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高考英语时态与语态(ppt)


高考语法复习

动词时态与语态

The Father and His Son
Father: You know, Tom, when Lincoln was ___(be) your age, he was ___(be) a very good pupil. In fact, hewas ___(be) the best p

upil in his class.
know (know) that. But when Tom: Yes, Father. I ____ was (be) President of he was ____(be) your age, he____ the United States.

Who is the laziest?
Father:Well, Tom, I asked _____(ask) your teacher want Today, and now I _____(want )to ask you a question. Who _____(be) the laziest person in is your class? Tom: I ____________(not know), Father. don’t know Father: Oh, yes, you_____(do)! Think! When the do Other boys and girls______________________(read are reading and writing and write), who ____(sit) in class and only watches _______ sits (watch) how the other people work? Tom: Our teacher, teacher.

动词时态

熟读深思 熟读下列各句, 结合谓语动词的形式体会 谓语动词发生的时间或所处的状态, 理解 不同时态的用法与构成。 1. I get up at 7:00 every morning. 我每 天早上七点起床。(经常的动作)

2. The sun rises in the east.太阳从东方升 起。(客观真理)

3. Practice makes perfect.熟能生巧。(格 言或警句)
4. We often played together when we were children. 我们小时候常在一起玩。

5. They’re having a meeting now.他们现在 在开会。(现在) 6. I’m studying at an evening school.我在 上夜校。(现阶段)
7. She’s always helping others.她老是帮助 别人。(赞扬)

8. I knew you would agree.我知道你会同意 的。(在过去某个时候看来, 将要发生的事)
9. I have seen the film already.我已经看过那 部电影了。(暗示:我已知道电影的内容了)

10. She has been a dancer for ten years.她已 当了十年的舞蹈演员了。(从十年前开始一 直到现在) 11. When the police arrived, the thieves had run away.警察到达时, 小偷们已经跑了。(过 去的过去)

12. When Jack arrived he learned Mary had been away for almost an hour.当杰克到来时, 他才了解到玛丽已经离开差不多一个小时 了。(过去的过去) 13. The Chinese have been making paper for two thousand years.中国人造纸有2000年了。 (两千年前开始造纸, 现在依然在造纸)

14. He will come if you invite him.如果你请 他, 他会来的。(条件句中在一般现在时代 替一般将来时) 15. The plane takes off at 11:30.飞机十一 点半起飞。(时刻表中的规定)

16. Mike is coming home on Thursday.迈克星 期四回来。(近期计划, 常与表示将来的时间 状语连用) 17. What are you going to do tomorrow?你打 算明天做什么呢?(打算)

18.Look at the clouds; it’s going to rain.你 看天上的云, 快下雨了。(已有迹象表明) 19.They are to be married in June.他们将 在六月结婚。(正式安排)

20.He is about to set off for Beijing.他马上 要去北京。(即将)

归纳总结
1. 时态是英语谓语动词的一种形式, 表示 动作发生的时间和所处的状态。英语中的 时态是通过动词形式本身的变化来实现的。 高考考试说明中规定要掌握的有以下10种 时态:

时态
名称

构成(以do 为例)

主要用法
经常性或习惯性动作,客 观事实,现在的状态 在过去某个时间里所发生 的动作或存在的状态

一般现 do/does 在时 一般过 did 去时

一般将 will/shall do 在将来某一时刻要发生的 来时 动作或存在的状态

过去将 would do 来时 现在进 am/is/are doing 行时 过去进 was/were doing 行时 将来进 will/shall be doing 行时 现在完 have/has done 成时

在过去某一时刻看来将要发生 的动作或存在的状态
表示现在或现阶段正在发生的 动作 表示在过去某一时间内正在进 行的动作 表示将来某一时间正在进行的 动作

表示说话之前已发生或完成的 动作或状态,其结果的影响现 在依然存在;也可表示持续到 现在的动作或状态

过去完 had done 成时

表示在过去某一时间或某 个动作之前已经发生或完 成的动作,即“过去的过 去”;表示从过去某时开 始一直延续到另一个过去 时间的动作或状态 现在完 have/has 表示一个从过去就开始一 成进行 been doing 直延续到现在并有可能继 时 续下去的动作

2. 表示将来有多种方式, 请注意比较: ⑴ will/shall do表示单纯的将来或临时 的决定。
⑵ be going to do表示主观打算或已有 迹象表明将要发生某事。

⑶ be about to do表示即将,不与表示将 来的时间连用。

⑷ do/does(一般现在时)在时刻表中规定要 发生某事或在时间、条件状语从句中。
⑸ be to do按计划或正式安排将发生的事。

最常用的几种时态与时间状语的搭配
一般现在 现在进行 现在完成 一般过去 every …, sometimes, at …, on Sunday now, for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in the past years, always, recently yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982, just now this morning, the whole morning, all day, yesterday, from nine to ten last evening… when, while …before, by, until, when, after, once, as soon as

过去进行
过去完成

一般将来
过去将来

next…, tomorrow, in…
多用在间接引语中表示发生在谓语动作以后 的动作

一、对一般现在时的考查 1.考查其基本概念:一般现在时表示一个习惯性、经常 性的动作。常与表示习惯的副词always, every time, now and then, occasionally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually 等连用。但近几年,对一般现 在时的考查常用过去时态或现在完成时态对考生进行 干扰。

1) Months ago we sailed ten thousand miles across the open sea, which ___the Pacific, and we met no storm.(2005年辽宁卷) A.was called B. is called C. had been called D. has been called

2.考查一般现在时的替代用法: 在以when, till/ until, as soon as, by the time, after, before等引导的时间状语从句,在以if, unless, once等 引导的条件状语从句和以no matter, however, even if 等词引导的让步状语从句中,如果主句中的动词用一般 将来时,从句中的动词通常用一般现在时或现在完成时 代替一般将来时。

—What would you do if it __ tomorrow? —We have to carry it on ,since we’ve got everything ready. (2005年全国卷) A. rain B. rains C. will rain D. is raining

二、对一般过去时的考查 一般过去时表示在过去某时某刻发生的动作或存在的状 态,它常与表过去的时间状语连用,如yesterday, last year, last night, the other day, just now, then, two days ago, in 1999, at that time等。但是一般过去时也 经常用在没有说明过去的时间状语的句子中,这是高考 的命题方向。 I bought a new car three days ago.

bought

now

More than a dozen students in that school ____ abroad to study medicine last year. (2005年上海卷) A. sent B. were sent C. had sent D. had been sent

三、对现在进行时的考查 由上下文语境表示时间。

1)— What’s the terrible noise?— The neighbor ____ for a party(2004年北京卷) A. have prepared B. are preparing C. prepare D. will prepare 2)Because the shop _____, all the T-shirts are sold at half price. (2004年浙江卷34题) A.has closed down B. closed down C. is closing down D. had closed down 3) —Are you still busy? —Yes, I _____ my work, and it won’t take long. A.just finish B. am just finishing C.have just finished D. am just going to finish

4) Since I won the big prize, my telephone hasn't stopped ringing. People _____ to ask how I am going to spend the money. A.phone B. will phone C. were phoning D. are phoning

5) Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology _____ so rapidly. A.is changing B. has changed C. will have changed D. will change

四、对过去进行时的考查

I was walking down the street when it began to rain.

When it began to rain

now
I was walking

1.把过去进行时放在when, while, as 等引导的时间状语 从句中考查。如果主句谓语和从句谓语都发生在过去, 动作时间长的用过去进行时,表达谈话背景;动作时间 短的用一般过去时,表达新的信息。

—You were out when I dropped in at your house. —Oh, I ____ for a friend from England at the airport. (2004年福建卷) A. was waiting B. had waited C. am waiting D. have waited

2.把过去进行时放在某特定的语境中考查。

—Has Sam finished his homework today? —I have no idea. He ____ it this morning. (2004年全国卷) A. did B. has done C. was doing D. had done
3.考查过去进行时与一般过去时的比较。

Shirley ____a book about China last year but I don’t know whether she has finished it.(98) A. has written B. wrote C. had written D. was writing

五、对现在完成时的考查 1.现在完成时表示过去的动作对现在的影响或表示经 验。 2.现在完成进行时表示过去的动作一直延续至今并可 能继续下去,常与for或since 等短语连用。 5 years 9 years

1993

1998

now

graduated I_________(graduate) in 1993 and in that year I began _______(begin) to teach English in a middle school. I taught ______(teach) there for five years . Five years later ,I have taught/have been teaching moved _______(move) to Pinghu. I______________ (teach) senior English in Danghu High School for nearly 9 years ever since then.

1) He was hoping to go abroad but his parents ____ that they won’t support him unless he can borrow money from the bank.(2005湖北) A.were deciding B. have decided C. decided D. will decide

2) Millions of pounds’ worth of damage ___by a storm which swept across the north of England last night. (2005重庆) A.has been caused B. had been caused C. will be caused D. will have been caused

3)—The window is dirty. — I know. It ____ for weeks.(2004全国卷) A.hasn’t cleaned B. didn’t clean C. wasn’t cleaned D. hasn’t been cleaned
注:由终止性动词leave, arrive, come, go, return, begin, start, put, stop, start, put, stop, die, fall, buy, borrow, see等构成的完成时不能与for或since 引导的时间状语连用。但这些终止性动词的否定式可 以与for或since短语连用。 Eg. I haven’t met him for two years.

3.考查现在完成时与一般过去式的区别: 一般过去时着重说明动作发生的时间、地点、方式 等,与现在不发生联系,且句中一般有表示过去的 时间状语;而现在完成时只说明现在的情况,对现 在有影响。

—Where _____the recorder? I can’t see it anywhere.(98NMET) — I ____ it right here. But now it’s gone. A. did you put; have put B. have you put; put C. had you put; was putting D. were you putting; put

六、对现在完成进行时的考查 构成: have / has been+ doing 概念: 表示从过去某一时刻发生的动作,一直延续 到现在,并且还可能继续下去。

The CCTV has been broadcasting English programs ever since 1977.

1977

now

现在完成进行时与现在完成时的区别如下:
1.现在完成时与现在完成进行时 I have written an article. 强调: 已完成性 I have been writing an article. 强调:持续性,

未完成性
2.有些延续性动词,如live, teach, work, study, learn, stay等因
现在完成时与现在完成进行时差别不大。

I have lived here for ten years. = I have been living here for ten years. Notes:表短暂动作的动词(finish, marry, get up, come, go等)一般不能用现在完成进行时。

1)Now that she is out of a job, Lucy____going back to school, but she hasn’t decided yet.(2004年北京卷)

A.had considered B. has been considering C. considered D. is going to consider 2) --- Hi, Tracy, you look tired. “--- I am tired. I ____ the living room all day. A. painted B. had painted C. have been painting D. have painted

七、对过去完成时态的考查 过去完成时,经常以“过去”为背景,要想表达比这 一背景更早的动作,即“过去的过去”,常用此时 态。

Eg. When we got to the theatre, they had sold all the tickets. What a pity!

过去的过去 had sold got Now

— George and Lucy got married last week. Did you go to their wedding? —No, I ___. Did they have a big wedding? (2004年湖北卷) A. was not invited B. have not been invited C. hadn’t been invited D. didn’t invite

常见考点有:
①把过去完成时放在含有when, before, after, until, as soon as等引导的时间状语从句的复合句 中考查。 1) When the old man ___ to walk back to his house, the sun ___ itself behind the mountain. (2005年湖北卷) A. started; had already hidden B. had started; had already hidden C. had started; was hiding D. was starting; hid

②把过去完成时放在by + 过去时间点或by the time + 从句(一般过去时)的句子里考查。

By the end of last year, another new gymnasium ___ in Beijing.(2003年上海春) A. would be completed B. was being completed C. has been completed D. had been completed

举一反三破定势
1.---Do you work here? ----No, I don’t really work here. I ____ until the new secretary comes. A.just help out B. have just helped out C. am just helping out D. will just help out
造成思维定式的干扰因素: comes
just 从现主将 完成时标志 误选D 误选B

题眼: I don’t really work here
Just 的多义:1.刚 2.正 3.只不过

暂时性工作
4.引起祈使句

正确选项

C

2. I _______in London for many years,but I’ve never regretted my final decision to move back to China. (重庆卷). A. lived B. was living C. have lived D. had lived
造成思维定势的干扰因素: for many years 解题关键: For many years 与现在无联系 完成时标志 误选C/D

一般过去时

A

被动语态

被动语态

熟读深思 朗读下列被动句, 体会被动语态的用法; 观察谓语部分, 思考各种时态被动语态的 构成。 1.The G8 is made up of political leaders... (BSDM4, P 22)

2.The Group of Eight, or G8, was formed by eight of the world’s wealthiest nations in 1998. (M4, P 22) 3.The news is being celebrated by crowds in the streets. (M4, P 23)

4. At 12: 45 UK time today, the name of the host city for the 2012 Olympic Games was being announced by IOC in Singapore.(M4, P 23) 5. Reforms have been demanded by people from all over the world.(M4, P 22)

6. London’s name had been announced twice before. (M4, P 23) 7. It is going to be remembered as a historical meeting this year, as the topic of Africa will be discussed in detail. (M4, P22)

8. They want the leaders to cancel the debt of Africa’s poorest countries so that the problems there can be prevented from getting any worse. (M4, P 22)

归纳总结 不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行者是谁, 或者需要突出或强调动作的承受者时, 就用 被动语态。被动语态由“be+过去分词” 构成,时态、人称和数的变化是通过be来 体现的。以do为例, 请完成下表:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

时态 一般现在时 一般过去时 现在进行时 过去进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 一般将来时 含情态动词

被动语态的构成 am/is/are+ done was/were+ done am/is/are being+ done was/were being+ done have been+ done had been+ done be going to/will be+ done 情态动词+be+ done

1. 只有及物动词才有被动语态。但cost, have, own, lack, agree with, suffer from, belong to等及物动词或及物的短 语动词也没有被动语态。 2. 像happen, take place等不及物动词 是没有被动语态的。

3.带有介词的短语动词的被动语态, 不要漏 掉介词。如: The children will be looked after well here.这 些孩子在这里将受到很好的照顾。

4. 以下情况常用主动形式表示被动含义: ⑴ 系动词feel,look,seem, appear, taste, sound,smell,prove,remain等用主动形式 表示被动意义, 主语通常是事物。如: The material feels very soft.这种料子摸起来 很柔软。

⑵ write,read, clean,sell,wash, cook, open,close,lock等的否定式或与well, badly, easily等副词连用, 主语由内在品质 或性能使谓语得以实现或不能实现时。如: The book sells well.那本书很畅销。 The window won’t open.这扇窗开不了。

⑶ cook,bake,make,print, pack,build,work out等动词用 于进行时态时。如: The fish is cooking.鱼正在煮。

时态语态与高考 在语法填空中, 动词的时态是必考内 容。10空中通常有一空是考查时态的, 其中, 最有可能考的是一般过去时或者是主要是 第三人称单数的一般现在时态, 以及现在进 行时、过去进行时和一般将来时。 被动语态是可能要考的内容, 特别是 一般现在时或一般过去时的被动语态。若 掌握好被动语态, 在写作中适当运用, 可使 句子更加多样化, 有时甚至会更加自然、生 动。

有一空是考查非谓语动词的。因此,解题方法 如下: 首先要判断括号中所给动词是谓语动词还是非 谓语动词;若是谓语动词, 一是根据主语与谓语动词的关系判断用主动语 态还是被动语态; 二是根据具体的语境来判断用哪一种时态; 三是要注意主谓一致,最后才能确定所填动词 的形式。

在确定谓语动词的时态时, 我们可从三个 方面来进行判断: 1. 看句子中的时间状语或时间状语从句; 2. 在没有时间状语或时间状语从句时,要 看上下文的谓语动词的形式;

3. 看是否是特殊的句型。如: ⑴ was/were about to do...when...did ⑵ It is/has been +时间段+since 从句(一般 过去时)

⑶ It had been +时间段+since 从句(过去 完成时)

⑷ It will be +时间段+since 从句(一般现在 时)

⑸ It/This/That is the first time that... have/has done...
⑹ It/This/That was the first time that... had done...

⑺ Hardly had +主语+done...when...did... ⑻ No sooner had +主语+ done... than... did... 这样的句型还有很多, 平时要注意积累。

几种时态的替代问题
A:一般现在时代替将来时 : 除了在时间、条件、让步状语从句中用一般现在时代替 将来时外,表示现在已安排好的未来事项,行程等活动也用 一般现在时来代替将来时。如: The museum opens at ten tomorrow. 博物馆明天10点开门。 (实际上每天如此。) B:一般现在时代替完成时: 句型 “It is … since…”代替“It has been … since …” It is (= has been) five years since we last met C:一般现在时代替进行时: 在全部倒装句中都用一般现在时代替现在进行时。如: Look, here comes Mr. Li.

请根据以上技巧, 完成以下历年高考试题。 1.The sun was setting when my car broke (break) down near a remote ______ village. 2.This proverb is saying we have to let things go in their natural course. Being too anxious to help an event develop results (result) in the contrary to often _______ our intention.

3. People stepped on your feet or ________ pushed (push) you with their elbows, hurrying ahead to get to a bargain. Her mother was excited. “Your father has at last decided to stop smoking, ” Jane was informed (inform). ___________
4.I got on the bus and found a seat near the back and then I noticed a man sitting at the front. He ______________ was pretending (pretend) that a tiger toy was real and giving it a voice.

灵活运用
ordered 1. If you don’t like the drink you ________(order) , just leave it and try a different one. 2. I’ll go to the library as soon as I finish what I ________ am doing (do).

3. The manager was worried about the press conference his assistant was _________ giving (give) in his place but, luckily, everything was going on smoothly.

4. It is the most instructive lecture that I ____________(attend) since I came to this school. have attended

5.In the last few years thousands of films have been produced __________________(produce) all over the world.
6. Last month, the Japanese government expressed their thanks for the aid they ___________ had received (receive) from China.

7. By the time Jack returned home from England, his son _____________(graduate) from college. had graduated has been working 8. Tom ________________(work) in the library every night over the last three months.

9. — Tommy is planning to buy a car. — I know. By next month, hewill ____________(save) have saved enough for a used one.

10. — Is everyone here? — Not yet. Look, there ______ come (come) the rest of our guests! 11. Barbara is easy to recognize as she’s the only one of the women who wears _____(wear) evening dress. have 12. Every few years, the coal workers _____(have) their lungs X-rayed to ensure their health.

13.The book has been translated into thirty came (come) on the market in languages since it _____ 1973. 14.When you are home, give a call to let me know you _____________(arrive) safely. have arrived

saved (save) 15.Up to now, the program has ________ thousands of children who would otherwise have died.

16. In the near future, more advances in the robot technology _____________ will be made (make) by scientists.

had been conducted 17.Experiments of this kind __________________ (conduct) in both the U.S and Europe well before the Second World War.
18. After getting lost in a storm, a member of the navy team ____________ was rescued (rescue) four days later.

19. All visitors to this village __________ are treated (treat) with kindness.
is being restored 20.The church tower which _______________ (restore) will be open to tourists soon. The work is almost finished. was named 21.This coastal area __________(name) a national wildlife reserve last year.

22. Linda, make sure the tables ______ are set (set) before the guests arrive. 23. You’ve failed to do what you _____________ were expected (expect) to and I’m afraid the teacher will blame you. be passed 24. People say that a smile can ______________ (pass) from one person to another, but acts of kindness from strangers are even more so.

25. When research __________(assign), the professor is assigned expects the student to take it actively and to complete it with minimum guidance. will be held (hold) tomorrow. 26. The meeting ____________

27. All the tickets _______________(sell) out when had been sold they rushed there. 28. The cloth _______(wash) well. washes
29. The door won’t ____(shut). shut

二、语篇填空

Welcome to our school. I’d like to introduce you plans for our school. A lot of work 1 ____________ has been done (do)in the past few years. The library 2 ________________ has been completed (complete) and is ready for use. But we still have to do more work.

1. 由时间状语in the past few years可知。 2. 根据is ready for use可推出。

being built A new biology lab 3 is ___________(build)this year. But we don’t have enough money for the equipment. Students in all grades 4 _____________(collect) are collecting money. The money which is collected 5 will be spent (spend) on new equipment. ___________

3. 根据句末的this year可知用进行时态。 4. 根据上下文可知。 5. 根据句意可知。

At present, a plan 6 _____________ is being made (make) for a party at the end of the term, at which wonderful performances 7 _________ will be put (put) on. The gardens of the school 8 ________________ are being improve (improve)this year.

6. 由At present可知用进行时态。 7. 根据上下文可知。 8. 根据句意可知。

New trees 9 ________________ are being planted (plant)which will soon give shade in summer. The whole school 10 __________________ is going to be painted (paint) during the summer holidays. In fact, our school is becoming more and more beautiful.

9. 根据句意可知。 10. 根据during the summer holidays可知。


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