现的愿望。使用场合: 1. 用于 if 引导的条件句中 : 1) 与过去事实相反: would / should / could / might + have done if…had done I would have passed th
e English exam if you had helped me. 2) 与现在事实相反: would / should / could / might + v if…v-ed (但 be 的过去式通常用 were) What would you do if you were me? 3) 与将来事实相反: would / should / could / might + v if…were to + v 或 should + v We would hold a party if you were to arrive tomorrow. *主句中的 should 通常用于第一人称，从句中的 should 各人称通用。 *在 if 引导的虚拟条件从句中可以把 if 省略，并将 had, should 或 were 提到句首。如： a. I would have passed the English exam if you had helped me. = I would have passed the English exam had you helped me. b. What would you do if you were me? = What would you do were you me? c. We would hold a party if you were to arrive tomorrow. = We would hold a party were you to arrive tomorrow. *如果从句和主句中的时间不一致，则要分别使用相对应的动词形式。这种虚拟条件从句被 称作“错综条件句”。 For example: a. If I hadn’t caught you when you fell from the ladder, you would not be smiling now. b. If you had married me at that time you would be happier now. *英语中还可以用 but for…（要不是…）和 without…来表示虚拟条件: a. But for your immediate help, I would have failed. b. But for air, there would not be life on the earth. c. Without the child, the woman would commit suicide because her husband often beats her black and green. 2．用于名词性从句中---(should) do: 1) 用于主语从句中： （1）It is + (v.) p.p + that sb (should) do sth *v.---advise, ask, command, desire, demand, direct, insist, move（提议）, maintain (坚持认为； 维修), order, persist（坚持）, propose, recommend, request, require, second（附议）, suggest, etc It was required by my English teacher that I should spend at least 3 hours on English. (2) It is + adj + that sb (should) do sth *adj---advisable, critical （关键的） , desirable, essential （必不可少的） , indispensable （必要的） , necessary, vital（关键的）, etc It was necessary that I should spend at least 3 hours on English every day. 2) 用于宾语从句中： V + that sb (should) do sth *v.--- advise, ask, command, desire, demand, direct（要求）, insist, move, maintain, order, persist,
propose, recommend, request, require, second, suggest, etc a. My English teacher required that I should spend at least 3 hours on English. b. My mother insisted that I (should) visit the grandma with her.--That I (should) visit the grandma with her was insisted by my mother.--It was insisted that I (should) visit the grandma with her by my mother. *It is + p.p. + that sb (should) do sth 3) 用于表语从句中： N + is + that sb (should) do sth *n.---advice, command, desire, demand, direction, insistence, order, persistence, proposal, recommendation, request, requirement, suggestion, etc 4) 用于同位语从句中: …n + that sb (should) do sth *n.---advice, command, desire, demand, direction, insistence, order, persistence, proposal, recommendation, request, requirement, suggestion, etc 3. 用于 wish 后的宾语从句中 : 1) 与过去事实相反---wish that sb + had + p.p a. I wish that I had been there. b. He wishes that he had never got married. 2) 与现在事实相反---wish that sb + v-ed ( be---were ) a. I wish that I were a millionaire. b. She wishes that she were at home with her parents now. 3) 与将来事实相反---wish that sb + should / would / might / could + v a. I wish that I could fly to the moon some day. b. He wishes that he would go to America for further study. *If only…..! “要是…就好了!”也是用来表示愿望的一个句型, 该句型后面从句中的动词形式 和 wish 后面所接的从句中的动词形式完全一致。 For example: a. If only you had married me! b. If only he were a teacher of English! c. If only she would come to see me tomorrow! 4. 用于 would rather (=would sooner) 后面所接的宾语从句中： 1）表示和过去事实相反--would rather that sb + had + p.p For example: He would rather that he had never been lazy in study in high school. 2）表示和现在或将来事实相反--would rather that sb + v-ed (be---were) For example: a. I would rather that he were not ill. b. She would rather that her parents allowed her to work in Beijing after her graduation from Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. 5. 用于 as if (=as though) 后面所接的方式状语从句或表语从句中： 该从句中的动词形式和 wish 后面所接的从句中的动词形式完全一致。 For example:
a. She behaves as if she had done all the job by herself. b. You are talking as if you were my father. c. She seems as if she would get married soon. 6. 用于 lest（以防）后面所接的目的状语从句中 --lest + sb (should) do sth For example: We examined the engine carefully before we set off lest it (should) go wrong on the way. 7. 用于 It is time that…句型中 --It is time that sb + v-ed For example: a. It is time that he went home. b. It is time that we started learning.
*全部倒装---就是把整个谓语部分提到主语的前面。 a. In this book can be found an article about the harm of smoking. b. Here comes the bus. *以 here, there, in, out, up, down 等表示方位的副词开头并且主语是名词的句子要用全部倒 装。 又如: a. There goes the man. b. Down came the monkey from the tree. 还有的全部倒装是修辞的需要。 比如 In this book can be found an article about the harm of smoking.也可以不用倒装，而写成： In this book an article can be found about the harm of smoking. *部分倒装---就是把谓语中的助动词、情态动词或 be 动词提到主语的前面， 而谓语的其他部 分仍然放在主语之后。 *部分倒装都是语法需要。英语中要用部分倒装的情形如下： 1．以 only + 状语开头的句子： a. Only with you can I be really happy. b. Only through much practice can we learn English well. c. Only yesterday did I learn that my ex-girlfriend had got married. 2.以否定副词或具有否定意义的副词（短语）开头的句子： a. Never have I learned Spanish. b. Hardly can I use English to communicate with foreigners. *英语中的否定副词或具有否定意义的副词（短语）常见的有 never, hardly, little, seldom, scarcely, rarely, no sooner (…than…), neither, nor, not only…( but also…); under no circumstances, in no way, by no means, at no time, on no account, on no condition, in no case, etc By no means will I give in to my boyfriend. 3.当 so 表示前一个肯定分句的谓语部分适用于另一个人（物）并且放在句首的时候： a. I like English, so does he. b. Mary can speak Japanese, so can my mother. c. I went to America last autumn, so did my friend.
4. 当 neither 和 nor 表示前一个否定分句的谓语部分适用于另一个人（物）并且放在句首的 时候： a. I don't like English, nor does he. b. He hasn’t been to Shanghai, neither have I. 5.以 not until 加时间状语开头的句子: a. Not until yesterday did I learn that he had got married. b. Not until he was 40 did he leave his parents for independent living. 6.以 so + 形容词 / 副词或以 so / such+带有形容词修饰语的名词短语开头的句子: a. So pretty is the girl that I often dream of her at night. b. So fast does he speak that we cannot follow him. c. So important a language is English that we must spend much time learning it. d. Such an important language is English that we must spend much time learning it.
一、名词性从句---主语从句, 宾语从句, 表语从句, 同位语从句 1.都可以用连词 that 来引导(that 在从句中不做成份。除宾语从句之外，that 不可以省略): That he got married is true. I know (that) he got married. The news is that he got married. I don't believe the news that he got married. 2. 都可以用连词 whether 引导(whether 在从句中不作成份并且不可以省略。 从句必须使用陈 述语序): Whether he got married is not clear. I don't know whether he got married. My question is whether he got married. Could you answer my question whether he got married? *在宾语从句中还可以用 if 来代替 whether: I don't know whether he got married. = I don't know if he got married. *但在以下情形的宾语从句中不可以用 if 来表示“是否”： 1) 该宾语从句作介词的宾语 a. I am interested in whether you really love me. b. Our plan depends on whether it will rain tomorrow. 2) 宾语从句的句尾有 or not a. I don't know whether he got married or not. b. He didn't tell me whether he is a student or not. 3.都可以用特殊疑问词来引导(特殊疑问词在从句中做成份并且不可以省略，从句必须使用 陈述语序): When he got married is not clear. I don't know when he got married. My question is when he got married. Could you answer my question when he got married?
*把下面的句子放在 Can you tell me…?之后： a. Does his father go to work by bus? b. When did Mr. Smith go to Tokyo? c. How did he finish the job so soon? d. Why can’t he do that? e. Is his mother a doctor? **现代英语中通常不把主语从句放在句首，而是用 it 做形式主语: That he got married is true.= It is true that he got married. Whether he got married is not clear.= It is not clear whether he got married. When he got married is not clear.= It is not clear when he got married. 二、定语从句 / 关系从句 / 形容词性从句 1．两个基本概念： 先行词---被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词。 关系词---定语从句的引导词。关系词分为关系代词和关系副词。 2．关系词的用法： 1）关系代词的用法---who, whom, whose, which, that: (1) who---当先行词指人并且从句中缺少主语的时候使用： a. The boy who beat her yesterday is Tom. b. I don't like the girl who has several boyfriends. (2) whom---当先行词指人并且从句中缺少宾语的时候使用： a. The boy whom I beat yesterday is Tom. b. I don't like the girl whom you beat yesterday. (3) whose---当先行词指人并且从句中缺少定语的时候使用： a. The boy whose wallet was stolen yesterday is Tom. b. I don't like the girl whose boyfriend is ugly. (4) which---当先行词指物的时候使用并且 which 在从句中既可以做主语又可以 作宾语： a. I lost the pen which cost me 200 dollars. b. I lost the pen which my father gave me on my eighteenth birthday. (5) that---不管先行词指人还是指物的时候都可以使用并且 that 在从句中既可以 做主语又可以作宾语： *以上例句中的 who, whom 和 which 都可以换成 that。但在以下情况下通常只 用 that 来引导定语从句： A.先行词前有形容词最高级修饰的时候 a. Mary is the most beautiful girl that I have ever seen. b. The novel Gone with the Wind is the most interesting one that I have ever read. B.当先行词既有人又有物的时候 The police haven’t found the little girl and the dog that got lost last weekend. C.当先行词是 everything, anything, something, nothing 和 all 等不定代词的时候 a. She believes everything that her boyfriend says. b. All that glitters is not gold. （闪光的并非都是金子） D. 先行词前有序数词或 the only 修饰的时候 a. Is oxygen the only gas that helps fire burn?
b. The first lesson that I learned will never be forgotten. *一般来说，在定语从句中作宾语的关系代词可以省略。但当关系代词作介词的宾语并且介 词位于关系代词之前的时候则不可以省略关系代词并且该关系代词只能用 whom (先行词指 人)或 which(先行词指物)。比如： a. English is a language (that/which) I am interested in.= English is a language in which I am interested. b. Mary is the girl (that/whom) we were talking about. = Mary is the girl about whom we were talking. 2)关系副词的用法---when, where, why: (1) when---当先行词指时间并且从句中缺少状语的时候使用： a. I will never forget the day when I got married. b. Do you remember the time when we were in the countryside? (2) where---当先行词指地点并且从句中缺少状语的时候使用： a. The house where we study is very old. b. Do you know the small factory where we work? (3) why---当先行词指原因并且从句中缺少状语的时候使用： a. I don't believe the reason why she is late. b. The reason why she killed her own baby is not true. *关系副词相当于“介词+which” 3.关系代词 as 引导的定语从句: *限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句--My brother who is a doctor has gone abroad. (限制性) My father, who is a doctor，has gone abroad. (非限制性) 1) as 用于限制性定语从句中--当先行词前有 such 修饰的时候用 as: a. She is not such a girl as you think. b. This is not such a good meal as they promised us. 2) as 用于非限制性定语从句中--在非限制性定语从句中, as 用来指整个主句的内容。as 在从句中可以做主语或宾语。 a. As we know, he is a doctor. As is known to us all, the earth is round. **which 也可以用于非限制性定语从句中,并指代整个主句的内容, which 在从句中可以做主 语或宾语。但 which 引导的这种从句只能放在主句之后，而 as 引导的这种从句既可以放在 主句之后也可以放在主句之前， 还可以放在主句之间 （指的是放在主句的主语和谓语动词之 间） 。 For example: The earth is round, which we all know. The earth is round, as we all know. = As we all know, the earth is round.= The earth, as we all know, is round. 三、状语从句 / 副词性从句 1. 时 间 once, when, while,
hardly…when…( =scarcely…when…) = no sooner…than…, the instant = the second = the minute = the moment =as soon as, *immediately = directly = as soon as, the first / second /… time + …,etc *I had hardly got home when the phone rang. = As soon as I had got home the phone rang. 2.原因 because, as, since, in that = because, now that, etc *The two areas are similar ___ that they are both mild in summer. A) to B) in 3.条件 if, as long as = so long as, unless, provided (that) = providing (that) =if, etc 4.目的 so that, in order that, in case, lest (以防), etc 5.结果 so that, so…that, such…that…, etc ____ much money, ____ little money; ____ many people, ____ few people; ____ sweet milk, ____ pretty girls; ____ an interesting story, ____ interesting a story; *____ little cats 6.方式 as, as if (=as though), etc 7.比较 as…as…, not as…as… (not so…as…), than, etc 8.地点 where, etc *Where’s there’s a will, there’s a way. 9.让步 although, though, as, even if ( =even though ), while, etc a. Young as he is he is now the general manager of our company. b. Child as she is, she can speak fluent French. c. Hard as I try, I still lag behind. **whoever, whichever, whatever, wherever, whomever, however, whenever a. Whoever breaks the law must be punished. b. Whoever he is, he must be punished if he breaks the law. = No matter who he is, he… I will give my seat to whoever comes first.