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DLNA 学习


Digital Home Technology and Gateway

DLNA and DMI Prof. Wu Zhonghai wuzh@ss.pku.edu.cn ftp.ss.pku.edu.cn

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Review: Requirements for the Wireless HN z Support for QoS of real time streaming of A/V content z Net bitrate over 30 Mbits/s (Digital Video Camcorder) z Ad Hoc Networking (Direct Mode) z Self configurable (no network or frequency planning) z Security and Privacy z Connection to wired 1394 devices and clusters (bridge) z Plug and Play z Low Power for Mobile Terminals z Interoperability of devices from different manufacturers z Enough spectrum for highly populated urban areas
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Review: DHWG Vision
BROADBAND
Entertainment, E-Business, Services

MOBILE MULTIMEDIA
Entertainment, Personal Pictures and Video, Services

MEDIA
Pre-Recorded Content Personal Media

Consumers want their devices to work together Consumers want their and share content devices to work together and share content
BROADCAST
Services, Entertainment 3

Review: DHWG Framework
2004
Under Consideration in DHWG Digital Rights Management Content Protection DRM / CP Technologies DHWG Media Formats Required: JPEG, LPCM, MPEG2 Media Formats
MPEG1, MPEG4, WMV9, PNG JPEG2K, MPEG4

2005+
DRM / CP Interoperability

Candidates for DHWG Technologies Media Transports Device Discovery and Control Network Protocol Physical Network Ethernet HTTP UPnP DCP (AVv1) UPnP Architecture IP (IPv4)
Wired 802.3u Wireless 802.11a/b/g

IPv6
Wireless 802.11e/i

Core DHWG Principles: Open, Fair, Interoperable

Future Potential Technologies
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Optional: GIF, TIFF, AAC, AC-3, ATRAC3plus, MP3, WMA9,

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Digital Home Scenario – Video
Server

The devices depicted in these scenarios are for illustrative purposes only and have no relation to specific products planned by any manufacturer.

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Digital Home Scenario – Audio

Server

The devices depicted in these scenarios are for illustrative purposes only and have no relation to specific products planned by any manufacturer.

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Digital Home Scenario – Images

The devices depicted in these scenarios are for illustrative purposes only and have no relation to specific products planned by any manufacturer.

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Problem Statement
zNetwork devices are difficult to configure
yDHCP, Static IP, etc.

zConsumers want automatic setup and configuration
yPnP for the network

zDevices from different manufacturers should be interoperable
yNo proprietary solutions

zDevices should be unify manage
yUniversal Remote Control
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实现数字家庭的一些问题
z数字产品多样化,使用和设置复杂 z数字产品工业标准繁多,各种家电网络互通和兼 容性差 z各种数字产品厂商对数字家庭的支持甚少,只有 少数大公司,着手这方面的支持,比如Intel, Microsoft,SONY,NOKIA等

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DLNA
z就目前而言,比较大的一个数字家庭的工业组织 是DLNA(Digital Living Network Alliance)。 http://www.dlna.org zDLNA is focused on delivering an interoperability framework of design guidelines based on open industry standards to complete the crossindustry digital convergence.

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The DLNA Approach
z基于现有公开通用的工业标准(UDP,TCP, HTTP,XML,UPnP以及各种媒体格式标准)联合 工业界各大电子、计算机设备及软件产品厂商制 定一个指导方针确保各种设备产品的互操作性( interoperability) z制定一个基于标准的互操作性框架,这个框架定 义了物理媒体、网络传输、媒体格式、流协议、 数字版权保护等一系列规范。

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Cont.
z基于互操作框架的产品大致分为两大类:
yDMS(Digital Media Server)
x媒体获取、存放、刻录、点播服务

yDMP(Digital Media Player)
x媒体播放、点播界面、媒体显示等

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Cont. DMS
? Advanced set-top boxes (STB) ? Personal video recorders (PVR) ? PCs ? Stereo and home theaters with hard disk drivers (for example, music servers) ? Broadcast tuners ? Video and imaging capture devices, such as cameras and camcorders ? Multimedia mobile phones

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Cont. DMP
? TV monitors ? Stereo and home theaters ? Printers ? PDAs ? Multimedia mobile phones ? Wireless monitors ? Game consoles

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DMS and DMP 场景

DMS

DMP

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Cont. DLNA 的倡导者

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DLNA Structure

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DLNA Interoperability Framework(1)
Content Sharing Framework
Media Formats
(Images, Audio, AV)

DRM/CP Technologies Media Transport
(HTTP)

z How media content is encoded and identified for interoperability, Required: JPEG, LPCM, MPEG2. Optional: PNG, GIF, TIFF, MP3, WMA9, AC-3, AAC,ATRAC3plus, MPEG1, MPEG4, WMV9, JPEG2K z How media content is protected(Under
consideration in DLNA)

z How media content is transferred z How media content is identified, managed, and distributed z How devices discover and control each other z How devices physically connect together and communicate. Use IPv6 in future.
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Media Management
(UPnP AV)

Device Discovery & Control (UPnP Device Arch) Networking & Connectivity
(IPv4, Ethernet, 802.11)

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DLNA Interoperability Framework(2) zNetworking & Connectivity
y解决物理设备连通问题 y关键技术: Ethernet, 802.11, IPv4协议栈,IPv6协议栈 y要求:
xTCP/IP stack must include IPv4, TCP, UDP, DHCP, Auto-IP, ARP, and ICMP client components x10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX with auto-negotiation and a RJ45 connection to the network is required. 1000BASE-T is recommended

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DLNA Interoperability Framework(3)
z Device Discovery & Control
y解决设备发现和互操作问题,实现所谓的“设备零配置”。
x比如通过电视播放PC媒体的时候,电视设备需要“自动知道”PC媒体服务 器的存在,以及其能提供何种服务

y关键技术:
xUPnP (Universal Plug and Play) v1.0 Device Architecture,XML SOAP(Simple Object Access Protocol),HTTP

y要求:
x标准化的UPnP设备体系结构标准 x非常简单的实现,必须适用于一般家用嵌入式设备 x使用SSDP(Simple Service Discovery Protocol)和GENA(General Event Notification Architecture)消息协议
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Cont.
zUPnP? Device Architecture
yA specification, The UPnP Device Architecture (formerly known as the DCP Framework) contained defines
xthe protocols for communication between controllers, or control points, and devices. xthe protocols for discovery, description, control, eventing, and presentation, UPnP uses the following protocol stack.

yIncluding
xAddressing xDiscovery xDescription xControl xEventing xPresentation
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Vendor-specific API above
UPnP vendor UPnP vendor UPnP Forum UPnP Forum UPnP Device Architecture UPnP Device Architecture HTTPU/MU GENA HTTPU/MU GENA SSDP SSDP SOAP SOAP HTTP HTTP UDP UDP IP IP TCP TCP HTTP GENA HTTP GENA

Vendor-specific OS below

Vendor-specific physical net
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UPnP Protocol Stack

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Steps to UPnP Networking
3 Control 2 Description 1 Discovery 0 Addressing 0 1 2 3 4 5 Control Control Control Control Control Control point point point point point point and device get addresses finds interesting device learns about device capabilities call actions on device listens to state changes of device controls device and/or views device status using HTML UI
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4 Eventing

5 Presentation

Cont. --discovery

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Cont. --description

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Cont. --Control

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Cont. --Eventing

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Cont. --Presentation

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Cont. --- Device Discovery
Digital Media Server
(UPnP Device)

Device and Service Description Documents – HTTP over TCP

Digital Media Player
(UPnP Control Point)

Simple Service Discovery Protocol (SSDP) – HTTP Multicast over UDP MSEARCH Device Discovery & Control Networking & Connectivity NOTIFY Device Discovery & Control Networking & Connectivity
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Cont. --- Simple Service Discovery Protocol z 基于HTTP over UDP
y 使用多播向网络中发送设备信息或者“发现”设备 y 使用单播向请求者发送信息

z NOTIFY – 设备加入或者离开,需要发送此类信息,相当 于“心跳”信息,让网络中其他设备感知发送者是否工作或 者知道工作状态 z MSEARCH – 寻找满足需要条件的设备,比如DMP需要寻 找网络中的DMS,以便播放媒体

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Cont. --- NOTIFY
l ssdp:alive
NOTIFY * HTTP/1.1 Cache-Control: 1800 Location: http://192.168.0.115:30000/ Server: windows/5.1 DLNA/1.0 Digital Media Server/1.0 NTS: ssdp:alive ST: urn:schemas-upnp-org:device:MediaServer:1 NTS:Notification Sub Type USN: uuid:6e583f46-304d-1f1d-f466dc0710c2:: urn:schemas-upnp-org:device:MediaServer:1 USN:Unique Service Name

zssdp:bye-bye
NOTIFY * HTTP/1.1 Host: 192.168.0.115:1900 NTS: ssdp:bye-bye ST: urn:schemas-upnp-org:device:MediaServer:1 USN: uuid:6e583f46-304d-1f1d-f466dc0710c2:: urn:schemas-upnp-org:device:MediaServer:1

ST:Search Target

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Cont. --MSEARCH
M-SEARCH * HTTP/1.1 Host: 192.168.0.101 Man: ssdp:discover MX: 3 ST: urn:schemas-upnp-org:device:MediaServer:1 HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: 1800 Location: http://192.168.0.115:30000/ Server: windows/5.1 DLNA/1.0 Digital Media Server/1.0 ST: urn:schemas-upnp-org:device:MediaServer:1 USN: uuid:6e583f46-304d-1f1d-f466dc0710c2:: urn:schemas-upnp-org:device:MediaServer:1

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Cont. --- DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT
z 从HTTP 请求SSDP NOTIFY中或者 MSEARCH 的相应中得 到描述文档 z 此文档使用XML描述
y描述设备
x Device & Optional Embedded Devices x “Root” Device is mandatory – Embedded Devices are optional

y描述服务
x ContentDirectoryService, etc.

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Cont. --- DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT-Example
<?xml version=“1.0”?> <root xmlns:=“urn:schemas-upnp-org:device-1-0”> <device> <dlna:X_DLNADOC xmlns:dlna="urn:schemas-dlna-org:device-1-0"> DMS-1.00</dlna:X_DLNADOC> Basic Device Information Elements <serviceList> <service> Service Information Elements </service> </serviceList> <deviceList> <device> Embedded Device Description </device> </deviceList> </device> </root>
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Cont.---SOAP Example
HTTP/1.1 200 OK CONTENT-LENGTH: bytes in body CONTENT-TYPE: text/xml; charset="utf-8" DATE: when response was generated EXT: SERVER: OS/version UPnP/1.0 product/version <s:Envelope xmlns:s="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/" s:encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"> <s:Body> <u:actionNameResponse xmlns:u="urn:schemas-upnp-org:service:serviceType:v"> <argumentName>out arg value</argumentName> other out args and their values go here, if any </u:actionNameResponse> </s:Body> 35 </s:Envelope>

DLNA Interoperability Framework(4)
z Media Management
y 解决媒体的标志、管理和分发 y 关键技术:UPnP AV v1.0 Specification

xContent Directory(DMS)
? Browse/search content items and containers ? Includes content meta-data (title, creator, resolution, …) ? Manage content (e.g. create playlists, add new items,…)

xRendering Control(DMP)
? Control rendering characteristics (volume, brightness, …)

xConnection Manager(DMP,DMS)
? Enumerate(列举) supported transfer protocols and data formats ? Enumerate existing UPnP AV streams

xAV Transport(DMP,DMS)
? Control content movement/position (play, pause, seek,…) ? Provided by Server or Renderer based on selected protocol
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Cont. --UPnP? AV Architecture --UPnP?

Media Server

Control Point Standard Standard UPnP Actions UPnP Actions
Home LAN

Media Renderer

DVD Player VCR Content Directory Camcorder Connection CD Player Manager STB Transport Tuner AV (Optional) PC Digital Camera Recording Scheduled

TV Rendering Stereo Control MP3 Player Clock Radio Connection Manager PC AV Transport (Optional) Speakers

Out-of-band Transfer Protocol
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Cont. --- Media Management
Digital Media Server
CDS:Browse() and CDS:Search – SOAP Actions for Locating Content (HTTP over TCP) Media Management Device Discovery & Control Networking & Connectivity Media Management Device Discovery & Control Networking & Connectivity
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Digital Media Player

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Cont. --- Media Management-- Example
<DIDL-Lite xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns="urn:schemas-upnp-org:metadata-1-0/DIDL-Lite/" xmlns:upnp="urn:schemas-upnp-org:metadata-1-0/upnp/"> <item id="23030" parentID="23017"> <dc:title>Video Content 1</dc:title> <upnp:class>object.item.videoItem</upnp:class> <res protocolInfo="http-get:*:video/mpeg: DLNA.ORG_PN=MPEG_PS_NTSC;DLNA.ORG_OP=11“ size="15157252“ bitrate="1028000"> http://192.168.0.109:30001/23027-23028.m2p </res> </item> </DIDL-Lite>

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DLNA Interoperability Framework(5) zMedia Transport(HTTP)
y解决服务端如何“流化”媒体内容到媒体展示端 y关键技术:HTTP1.1 y要求:
x支持HTTP1.1的客户端必须支持chucked encoding x通过关闭TCP连接关闭媒体流,

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Cont. --Media Transport
Digital Media Server
HTTP GET with Optional HTTP Headers

Digital Media Player

Media Transport Media Management Device Discovery & Control Networking & Connectivity

HTTP GET Request (Optional Headers) ?Range: ?TimeSeekRange.dlna.org: ?PlaySpeed.dlna.org:

Media Transport

Media Management Device Discovery & Control

HTTP GET Response to Stream Content

Networking & Connectivity
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HTTP Example
GET /Video1.mpg HTTP/1.1 Host: 192.168.0.131 User-Agent: dlna device getcontentFeatures.dlna.org: 1 HTTP/1.1 200 OK SERVER: Digital Media Server DATE: Wed, 6 Oct 2004 07:40:09 GMT LAST-MODIFIED: Sun, 25 Jan 2004 12:10:36 GMT CONTENT-TYPE: video/mpeg CONTENT-LENGTH: 15157252 CONNECTION: close contentFeatures.dlna.org: DLNA.ORG_PN=MPEG_PS_NTSC

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DLNA Interoperability Framework(6) zMedia Formats
y解决媒体内容如何编码和标志 y关键技术:现有的各种编码标准,MPEG1,2,4等等 y要求:定义Media format profiles以及媒体交互规则
Media Class IMAGES AUDIO VIDEO Mandatory Format Set
JPEG LPCM MPEG2 AAC, ATRAC3plus, MP3, WMA9 MPEG4:2, MPEG4:10, WMV9

Optional Format Set*

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Audio Interoperability Example
Content Stored as: MP3 Content Advertised as: LPCM, MP3* Profiles

Plays LPCM, MP3*

DMS

? Transfer MP3 directly ? Convert MP3 to LPCM ? Convert MP3 to LPCM

DMP’s DMP’

Plays LPCM

DMP Selects Actual Media Format by the URI it DMP Selects Actual Media Format by the URI it Uses to Create the Media Stream! Uses to Create the Media Stream!
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什么是DMI?
zIntel? Digital Media Infrastructure (DMI)是Intel 公司实现的关于实现数字家庭DLNA规范的一个中 间件 z其软件主要包括:
yDigital Media Server and Media Server Subsystem (includes SQL Database) yDigital Media Player and Media Renderer Subsystem (plug-in based streaming manager) as well as a Media Server Control Point and User Interface. yUPnP* functions which are designed to the DLNA guidelines.
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Control Point

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Conclusion
z数字家庭利用了现有的很多网络、多媒体标准, 基于这些标准各个电子计算机设备及软件生产厂 商制定数字家庭相关工业标准 z如果要实现数字家庭,有必要按照现有工业标准 进行实现和扩展

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研究展望
z数字家庭是一个很好的想法,就目前市场而言, 还处于探索阶段。 Intel提供的数字家庭中间件或 者其他软件产品,大都是为其硬件提供支持。其 数字家庭方面的软件产品,还处于测试和开发阶 段。 z我们有能力和信心从事关于数字家庭方面的研究 和开发。可以考虑的研究开发方向:
y类似于Intel的DMI的基于Wireless的娱乐中间件的研究 和开发 y数字家庭媒体中心、RG、数字版权保护等方面技术研 究。
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参考
zhttp://www.upnp.org zhttp://www.intel.com zhttp://www.dlna.org

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Question? Thank you!

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