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英语语法-词类


词类

? 英语中的单词可以分为十大词类:

名词 n. teacher, book等。 ? 2 代词 pron. we ,me, he 等。 ? 3 数词 num. two,fifth 等。 ? 4 动词 v. work, study, live 等。 ? 5 形容词 adj. good, big, beautiful 等。 ? 6 副

词 adv . fast, quickly等。 ? 7 冠词 art. a, an, the等。 ? 8 介词 prep. in, on,by,with等。 ? 9 连词 conj. and, but等。 ? 10 感叹词 interj. Oh,ah等。
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名词
? 名词分为专有名词和普通名词两大类。

专有名词是某些人、事物、机构、组织等特有的名称。
如Beijing,China等。 专有名词第一个字母要大写,且 都是不可数名词。

普通名词
1)个体名词:表示某类人或东西中的个体,如:gun。 ? 2)集体名词:表示若干个个体组成的集合体,如: family。 ? 3)物质名词:表示无法分为个体的实物,如:air。 ? 4)抽象名词:表示动作、状态、品质、感情等抽象 概念,如:work。 ? 个体名词和集体名词一般是可数名词 ? 物质名词和抽象名词一般是不可数名词
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名词复数的规则变化
以s, sh, ch, x等结尾 加 -es bus-buses/ watch-watches 以ce, se, ze,等结尾 加 -s license-licenses 以辅音字母+y结尾 变y 为i再加es baby--babies 以o 结尾的名词,变复数时:加es,如 potato--potatoes tomato--tomatoes 但是,以元音+o 或oo结尾的词 只加 s radio---radios zoo---zoos;

以f或fe 结尾的名词变复数时: a. 加s,如: belief---beliefs roof---roofs b. 去f,fe 加ves,如:half---halves knife---knives leaf---leaves wolf---wolves wife---wives life- thief-

名词复数的不规则变化
1)child---children foot---feet man---men tooth--teeth mouse--mice woman—women 2) 单复同形,如deer,sheep,fish, Chinese,Japanese , 3)集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。 例如:people,police,cattle 等本身就是复数 4) 以s结尾,仍为单数的名词,如:maths, politics,physics学科名词, news等

名词的格

英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系,带这种词 尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格,如:a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下: 1) 单数名词词尾加"'s",如the boy's bag 男孩的书包, 复数名词词尾没有s,也要加"'s",如men's room 男 厕所。 2) 若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加" ' ",如:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。 3) 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有"; 只有一个's,则表示'共有'。例如: ? John?s and Mary?s rooms(两间) ? John and Mary's room(一间)

冠词
a 不定冠词 an 定冠词 the
零冠词 不使用冠词

冠词的 分类

不定冠词的用法

1. 2.

a用在以辅音音素开头的单词前. an用在以元音音素开头的单词前.

e.g. __book a a __ useful book
基本用法:

___ egg an ___ underground room an

指人或事物的某一种类

e.g. She is a girl. 她是女孩. This is a desk. 这是一张书桌.

3. I can see a kite. e.g. 4.

泛指某人或者某物,但又不具体说明何人何物. A boy is in Grade 1. 我能看见一只风筝. 一个男孩在一年级

表示“数量”, “有一”“每一”的意思. e.g. We have six classes a day. 我们一天上六节课.

定冠词的用法

1. 2.

基本用法: “特指”. 特指某(些)人或者某(些)事 物,以便与其他的人或物有所区别.

e.g. The book on the desk is Jim?s. 书桌上的那本书是吉姆的. The chairs are there. 椅子在那里.

指谈话双方都知道的人或事物.

e.g. Where is the kite? 风筝在哪儿?(双方都知道指的是哪只风筝.) Open the door, please.请把门打开.(双方都知道要打开哪扇门.)

3. A:I can see a kite. e.g.

在叙述中,上文提到过的人或者事物,再次出现时. B:where is the kite?

我看见一只风筝. 这个风筝在那里?

4.

用在姓氏的复数名词前,表示“一家人” e.g. the Blacks 布来克一家

定冠词的用法

5.

用在宇宙间独一无二的天体名词之前.
the sky the moon the earth

e.g. the sun

6.用在序数词和形容词最高级,及形容词only, very, same 前.
e.g. I live on the second floor. 我住在二楼 Skating is the best sport in winter. 滑冰是冬天最好的运动.

7. 与单数名词连用表示一类事物,如the dollar 美元; the fox 狐狸
或与形容词或分词连用,表示一类人:the living 生者。

8.

用在表示乐器的名词之前. e.g. the violin the piano

定冠词的用法

9.

用在一些习惯用语中 e.g. in the day in the morning / aftrnoon/ evening the day before tomorrow/ yesterday the next morning / week/ month/ year in the sky/ water/ field/ country in the dark in the rain in the distance in the middle (of) in the end on the whole by the way go to the theatre (cinema)

不使用冠词的情况
零冠词的用法
e.g. Our books those apples Jim?s pen

1. 名词前有了物主代词、指示代词、不定代词和“S”所有格时。 2. 附复数名词在表示一类人或者事物时。
e.g. They are teachers. 他们是老师。 在专有名词前 3. e.g. China England

4.

在星期、月份、节日前 e.g. on Sunday in August

on Children?s Day

不使用冠词的情况
零冠词的用法

5. 在球类运动前及三餐名词前。
e.g. play football/ basketball have supper

6. 在一些固定搭配中

e.g.

at night go to school at table by bike at work go to bed at school at home watch TV

下列词组中,有无冠词意义不同。 go to school _______ 上学

去学校 go to the school _______ take place 发生 ______

代替 take the place of ______ in front of 在……的前面 ____________

in the front of 在……的前部 ____________

数 词
(1)基数词—表示数量的多少one,two,ten (2)序数词—表示数的顺序 first,second, twelfth 其前要加上冠词the或代词。序数词的 缩写形式如first---1st second---2nd thirty-first---31st等。

(1)年、月、日、时刻表达法 2005年4月10日-April 10,2005,6时-6:00, 5月1日-May 1,12时-12 o?clock, 5:30-half past five, 8:45-a quarter to nine, (2)分数\小数和百分数的表达方法 o.15-zero point one five 40% forty percent 56% fifty-six percen (3)分数表示法的构成:基数词代表分子,序数词代 表分母。分子大于1时,分子的序数词用单数,分母 序数词用复数。例如: 1/3 one-third;3/37 three thirty-sevenths.

代词
一.概念: 代词是代替名词的词, 按其意义、特征 及其在句中的作用分为:人称代词、物主代 词、指示代词、反身代词、相互代词、疑问 代词、不定代词和关系代词等。

二.相关知识点精讲
1.人称代词 1)人称代词的人称、数和格,如下表所示。

2)人称代词有主格和宾格之分。通常主格作 主语,宾格作宾语。如: I like table tennis. (作主语) Do you know him?(作宾语) 3)人称代词还可作表语。作表语时用宾格。 如:---Who is knocking at the door? ---It?s me. 4)人称代词在than之后与其他人或事物进行 比较时,用主格和宾格都可以。如: He is older than me. He is older than I am.

2. 物主代词 1)表示所有关系的代词叫物主代词。物主代词 分形容词性物主代词和名词性 物主代词,如下表所示。

2)形容词性物主代词的作用相当于形容词, 可在句中作定语。例如: Our teacher is coming to see us. This is her pencil-box. 3)名词性物主代词的作用相当于名词,在句 中可用作主语、宾语和表语。 Our school is here, and theirs is there.(作 主语) --- Is this English-book yours? (作表语) --- No. Mine is in my bag. I've already finished my homework. Have you finished yours? (作宾语)

3. 指示代词 指示代词包括:this,that,these,those。 1) this和these一般用来指在时间或空间上 较近的事物或人,that和those 则指时间和空间上较远的事物或人,例如: This is a pen and that is a pencil. We are busy these days. In those days the workers had a hard time

2)有时that和those指前面讲到过的事 物,this 和these则是指下面将要讲 到的事物,例如: I had a cold. That?s why I didn?t come. What I want to say is this ; pronunciation is very important in learning English.

3)有时为了避免重复提到的名词,常可 用that或those代替,例如: Television sets made in Beijing are just as good as those made in Shanghai.
4)this 在电话用语中代表自己,that 则 代表对方。例如: Hello! This is Mary. Is that Jack speaking?

4. 反身代词 英语中用来表示"我自己","你自己", "他自己","我们自己","你们自己" 等意义的代词称为反身代词,也有人称之为 自身代名词,其形式如表所示。

反身代词可以在句中作宾语,表语,同位 语。 1)作宾语,表示动作的承受者就是动作的 发出者,主语和宾语指同一个人或一些人。 He called himself a writer. 2)作表语。 It doesn?t matter. I?ll be myself soon. 3)作主语或宾语的同位语,表示亲自或本 人。 I myself washed the clothes.

反身代词
? enjoy

oneself, ? make oneself at home, ? make oneself understood\heard for oneself为自己, ? of oneself自然地,自动地 by oneself独自地,
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中文

主格

宾格

所有格 名词性物代

反身代词



I

me

my

mine

myself

我们

we us our ours ourselves 你 you you your yours yourself 你们 you you your yours yourselves


he it

him it

his its

his

himself




she her her

hers
its

herself
itself
themselves

他们 they them their theirs

5.不定代词: (1)some与any:some一般用于肯定句中,但 在表示请求并希望对方能给予肯定回答时, 可用于疑问句中;any一般用于否定和疑问 句中,但当any强调“任何”时,也可用于 肯定句中。 同理,something,somebody,someone的用 法 同 some; anything , anybody , anyone的 用法同any。

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用法:① some用于肯定句中,用于单数可数名词前表示“某 一”。 I have some friends. Smith went to some place in England.(定语)

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②在期待对方回答yes 时,some用在表示请求或邀请的问句中。 Would you like some bananas?(邀请) Mum,could you give me some money?(请求) ③any用于疑问句和否定句 。 Is there any student in the classroom? No ,there isn?t any student. ④ any用于肯定句表示“任何”的意思。 Any day is okay for me.

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one,both,all
one指人或物,“一个”,其复数为ones, ? This is not the one I want.(表语) ? both指人或指物,“两者都” This maths problem can be worked out in both ways.(定语) 注意:both用于否定句,表示部分否定;表示完全否 定时,用neither。 ? Both of us are not teachers.我们俩并不都是教师。 Neither of us is a teacher. 我们俩都不是教师。 both不能放在the、these、those、my等之后,而 应放在它们的前面。 ? 如:Both my parents like this film. ? All “全部的”、“整个的”,可与可数或不可数名词 连用,表示“所有的”、“全部的”,指三个或三个 以上的人或物。 He gave me all the money.他把全部的钱给了我。
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? All

the schools are flooded.所有的 学校都被淹了。 注意:all 用于否定句,表示部分否定, 完全否定用none。如: Not all the ants go out for food. ? All the ants don?t go out for food. ? 并不是所有的蚂蚁都出去寻找食物。 None of the money is mine. ? 这钱一分也不是我的。

many和much few, little; a few, a little
?few和little表示没有多少,含否

定意义;而a few 和a little表示 有一些,有几个,含肯定意义。 另外,few、a few 修饰可数名 词;little、a little修饰不可数名 词。它们在句中常用作定语、主 语和宾语。

each和every
? each(各个),指两个或两个以上的人或

物,侧重个体,在句中作主语、宾语、定 语和同位语。every(每个),指三个或三 个以上的人或物,侧重整体,在句中只能 作定语。 Every student in our class has a dictionary.(定语,强调班上“所有的人”) Each student in our class has a dictionary.(定语,强调各个个体) Each of them has been there.(主语) The teacher gave each of the students a new textbook.(宾语) We each got a ticket.(同位语)

either和neither
? either是“两者中任何一个”的意思,可修

饰或代替单数可数名词,neither是“两者中 没有一个”的意思,可以修饰或代替单数可 数名词,它们可在句在作主语、宾语或定语。 如: Here are two pens. You may take either of them.(宾语) Neither boy knows French.(定语)

Other, others ,the other, the others 和 another
the other表示“两者中的另一个”; ? other意思是“其他的”,不能单独使用,后面必须接 名词,表泛指;others可指其他的人或东西,相当于 other+名词复数; ? the others特指其他某些人或物,相当于the other+ 名词复数。 ? another修饰或代替单数可数名词,意为“(三个或 三个以上的)另一个”,不能指两者中的另一个,在 句中可作宾语和定语。
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He got two books; one is textbook, the other is a novel. Five of the pencils are red, the others(the other pens)are yellow. Some students are singing, others (other students)are dancing. Please give me another book.

6.相互代词:each other用于两者或两者以 上;one another用于三者或三者以上,在 现代英语中它们可通用。 7.疑问代词:what指事或物,不强调范围 ;who(whom,whose)指人;which既可指 人也可指物,但强调范围。 8.关系代词:what,who,whom,whose ,which,that,as,

引导词 it

代词 it

The Use of “it”
It句型的归纳 Sentences With “it”

代词 --- it
1 用作人称代词,代替前文提到过的事物
My pen is missing. I can?t find it anywhere. ---Who is knocking at the door? --- It?s me.

Jack is ill. Have you heard about it?

代词 --- it

2 用以代替指示代词this, that
--- Whose exercise-book is that? --- It?s hers. --- What?s this? --- It?s a flag.

3 表示时间、天气、距离 季节、 环境、情况等

代词 --- it

It?s time for lunch. When spring comes, it gets warmer and warmer. It?s about two hours from here to the zoo. It?s winter now. It was very quiet (noisy) at the moment.

引导词
1 作形式主语,代替由不定式(或不定 式复合结构)、动名词或从句表示的真正 主语。 It is exciting to find an ancient tomb. (代 替不定式) It was wrong for you not to help her. (代 替不定式复合结构) It is believed that this man found in the grave was from a rich family.(代替主语 从句)

引导词 2.作形式宾语,代替由不定式、 动名词或从句表示的真正宾语。 He feels it his duty to help others. We thought it no use doing that.

I find it difficult to solve the problem.

引导词 3.用在强调结构中。为了强调句子 的某一成分(通常是主语、宾语、或 地点状语或时间状语),常用强调结 构 “It is (was) + 被强调成分+ that (或who) …”

I saw Li Ping in the street yesterday.

it --- 强调结构
It was I that / who saw Li Ping in the street this morning. It was Li Ping that I saw in the street this morning. It was in the street that I saw Li Ping this morning. It was yesterday that I saw Li Ping in the street.

引导词 --- it 强调not until结构时将此结构置 于It is (was) … that…句型中, that后接肯定式。 I didn?t go to bed until I had finished my homework last night. It was … that … I not until I had finished my went homework last night to bed.

Sentences With “It” (It句型的归纳) 1. It + be + adj. + of sb. + 不定式 sb. + be + adj. + 不定式
It?s cruel of him to kill that animal. It is very kind of you to help us. ( = You are kind to help us. ) clever, bright, foolish, stupid, silly, wise, careful, careless, rude, impolite, nice, right, wrong, silly, good, brave, honest ,etc.

2. It + be + adj. + for sb. +to do
It is difficult for us to learn English. It is important for her to come to the party.

常见的形容词有: important, necessary, natural , easy , common , normal , hard , difficult , dangerous , unusual, rare , impossible , pleasant ,etc.

3. It + takes + sb. + some time +to do 表示“做某事花费某人多长时间” sb. + spend + some time + (in) doing
It took him some time to find the elephant.

He spent some time (in) finding the elephant.

4. It costs + sb. + some money +to do sth. cost + sb. + some money sb. spend + some money + on + sth. sb. pay + some money + for sth. sb. buy + sth. + for + some money

5. It is + no use + 动名词
It is no use regretting your past mistakes. It is no use crying over split milk. It is no good learning English without speaking English.
能以动名词作主语的这类句子并不多, 主要在以no good, no use, useless, worthwhile, 等词作表语的句子中用。

6. It + be + adj. /n. + that-clause
It is very clear that he?s tall like a tree. It is a pity that she has made such a mistake. Adj:obvious, necessary,right,strange, natural, true N:a fact, a shame, an honor, no wonder

7. It + be + 过去分词 + that-clause
It is said that he has been ill for years. He is said to have been ill for years. 适用于这种句型的动词有 report, announce, decide, learn, expect, arrange, suggest, etc.

8. It + looks as if / seems + that-clause
It seems that they are talking. It looks as if he is ill. 用于这种句型的动词 happen, turn out, appears等
It happened that she was not at home. It turned out that he was Bush?s father.

9. It is the first ( second ... ) time that ...
该句型中的 that 从句用完成时态。至于用 什么完成时态,由主句的谓语动词的时态 决定。如果是一般现在时,后面从句用现 在完成时态;如果是一般过去时,后面从 句则用过去完成时态, It is the first time I have been here. = This is the first time I have been here. It was the first time I had been here.

10. It + be + time + for It + be + time + (for sb.) + to do It + be + time + that 表示“该做某事了”
It is time for supper. It is time (for us ) to have supper. It is time that we had supper.
that从句中要用虚拟语气 It?s time that this problem was / should be solved

介词

早、午、晚要用in
? 例:in

the morning 在早上 ? in the afternoon 在下午 ? in the evening 在晚上 ? in the day 在白天

at黎明、午、夜、点与分
? 例:

at dawn, at daybreak 在黎明时候 ? at noon 在中午 at dusk 在黄昏 ? at night 在夜间 at midnight 在午夜 ? at nine fifteen 在9点15分 ? at ten thirty a.m. 在上午10点30分

年、月、年月、季节、周, 阳光、灯、影、衣、冒雨 in,
? 在“某年”,在“某月”,在“某年某月”

(但在某年某月某 日则用on),在四季,在第 几周等都要用in。 ? 即在阳光下,在灯下,在树阴下,穿衣、着 装、冒雨等都要用in。

将来时态in...以后
? They

will come back in 10 days. ? 他们将10天以后回来。 ? Come and see me in two days' time. ? 两天后来看我。(从现在开始) ? after... (从过去开始)

小处at大处in 有形with无形by,语言 、单位、材料in
The teacher is correcting the paper with a new pen. 这位教师正用一支新笔批改论文。(有形) "Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy" is a good opera. <<智取威虎山>>是—出好戏。(无形) 表示某种语言用in :In Chinese 表示度、量、衡单位的用in : in meter 表示材料用in :in bronze

特征、方面与方式、心情、成语惯用in
? The

Democratic Party was in power then. ? 那时民主党执政。特征 ? He has not been in good health for some years. 他几年来身体一直不好。特征 ? A good teacher must be an example in study. 一个好的教师必须是学习的模范。方面 ? in a good humour 心情(情绪)好 心情

介词at、to表方向, 攻击、位置、善、恶、分
? 介词at和to都可以表示方向;

用at表示方向时, 侧重于攻击的目标,往往表示恶意; ? 用to表示方向时,突出运动的位置或动作的 对象,侧重表示善意。 ? A.She came at me. 她向我扑过来。 ? B.She came to me. 她向我走过来。

日子、日期、年月日, 星期,年月日加上早午晚; 以下皆用on。
? on

Octorber the first 1949 1949年10月1日 ? on Saturday afternoon 星期六下午 ? on the morning of 18th 18日早晨

收音、农场,值日on
the radio 从收音机里 ? on TV 从电视里 ? on a farm 在农场 ? on duty 值日
? on

关于、基础、靠、著论
? Professor

Shen will give us a talk on travelling in America. ? 申教授将给我们做关于美国之行的报告。 ? Theory must be based on practice. 理论必须 以实践为基础。 ? The people in the south live on rice. 南方人 主食大米。(靠) ? On Reading 论读书

着、罢、出售、偷、公、假, 故意、支付,相反、准
? 注:“着”是指着火,罢指罢工,偷指偷偷

地,公指出差、办公事;假指休假,准指准 时。

步行、驴、马、玩笑on, cab,carriage用in

at山脚、门口在当前, 速、温、日落价核心
? 即在山脚下、在门口、在目前,速度、

以……速率、温度、在日落时、在……核心 要用at。

工具、同、和、随with, 具有,独立、就、原因
? With

the development of science and technology,more and more people can use computer to communicate with others. ? China is a very large country with a long history. 中国是一个历史悠久的大国。(具有) ? What is the matter with you? ? 怎么回事?(就,关于) ? With the help of my classmate

就......来说宾译主,对、有、方状
? 这里的with后边的宾语常译成主语。

wrong with your eyes? 你的眼睛 怎么啦? ? The doctor was very patient with his patients. 那位医生对患者非常耐心。(对) ? He was sitting in a chair with his hands folded. 他两手交叉在胸前坐在椅子上。(状 语)独立结构
? What's

海、陆、空、车、偶、被by, 单数人类known to man
? 例:

by land (air, sea, water, bus) 陆路(航空, 水陆,水路,乘公共汽车) ? by chance 偶然 by accident 偶然, ? It is known to man ... 众所周知... ? 这里用to man而不用by。即当单数又无冠词 的man和known搭配时,表示人类不用by。

this,that,tomorrow, yesterday,next, last, one 接 年、月、季、星期、周,介词省 略已习惯

over, under正上下 above, below则不然 低高below与above
plane flew above the city. 飞机飞过城 市上空。(高于城市并非正上方) ? A lamp was hanging over the table. 一盏 灯是在方桌上方。(正上方) ? The temperature in the room is below (or under) 30℃. 室温是摄氏30度以下。(数量词 两者皆可)
? The

beyond超出、无、不能 , against 靠着,对与反
? It's

quite beyond me (It is more than I can understand). 这我完全不懂。 ? beyond my control ? She leaned wearily against the railings. 她疲惫地靠着栏杆站着。(靠着)

besides, except分内外, among之内along沿 同类比较except,加for异类记心间。
? He?s

composition is good, except for some spelling mistakes. 他的这篇作文写 得很好,只是有几处拼写错误。 ? (非同类比较用except for)

原状because of, owing to, due to表语形容词
? AII

our achievements are due to the correct leadership of our Party. 我们的一 切成绩都归功于党。 (due to做表语形容词)

under后接修、建中,of,from物化分 before, after 表一点, ago, later表示一段
? 即before,

after常表示一个点的时间状语, 晚饭前 before supper ? 而ago,later常表示一段的时间状语。 ? 一分钟前 a minute ago

before可接完成时,ago过去级有限 这时的before是连词(也可做介词)
?I

had studied French for four months before I came here. 我来这儿以前就已学了 四个月法语了。 (before接完成时) ? He fell ill three days ago. 他病了三天了。 (ago则只能接动词过去式,同时注意瞬间动 词的问题。)

since以来during间 与之相比beside, 除了last but one。
但还有

? 即beside的一般用法是“在......旁边”,

“和......相比”等特殊用法。 ? 除了last but one,即but多指“除了”的意思, 也有“倒数第几”的意思。last but one即不是 最后一个。 ? I haven't told anybody but one. ? Look at the last page but one. 请看倒数第2页。

复不定for、找,价,原,对,给,段, 去,为,作,赞
? 复不定for,即用for引出的不定式复合结构,

也就是for加名(代)加不定式;找,意为找到, 提供; 价,意为价格、工资;原,意为原因; 段,意为时间或距离; 去,意为去某地或开往 某地;作,意为作为; 赞,意为赞成(用于系 表结构。)

快到、对、向towards,
? It's

getting on towards the end of term now. 现在已快到学期未了。(快到)

but for 否定用虚拟,复合介词待后言。
? but

for是“若不是”的意思。 ? But for our great Communist Party, we could never have today's happiness. 若没有 伟大的共产党,我们决不会有今天的幸福生活。 ? but for将在虚拟语气中详讲。

ing型由于、鉴,除了,除外与包含。 之后,关于,在……方面,有关介词 须记全。
由于; ? respecting鉴于: ? excepting 除了: ? including包含: ? regarding 关于:相当于about ? concerning 有关:
? considering

连词
? ? ?

?

连词(conjunction)是连接词、短语、从句或句子的词。连 词是虚词,在句中一般不重读,也不能在句中单独作句子成 分。 根据连词本身的含义及其所连接的成分的性质,可分为并列 连词和从属连词。 并列连词是连接并列关系的词、短语、从句或句子的连词, 例如:and(和), or(或者、否则), but(但是), for(因为), not only...but also(不仅...而且), neither...nor(即不...也不)。从 属连词是连接主从复合句的主句和从句的连词,例如:that, if(如果), whether(是否), when(当...时候), although(虽然), because(因为), so that(结果)。 从属连词本身的结构形式看,又可分为:简单连词,如: but, because, if;关联连词,如:not only...but also, as...as(和...一样);分词连词,如:supposing(假如), provided(倘若);短语连词,如:as if(好象), as soon as(一旦...就), in order that(以便)。

Conjunction

连词概说
作用:用来连接连接词、词组、句子或从句的 词。

并列连词 从属连词

一、并列连词
1.表示平行或对等关系的并列连词:
and, as well as, “和” ; both…and… “…和…两个都”; not only…but also… “不但…而且…” neither…nor… “既不…也不…” 等。

They work and live in Shenzhen. He is a scientist as well as a poet. A man should have both courage and perseverance. He can neither read nor write. He is not only clever but also diligent. She plays not only the piano, but (also) the guitar.

? not

only… but also 关联两个分句时,如 果是not only在句首,第一个句子必须倒装。

他不但喜欢读小说,还会写一些。 Not only does he like reading novels, but also he can write some.

2. 表示转折关系的并列连词:
but “但是”; however “然而”; while “而”;
yet “然而”; nevertheless “然而” 等。 He worked hard, but he failed at last. I?d like to go with you. However, my hands are full. She failed many times.Nevertheless, she went on with experiment. This is a glorious yet difficult task. Some people like coffee, while other like tea.

3. 表示选择关系的并列连词:
or “或者”; either…or… “要么…要么…” whether...or等。 We will die without air or water.

不是你对,就是我对。
Either you or I am right. Whether he will come or not is still unknown.

? Summary:

(主谓一致) 1.and, both…and, 连接两个并列主语时,谓语 一般用复数。 2.not only…but also, 连接两个并列主语时,谓 语一般以靠近谓语的主语为准——就近一致原 则。用到就近一直原则的连词还有:or, nor, either…or, neither…nor等 3.as well as, 连接两个并列主语时,谓语一般和 第一个主语一致——就远一致原则。用到这个 原则的连词还有:with, together with, along with等。

二.从属连词是用来引导连接主句和从句的连词。 分为引导名词性从句的连词和引导状语 从句的连词。 1. 引导名词性的从句

(1). that (2). 连接代词 who, whom, which, what (3). 连接副词 when, where,how,why,whether

2. 引导状语从句的连词

(1). 时间: when, while, as 当…时

when+瞬间,延续性动词
while+延续性动词

as+瞬间,延续性动词 “随着”
till/until, once, as soon as(一…就),

(2). 原因:

because, for, as, since, therefore, so, etc. 1) because 语气最重,引导的原因一般回答why提 出的问题,它是句子重心所在。 2) For是并列连词,所说明的原因只是一种补充 说明,它引导的分句一般不能放在句首。 3) as引导的从句表示明显为人所知的理由或不如 句子其余部分重要,它一般放于句首,也可放 在主句之后,常用语口语中,语气较because, since弱。 4) since与as意思相近,语气较as强,也较正式些, 一般放在句末,也可放在句首。

Mary was absent, because she was ill. It must have been rained last night, for the ground is wet. Since you?re ill, you don?t have to go to school today. As all the seats were full, she had to stand there for 2 hours. Mother is busy so I often help her. It rained.Therefore, the football match was postponed.

(3). 让步: though/ although不与but连用.
as(尽管), even if/ though (即使)
尽管天气冷,可他仍继续工作.

Though it was cold, he went on working. = Cold as it is , he went on working.

形容词

定义 :adjective 简称adj.形容词 用来修饰名词或代词, 表示人或 事物的性质, 状态,和特征。

用法 :形容词在句中作定语, 表语, 补语。
(1)放在名词前做定语。 She is a good student Mary is an honest, hardworking girl. (2)放在系动词之后作表语。 This film is very interesting. She looks younger than her age. (3)放在宾语后作宾语补足语。 We painted the wall white. His coming made us happy.

形容词的位置
1修饰some, any, every, no和body, thing,one等构成 的复合不定代词时形容词放在名词后面。 nobody absent, everything possible 2有最高级或only修饰的名词以-able, -ible结尾的形容词 可置于之后 the best book available, 3 alive, alike, awake, aware, asleep等可以后置 the person awake 4 用 and 或 or 连接起来的两个形容词作定语时一般把 它们放在被修饰的名词后面。 Everybody,old and young, should attend the meeting.

多个形容词修饰同一个名词的顺序:

?

形容词的比较级和最高级
1)单音节词和部分双音节词的比较级和最高级 形式是在词尾加 -er 和 -est 构成。 great (原级) greater(比较级) greatest(最高 级) 2) 以 -e 结尾的单音节形容词的比较级和最高 级是在词尾加 -r 和 -st 构成。 wide (原级) wider (比较级) widest (最高级) fine,late

3) 辅音字母-y 结尾的形容词的比较级和最高级 是把 -y 去掉,加上 -ier 和-est 构成. happy (原形) happier (比较级) happiest (最 高级) early 4) 以一个辅音字母结尾其前面的元音字母发短 元音的形容词的比较级和最高级是双写该辅 音字母然后再加 -er和-est。 big (原级) bigger (比较级) biggest (最高级) 5 ) 以 -er, -ow, -ble, -ple 结尾的双音节词,加er 或-est clever cleverer cleverest

多音节词和部分双音节词的形容 词的比较级和最高级需用more 和 most 加在形容词前面来构成。

不 规 则 变 化

beautiful big

more beautiful most beautiful bigger biggest

easy
wide clean clever pretty hot

easier easiest
wider widest cleaner cleanest cleverer cleverest prettier prettiest hotter hottest

bad/ill

worse worst

many/much more most little far difficult cheap less least farther\further farthest\furthest more difficult most difficult

cheaper cheapest
more important most important

important
exciting

more exciting most exciting
more interesting most interesting

interesting

1.What kind of dog doesn't bite or bark? hot dog热狗 2.Which room has no wall,no door,no window,and no floor? mushroom蘑菇 3.What has hands but no feet,a face but no eyes,tells but not talk? alarm clock闹钟 4.What is black when it is clean and white when it is dirty? blackboard黑板

形容词比较级的用法:
主语+谓语(系动词)+ 形容词比较级+than+ 对比成分。 我们的老师比我们的高。 Our teacher is taller than we are. 今天比昨天暖和。 It is warmer today than it was yesterday.

形容词最高级的用法:
她是班上最好的学生。 She is the best student in her class. 上海是中国最大城市之一。 Shanghai is one of the biggest cities in China. 这是我见到的最大的苹果。 This is the biggest apple I have ever met.

几个特殊用法:
“The+形容词比较级..., the+形容词比较级...”表 示 “ 越... 就越...”。 越多越好。 The more, the better. 你学的越多, 就知道的越多。 The more you learn, the more you know. 我越有就越想要有。 The more I have, the more I want.

" 形容词比较级 + and + 形容词比较 级 ", 表示 " 越来越... "。
天气越来越热了. It?s getting hotter and hotter. 他越来越穷了。 He is getting poorer and poorer.

主语+谓语(系动词)+as+形容词原形 +as+从句。表示两者对比相同。
? 这个盒子和我的一样大。 ? This

box is as big as mine. ? 这件衣服同那件衣服一样便宜。 ? This coat is as cheap as that one.

用形容词表示类别和整体
? 他经常帮助穷人。 ? He

always helps the poor. ? 我喜欢同年轻人谈话。 ? I like to have a talk with the young.

以-ly结尾的形容词
? 大部分形容词词加-ly可构成副词。但

friendly, deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively, ugly,brotherly,仍为形容词。 ? 有些以-ly 结尾的词既为形容词,也为副词。 daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early

more…than…有时表示“与其说…, 倒不如说…”
? 与其说他聪明,不如说他勤奋 ? He

is more diligent than wise. ? 与其说他是一位老师,不如说更像一位朋友 ? He is more a friend than a teacher.

“no+比较级+than…”和“not +比较级 +than…”所表示的意思不相同, 前者表 示“和…一样不…”(即两者都不…), 后 者表示“不比…更… ”(仅否定前者, 即 表示前者不如后者)
? His

English is no better than mine. ? (两人的英语都不好) ? His English is not better than mine. ? 他的英语不如我的英语好(仅否定 “他的英 语”) ? He is no taller than me. ? He is not taller than me.

有时用比较级表示最高级的意思, 如:
? She

can?t be more beautiful. ? He works harder than the other students in his class. ? He works harder than any other student in his class.

副词

(一)定义
副词adverbs缩写 adv.,是用来修饰 或说明动词、形容词或其他副词的词 类。说明时间、地点、程度、方式等 概念。 如:often经常,there那里,very很, slowly慢慢地

(二)副词的分类 副词分类
例词 now, then, often, 时间副词 early, never 地点副词 there,here,below,above 方式副词 well,slowly,hard,badly still,rather,much, 程度副词 hardly

关系副词

when,where,why

疑问副词 how,when,where,why
when,where,why, 连接副词 whether 其他副词 also,not,only,too

(三)副词的构成
1、本身即为副词,如 now, rather, very, there , how, when , too等 2、与形容词形式相同的副词, 如: early, high, wide, deep等

3、由“形容词+ly”构成副词,如: slow---slowly quick---quickly brave---bravely clear---clearly

形容詞轉變為副詞的方式
第一種: 形容詞和副詞相同, 例如:
?

early late fast coldly quickly sadly safely

?第二種:

在形容詞尾加上 ly cold actively ?active badly quick ?bad sad beautiful beautifully careful safe carefully

形容詞轉變為副詞的方式
第三種: 形容詞是辅音+y结尾,把y改 i+ly,例如:
?

easy heavy

?easily

?

happy hungry

?

happily

heavily

hungrily

lucky

luckily

第四種: 形容詞辅音e结尾, 去掉e, +y. 例如: comfortable comfortably

4、一些形容词本身即可做副词, 而加ly之后也为副词,但意义 不同,如: late晚,迟------lately最近 close亲密地------closely 亲密地,严密地

(四)副词在句中的作用 1、做状语 1)修饰动词,如: It’s raining heavily. 雨下得很大 2)修饰形容词,如: It’s rather a difficult job. 这是一项相当难的工作。

3)修饰其他副词,如: Don’t ride too fast. 不要骑得太快。 4)修饰介词短语 Where is the broom? 扫帚在哪里?

5) 修饰从句 This was exactly what he sa 这正是他所说的. 6) 修饰名词,代词及数词,如: Life here is full of joy.

2.做表语(一般位于系动词之后) The class is over. 下课了。 3.做介词宾语 Who is calling me from downstairs? 谁在楼下喊我?

4.做定语 (1)做定语放于被修饰词之后, 如: Are you content with the life here? (2)quite,such修饰名词时,放在修 饰词之前,如: He spent quite a long time there. 5.做补语 We were shown around by the young man.

副词的比较级和最高级用法同形容词的比较级 用法基本一样。但是,开放类副词即以后缀 ly结尾的副词不能像形容词那样加er或? est,如

quickly →more quickly →most quickly quietly →more quietly →most quietly 〔注〕: early中的?ly不是后缀,故可以 把?y变?i再加?er和?est 最高级形式句中 the 可以省略。

一般置于系动词之后,行为动词之前或 句末,too通常置于句末。either只能用于否 定句,而且必须置于句末 ? He is a technician. I am also a technician. ? He is a technician. I am a technician, too. 他是(个)技术员。我也是(个)技术员。 ? I don't know. You don't know, either? 我 不知道。你也不知道吗?
? also

动词

动词
? 动词(verb)是表示动作或状态的词,例如:

sign(签字),support(支持),have(有), exist(存在)等。

根据其在句中的功能,动词可分为四类,
? 实义动词(Notional

Verb) make, ? 系动词(Link Verb) ? 助动词(Auxiliary Verb) ? 情态动词(Modal Verb)

实义动词(Notional Verb)
? 实义动词有完全的词义,并能独立作谓语,

例如:explain(解释),stay(停留),have(有) 等。系动词作谓语时,后面需接表语。常见 英语系动词有:be(是),seem(似乎), look(看起来),become(变成),appear(显 得),get(变得),feel(感到),turn(变成), remain(仍然是)等。

实义动词还可根据是否需要宾语 分为及物动词和不及物动词。
?

?

及物动词(transitive verb)后面要跟宾语,意义才完整。 例如: You must consider the matter carefully.(the matter 是及物动词consider的宾语) Have you received the letter? (the letter是及物动词 receive的宾语) 不及物动词(intransitive verb)本身意义完整,后面不需 跟宾语,例如: The old man walked very slowly. (walked是不及物动 词) He didn't sleep well last night. (sleep是不及物动词)

及物动词、不及物动词,英语缩写形 式分别为vt. 和vi.。
? 说明:同一动词有时可用作及物动词,有时

可用作不及物动词。例如: She can dance and sing. (sing在此用作不及物动词。) She can sing many English songs. (sing用作及物动词。)

系动词(Link Verb)
亦称联系动词它本身有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,后边必须跟表语构成系表 结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。

?

1)状态系动词 用来表示主语状态,只有be一词, ? 2)持续系动词 用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep, remain, stay, ? 3)表像系动词 用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look, ? 4)感官系动词 感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste ? 5)变化系动词 这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,主要有become, get

情态动词
? 情态动词表示能力、义务、必要、猜测等说

话人的语气和情感。情态动词只能和原行动 词一起构成谓语动词。英语情态动词主要有 can(能够),may(可以,也许),must(必须) 及其过去形式could, might等。

助动词
? 助动词常和主要动词一起构成各种时态、语

态、语气等动词形式,以及用于否定和疑问 等结构中。英语助动词主要有shall, will, have, be, should, would, do等。

助动词
? 协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组的词叫助动

词(Auxiliary Verb)。最常用的助动词有: be, have, do, shall, will, should, would等

语态
? 语态(voice)是动词的一种形式,用以表示主语

和谓语之间的关系。 ? 语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。 ? 主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,如 ? Many people speak English. ? 被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者,如 ? English is spoken by many people.

The door was opened.
动词 ?过去分词

?Be

被动语态的构成

主动语态变为被动语态
?1)“主+谓+宾”句型变为被动结构:

He wrote an article. An article was written by him.
?2)“主+谓+宾+宾”

句型变为被动结

构:
? He ? ?

told her a long story. She was told a long story. A long story was told to her.

动词的时态
要求:掌握动词的各种时态,能选择正确 的时态写作。

教学大纲要求的常用的8种时态:
一般 现在 过去 将来 过去将来 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 过去将来时 进行 现在进行时 过去进行时 将来进行时 完成 现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时 完成进行 现在完成进行时 过去完成进行时 将来完成进行时 过去将来完成进 行时

过 去 将 来 进 过去将来完 行时 成时

一般现在时&现在进行时
? 一般现在时:
? 现在进行时:

习惯性,经常发生的动作。 正在进行,持续,未完成。

一般现在时的用法
1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状 语连用。时间状语: every…, sometimes,例如: ? I leave home for school at 7 every morning. ? 2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。例如: ? The earth moves around the sun. 地球绕太阳转动。 ? 3) 表示格言或警句。例如: ? Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。 ? 注意:2,3用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是 过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。 ? 例:Columbus proved that the earth is round. ? 4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。例如: ? Ann writes good English but does not speak well.
?

现在进行时 表示说话此刻或现阶段正在进行的 行为,be(am/is/are)+现在分词

She is running

用法1

表示说话此刻正在进行的行为。(时间特征: now, at the moment;动作提示:look, )如: We are waiting for you now. Look, they are swimming.

用法2
现阶段的行为——表示长期的动作,说话时 动作未必正在进行。(时间特征:this term, these days)例如: Mr. Green is writing another novel. 他在写另一部小说。 How are you doing at school this term. 你这学期学习情况如何?

用法3
表示渐变,这样的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, begin等。 It’s getting warmer and warmer. 天越来越热了。 The leaves are turning red. 叶子在变红。

现在完成时
? 现在完成时:结构: ? have

(has) +过去分词。

1. 表示动作已经完成,强调过去发生的某一动 作对现在造成的影响和结果。常与一些时间 状语连用:如:already; yet; by this time; just; ever; never; so far ; till now ; before; now that等。 They have already finished reading the text .

He has seen the film before.

2)表示动作发生在过去,且一直延续到现在, 甚至还可能延续下去。常与since 引导的从 句或短语,或for (有时省去)+时间积累数 连用。 I have lived in the small village since last year.

14

3. 有些瞬间性动词不能和表示一段时 间的时间状语连用。要连用时须用状 态动词。成对的词有:

Become/be; die/be dead; leave/ be away; join the army/serve the army…

一般过去时

1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。 时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。 Where did you go just now? 2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。 When I was a child, I often played football in the street. 3)wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探 性的询问、请求、建议等。 I thought you might have some.

比较一般过去时与现在完成时
1)一般过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙 述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生 的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响。 ? 2)一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在 完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间状语。 ? 一般过去时的时间状语:yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now等 ? 现在完成时的时间状语:for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now,by 等,皆不 确定的时间状语。
?

I saw this film yesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了) I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内 容已经知道了) Why did you get up so early? (强调起床的动作已发 生过了) Who hasn't handed in his paper? (强调有卷子未交, 疑为不公平竞争) 句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如yesterday, last, week, in 1960)时,不能用现在完成时,要用过去时。 Tom has written a letter to his parents last night. Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.

过去进行时

1) 概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。 2) 过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背 景;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。 ? My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. ? It was raining when they left the station. ? When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining. 3) 常用的时间状语 ? this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while

过去完成时
1) 概念:表示过去的过去 2) 用法a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词 后的宾语从句。 She said (that) she had never been to Paris. b. 状语从句 在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完 成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。 When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. 3) 过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。 He said that he had learned some English before. By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself.

一般将来时
1)

shall用于第一人称,will 在陈述句中用于各人称,。 ? Which paragraph shall I read first. 2) be going to +不定式,表示将来。 ? a. 主语的意图,即将做某事。 ? What are you going to do tomorrow? ? b. 计划,安排要发生的事。 ? The play is going to be produced next month。 3) be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。 ? We are to discuss the report next Saturday. 4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。 ? He is about to leave for Beijing. ? 注意:be about to 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表 示明确将来时的时间状语连用。

将来进行时
概念:表示将来某时进行的状态或动作, 或按预测将来会发生的事情。 ? She'll be coming soon. ? I'll be meeting him sometime in the future. ? 2)常用的时间状语 ? Soon, tomorrow, this evening,on Sunday, by this time , tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening ? By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach.
? 1)
?

将来完成时
1) 构成will / be going to have done sth. 2) 概念 a. 状态完成:表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有 的状态。 b. 动作完成:表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之 前,已经完成的动作或一获得的经验。 They will have been married for 20 years by then. You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow.

感叹词
? 感叹词(interjection)是表示喜怒哀乐等感情

的词,例如:oh, well, why, hello等。 ? 上述十大词类中,名词、代词、形容词、副 词、动词、数词等都有实义,故称为实词 (notioal word);而介词、冠词、连词、感叹 词等没有实义,故称为虚词(form word)。

一词多类
? 不少词可以属于几个词类,例如:smoke(名

词) (烟尘),(动词) (吸烟);own(形容词) (自 己的),(动词) (拥有);just(副词) (刚才),(形 容词) (正义的);key(名词) (钥匙),(形容词) (主要的),等。

句子
句子是由词按照一定的语法结构组成的,是 能表达一个完整概念的语言单位.句子的第 一个字母必须大写,结尾要有.?



I am a teacher.

Are you a student?
How beautiful the girl is !

句子成分

?英语的句子成分一般包括
? 主语
? 谓语

? 宾语
? 定语 ? 补语 ? 状语 ? 表语 ? 同位语

?主语(Subject) 主语是句子的主体,是句子所要说明的人或事物。 书本是知识的源泉。 Book is the resource of knowledge. 主语通常是一些代表事物性或实体性的名词。 除了名词可担任主语外,还有代词、数词、 动词不定式、动名词、从句均可作主语.它的位置 一般在句首.但在there be结构、疑问句(当主 语不疑问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语、助 动词或情态动词后面。 ? What he has said is true.

?谓语(Predicate)
谓语说明主语“做什么”、“是什么”或“怎么样”, 由动词来担任.一般放在主语之后由简单动词或者动词 短语构成. ? 1、简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。 ? 如:He practices running every morning. ? 2、复合谓语: ? (1)由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。 ? 如:You may keep the book for two weeks. ? He has caught a bad cold. ? (2)由系动词加表语构成。如:We are students. They are students. 他们是学生。



宾语(Object)
?

宾语是动作,行为的对象或承受者 ,由名词,代词,短语, 不定式,动名词,从句充当.它和及物动词一起说明主语做了 什么,在谓语之后和介词后面 .有宾语的动词称为及物动词,宾语 They went to see an exhibition(展览)yesterday.(名 词) The heavy rain prevented me form coming to school on time.(代词) How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.(数词) They helped the old with their housework yesterday. (名词化形容词) He pretended not to see me.(不定式短语) I enjoy listening to popular music.(动名词短语) I think(that)he is fit for his office.(宾语从句)

一般在及物动词之后,

宾语种类:
(1)双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语), ? 例如:Lend me your dictionary, please. (2)复合宾语(宾语+宾补), ? 例如:They elected him their monitor.

?Predicative

( 表语)

表语用以说明主语的身份,特征和状态,它一 般位于系动词(如 be, become ,get, look, turn, seem 等)之后.
He is an astronaut(宇航员). His job is to teach English. What I wa nt to know is when we will have the sports meeting.

表语一般由名词,代词,形容词, 数词,不定式, 动名词,过去分词, 以及表语从句表示.

Our teacher of English is an American.(名词) ? Is it yours?(代词) ? The weather has turned cold.(形容词) ? The speech is exciting.(分词) ? Three times seven is twenty one?(数词) ? His job is to teach English.(不定式) ? His hobby(爱好)is playing football.(动名词) ? The machine must be out of order.(介词短语) ? Time is up. The class is over.(副词) ? The truth is that he has never been abroad.(表 语从句)
?

?定语

(Attribute)

定语是用来修饰名词或代词的,如: I like red apple .我喜欢红苹果. 一般为形容词。除形容词之外,数词、名词、动 词不定式、动名词、从句等,都可作定语。汉

语中常用‘……的’表示。通常位于被修饰的成分前。 若修饰some,any,every,no构成的复合不定代词时, (如:something、nothing);或不定式、分词短 语作定语、从句作定语时,则定语通常置后。副词用 作定语时须放在名词之后。

They made paper flowers. 他们生产纸花。 I have something to tell you. 我有事要告诉你。

? Guilin

is a beautiful city.(形容词) ? China is a developing country; America is a developed country.(分 词) ? There are thirty women teachers in our school.(名词) ? His rapid progress in English made us surprised.(代词) ? Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.(不定式短语) ? The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.(动名词) ? He is reading an article about how to

状语(Adverbial)
? 状语:修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说

明动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫做状语。状语 表示地点、时间、原因、目的、结果、条件、让 步、程度、方式、伴随情况等。作状语的有副词、 名词、介词短语、分词及其短语、动词不定式及 其短语、状语从句等。
? Light

travels most quickly.(副词及副词性词

组) ? He has lived in the city for ten years.(介词 短语)

状语在句子中的位置很灵活,常见情况为: ? 1)通常在句子基本结构之后,强调时放在句首; ? 2)修饰形容词或副词时,通常位于被修饰的词之前; ? 3)表示时间、地点、目的的状语一般位于句子两头, 强调时放在句首,地点状语一般须在时间状语之前; ? 4)一些表示不确定时间(如:often)或程度(如: almost)的副词状语通常位于be动词、助动词、情 态动词之后,动词之前。

? 有时状语在句中的某个位置会引起歧义,应

注意. 如:The boy calls the girl in the classroom.一 般理解成‘男孩喊教室里的女孩(此时in the classroom为girl的定语); 也可以理解为‘男孩在教室里喊女孩’(此时 in the classroom为地点状语),最好写做: In the classroom, the boy calls the girl.

状语种类如下:
?

?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

How about meeting again at six?(时间状语) Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.(原因状语) I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.(条件状语) Mr Smith lives on the third floor.(地点状语) She put the eggs into the basket with great care.(方式 状语) She came in with a dictionary in her hand.(伴随状语) In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.(目的状语) He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.(结果 状语) She works very hard though she is old.(让步状语) I am taller than he is.(比较状语)

补足语(Complement)
? ?

在英语中,有些句子只有宾语并不能表达完整的意思,还必须在 宾语后面加上宾语补足语才能表达完整的意思.它起补充说明宾 语干什么,怎么样的作用. 它可以由名词,形容词,副词,介词短语,不定式,从句,现在 分词和过去分词充当.带有宾语补足语的一般句型为:某些及物 动词(如make等+宾语+宾补) His father named him Dongming.(名词) They painted their boat white.(形容词) Let the fresh air in.(副词) You mustn?t force him to lend his money to you.(不定式 短语) We saw her entering the room.(现在分词) We found everything in the lab in good order.(介词短语) We will soon make our city what your city is now.(从句)

?同位语(Appositive)

同位语用来对一个词或词的内容加以补充和说明。 它通常位于其说明的词或词组之后并列名词或 代词,近乎于后置定语。
We students should study hard. / (students是we 的同位语,都是指同一批‘学生’) ? We all are students. / (all是we的同位语,都指同样 的‘我们’) We Chinese are hard-working. You two are very lazy. The truth that he has never been abroad makes me suprised.

I met my best friend Tom at the station yesterday. ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 主 谓 定 宾 状 同 语 语 语 语 语 位 语

补充独立成分:
有时句子中会有一些与句子没有语法联系的成分, 称为句子独立成分(注意:区别于分词独立结构)。 ? 感叹词:oh,hello,aha,ah,等。 ? 肯定词yes ? 否定词no ? 称呼语:称呼人的用语。 ? 插入语:一些句中插入的 I think , I believe,等。 ? 如: The story,I think,has never come to the end./我 相信,这个故事还远没结束. ? 情态词,表示说话人的语气(多作为修饰全句的状 语):perhaps也许,maybe大概,acturely实际 上,certainly当然,等。
?

指出下列句子划线部是什么句子成分:
? ? ? ? ? ?

?
? ? ?

1. The students got on the school bus. 2. He handed me the newspaper. 3. I shall answer your question after class. 4. What a beautiful Chinese painting! 5. They went hunting together early in the morning. 6. His job is to train swimmers. 7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing. 8. There is going to be an American film tonight. 9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow. 10. His wish is to become a scientist.

?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

11. He managed to finish the work in time. 12. Tom came to ask me for advice. 13. He found it important to master English. 14. Do you have anything else to say? 15. To be honest; your pronunciation is not so good. 16. Would you please tell me your address? 17. He sat there, reading a newspaper. 18. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy. 19. He noticed a man enter the room. 20. The apples tasted sweet.

? 句子成分练习题(

一) ? (一). 指出下列句中主语的中心词(4分, 4分 钟) ? ① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ? ② There is an old man coming here. ? ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. ? ④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult.

(二) 选出句中谓语的中心词(10分, 10分钟) ? ① I don't like the picture on the wall. ? A. don't B. like C. picture D. wall ? ② The days get longer and longer when summer comes. ? A. get B. longer C. days D. summer ? ③ Do you usually go to school by bus? ? A. Do B. usually C.go D. bus ? ④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. ? A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon ? ⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast? ? A.Did B. twins C. have D. breakfast
?

⑥ Tom didn't do his homework yesterday. ? A. Tom B. didn't C. do D. his homework ? ⑦ What I want to tell you is this. ? A. want B. to tell C. you D. is ? ⑧ We had better send for a doctor. ? A. We B. had C. send D. doctor ? ⑨ He is interested in music. ? A. is B. interested C. in D. music ? ⑩ Whom did you give my book to? ? A. give B.did C. whom D. book
?

(三) 挑出下列句中的宾语(10分,10分钟) ? ① My brother hasn't done his homework. ? ② People all over the world speak English. ? ③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation. ? ④ How many new words did you learn last class? ? ⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you? ? ⑥ The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. ? ⑦ They made him monitor of the class. ? ⑧ Go across the bridge and you will find the museum on the left. ? ⑨ You will find it useful after you leave school. ? ⑩ They didn't know who "Father Christmas" really is.
?

? (四)
?①

挑出下列句中的表语(5分, 5分钟)

The old man was feeling very tired. ? ② Why is he worried about Jim? ? ③ The leaves have turned yellow. ? ④ Soon They all became interested in the subject. ? ⑤ She was the first to learn about it.

? (五)
?①

挑出下列句中的定语(6分,6分钟)

They use Mr, Mrs with the family name. ? ② What is your given name? ? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ? ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ? ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep. ? ⑥ I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe!

挑出下列句中的宾语补足语(6分, 6分 钟) ? ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. ? ② He asked her to take the boy out of school. ? ③ She found it difficult to do the work. ? ④ They call me Lily sometimes. ? ⑤ I saw Mr Wang get on the bus. ? ⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now?
? (六)

(七) 挑出下列句中的状语(8分, 8分钟) ? ① There was a big smile on her face. ? ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ? ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ? ④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast. ? ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. ? ⑥ She loves the library because she loves books. ? ⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must pay for it. ? ⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine.
?

划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语(5分, 5分钟) ? ① Please tell us a story. ? ② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ? ③ Mr Li is going to teach us history next term. ? ④ Here is a pen.Give it to Tom. ? ⑤ Did he leave any message for me?
? (八)

句子成分练习题( 二 ) ? 指出下列句子中划线部分的句子成分: ? 1.Whether we’ll go depend on the weather . ? 2. People’s standards of living are going up steadily . ? 3. That was how they were defeated. ? 4.The nursery takes good care of our children . ? 5.I’ll return the book to you tomorrow . ? 6.We are sure that we shall succeed . ? 7.The woman with a baby in her arms is his other . 8.There are many film that I’d like to see. ? 9.Have you met the person about whom he was speaking ? ? 10.I have a lot of work to do .
?

?

?
? ? ? ? ?

?
? ?

11.Anyway I won’t stop you from doing it . 12.I said it in fun . 13.We can send a car over to fetch you . 14.She had to work standing up . 15.Seeing this ,some comrades became very worried . 16.Much interested , he agreed to give it a try . 17.The bus arrived ten minutes late . 18.We should serve the people heart and soul. 19.Spring coming on , the tree turned green . 20.Some farmers saw something strange in the sky .

?
? ?

?
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21.We think it necessary that everyone should attend the meeting . 22.It’s strange that she doesn’t come today . 23.It was in the library that I come today . 24.He likes drawing at times when he isn’t working . 25.We left in such a hurry that we forgot to lock the door.

? ?

句子成分练习题( 三 ) A

1、 ___ six years since I began to study English. A. It is B. I have been C. There are D. It was ? 2 、___ in the room at that time. A. Nobody was B. Someone were C. Who is D. He are ? 3 、IT'S very noisy outside. ___ is going on? A. Who B. What C. Which D. Where ? 4、 ___ in English in class every day is important. A. Speak B. Talking C. Saying D. To tell ? 5 、There must be____ near the factory. A. a book store B. book store C. books store D. books stores ? 6 、Although it's raining hard, ___ are still working in the fields. A. but they B. and they C. they D. since they
?

B ? 1、 The doctor as well as the nurses ___ great concern for the patients. A. show B. shows C. have shown D. are showing ? 2、 Your son must be a clever boy, ___ he? A. is B. isn't C. must D. mustn't ? 3、 The computer center, ___ last year, is very popular among students in this school. A. open B. opening C. opened D. being opened ? 4 、I ___ go to the shop today, for there is a lot of food at home. A. mustn't B. had to C. can't D. needn't ? 5 、Don't ___ excited. A. get B. is C. seem D. look ? 6 This room ___ every morning. A. is cleaning B. is cleaned C. cleans D. cleaning
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C ? 1、 Glad to meet you! ___ is your full name? A. What B. Where C. How D. Who ? 2、 He is ___ to lift the heavy box. A. too weak B. weak tooC. enough weak D. weak enough ? 3、 The days are ___ warmer and warmer in spring. A. getting B. looking C. seeming D. going ? 4 、His job is____English. A. teach B. to teach C. taught D. teaches ? 5 、Two balls are___. A. under the desk B. in the wall C. to here D. at desks
?

? ? ?

?
?

?

? ?

D 1 、We should get ready___ others. A. helping B. to help C. help D. help with 2、 ___interesting work we are doing? A. What a B. How C. What D. What an 3、 I want___ a teacher when I grow up . A. to be B. to C. be D. being 4、 -Would you like to go on a picnic with me today? -I don't think so. To be honest, I really don't feel like___on a picnic. A. going B. to go C. go D. went 5 Do you know___? A. where does he live B. where he lives C. where he live D. if where he lives 6 Let ____ do it again. A. I B. me C. he D. she 7 I don't know___. A. how to do B. what to do C. where to do D. when to do

?E

1、 I saw him ___ basketball with Jack an hour ago. A. plays B. to play C. played D. play ? 2、 Sorry, we've kept you___ for a long time. A. waited B. sing C. stand D. waiting ? 3 、The teacher told us ____ late again. A. aren't be B. don't be C. not to be D. not be ? 4 、We find the room very___. A. warm B. warmly C. terribly D. hardly
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F ? 1 、I found ___ difficult to work together with him. A. it B. its C. that D. those ? 2 、We all know ___ our duty to clean our classroom after school every day. A. that B. this C. which D. it ? 3、 He found ___ very interesting to play with the little dog. A. what B. it C. / D. that G ? ( ) 1 Tom said he ___ a good dream yesterday evening. A. dream B. dreamed C. have D. has ? ( ) 2 Children ___ a happy life in China. A. lead B. living C. has D. leading
?

H ? ( ) 1 America, Japan and Canada are___countries. A. developing B. developed C. less developed D. develop ? ( ) 2 -___ skirt is that on the chair? -Let me see. Oh, no, it's not mine. A. Whose B. What C. Who's D. Which ? ( ) 3 Do you have anything ___? A. saying B. to say C. said D. say ? ( ) 4 Look, there is an___tree by the wall. A. apple B. apple's C. apples' D. apples ? ( ) 5 Where is____seat? A. yours B. your C. you D. yourselves
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I ? ( ) 1 The box is ___ heavy for her ___ carry. A. very; to B. too; not to C. too; to D. very too; to ? 2 -___ did you buy the new bag? -Last Monday. A. Where B. How C. When D. Who ? 3 You can see these signs in a hospital. ___ can you see them? A. Where else B. Where place else C. Where else place D. Else where ? 4 They went out ___ their old friends. A. visit B. visiting C. to visit D. visited ? 5 There is a wide river____ our village. A. outside B. over C. from D. below
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?J

1 The young man, ___ works in the office. A. me brother B. my brother C. my brothers D. me ? 2 Our English teacher, ___ often helps us with study. A. Mrs Wang B. Mrs5 WangC. MrsWang's . D. of him ? 3 ___, some railway workers are busy repairing the train. A. Them B. He C. They D. Theirs
?

种类 类型

第1 种

S+V

主语 谓语 表语/宾 S 动词 语 v p We work He We

宾语 0

宾补 oc

第2 S+V+0 种 第3 S+v+p 种

plays violin.
are student s

第4 S+v+IO+DO she 种 第5 S+V+O+OC He 种

gave

me

a pen. laugh

made me

英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句 型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基 本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。 英语五种基本句型列式如下:

一: S V (主+谓) 二:S V O (主+谓+宾) 三:S V P (主+谓+表) 四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) 五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补)

1.S(主) + Vi(不及物动词)(谓) Time flies.
1) S + Vi + adverbial(状语) Birds sing beautifully. 2) S + Vi+ prep Phrase(介词短语) He went on holiday. 3) S + Vi+ Infinitive (不定式) We stopped to have a rest. 4) S + Vi+ Participle (分词) I'll go swimming.

2. S (主)+ Vt (及物动词)(谓)+ O(宾) We like English. 1) S + VT + N/Pron I like music. 2) S + VT + infinitive(不定式) I want to help him. 常用于这句型的动词有:attempt, dare, decide, desire, expect, hope, intend, learn, need, offer, pretend, propose, purpose, refuse, want, 等。 3) S + VT + Wh-Word + Infinitive I don't know what to do. 常用于这句型的动词有:ask, consider, decide, discover, explain, find out, forget, guess, inquire, know, learn, observe, remember, see, settle, tell, think, understand, wonder等。

4) S + VT + Gerund I enjoy living here. 常用于这句型的动词有:admit, advise, avoid, consider, defend, enjoy, excuse, finish, forbid, mind, miss, practise, risk, suggest, give up, can't help等。 5) S + VT + That-clause I don't think (that) he is right. 常用于这句型的动词有:Admit, believe, command, confess, declare, demand, deny, doubt, expect, explain, feel(觉得), hear(听说), hope, imagine, intend, know, mean, mind(当心), notice, propose, request, report, say, see(看出),show, suggest, suppose, think, understand, wish, wonder(觉得奇怪)。

3. S (主)+ V(谓)(lv)( 系动词)+ P(表) We are Chinese. 除了be 系动词外,还有一些动词也可以用作系 动词,1)表感官的动词,feel, smell, taste, sound, look, appear, seem 等。2) 表转变变化 的动词,become, get, grow, turn, go,等。 3) 表延续的动词 remain, keep, seem, hold, stay, rest等。4)表瞬时的动词 come, fall, set, cut, occur等 5)其他动词 eat, lie, prove, ring, run, shine, sit, stand, continue, hang等。

?

1) S + Lv + N/Pron(名词/代词) He is a boy. This is mine. 2) S + Lv + Adj(形容词) She is beautiful. 3) S + Lv + Adv (副词) Class is over. 4) S + Lv + Prep Phrase He is in good health. 5) S + Lv + Participle(分词) He is excited. The film is interesting.

4. S (主)+ VT (谓)+ In O(间接 宾) + D O (直接 宾) I give you help. 1) S + VT + N/Pron + N I sent him a book. I bought May a book. 2) S + VT + N/Pron + To/for-phrase He sent a book to me. He bought a coat for me.

间接宾语前需要加to 的常用动词有:allow, bring, deny, do(带来), give, grant, hand, leave, lend, offer, owe, pass, pay, permit, promise, read, refuse, render, restore, sell, send, show, teach, tell wish, write等。 间接宾语前需要加for 的常用动词有:bring, buy, cash, choose, fetch, get, leave, make, order, paint, play(演奏),save, sing, spare 等。

5. S (主)+ VT(谓)+ O(宾) + O C(宾补) I make you clear.

1) S + VT + N/Pron + N We named our baby Tom. 常用于这句型的动词有:appoint, call, choose, elect, entitle, find, make, name, nominate(命 名)。 2) S + VT + N/Pron + Adj He painted the wall white. 常用于这句型的动词有:beat, boil, cut, drive, find, get, hold, keep, leave, like, make, paint, see, set, turn, want, wash, wipe, wish等。 3) S + VT + N/Pron + Prep Phrase She always keeps everything in good order.

4) S + VT + N/Pron + Infinitive I wish you to stay. I made him work 常用于这句型的动词有:a)不定式带to的词:advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, choose, command, decide, encourage, expect, force, get, hate, invite, know, leave, like, love, order, permit, persuade, prefer, remain, request, teach, tell, want, warn, wish等。b) 不定式不带to的词:feel, have, hear, know, let, listen to, look at, make, notice, see, watch等。 5) S + VT + N/Pron + Participle (分词) I heard my name called. I feel something moving. 常用于这句型的动词有:catch, feel, find, get, have, hear, imagine, keep, leave, listen to, look at, notice, observe, perceive, see, set, smell, start, watch等。

6) S + VT + N/Pron + Wh-word + Infinitive He show me how to do it. 常用于这句型的动词有:advise, ask, inform, show, teach, tell等。 7) S + VT + N/Pron + That-clause He told me that the film was great. 常用于这句型的动词有:assure, inform, promise, remind, teach, tell, warn等。 8) S + VT + N/Pron + Wh-Clause He asked me what he should do. 常用于这句型的动词有:Advise, ask, inform, show, teach, tell.

常用的英语句子除了基本句型的成分不变通 常是在这些成分的前面或后面增加一些修饰语 (modifier)而加以扩大。这些修饰语可以是单 词(主要是形容词、副词和数词),也可以是 各种类型的短语(主要是介词短语、不定式短语 和分词短语)。 We found the hall full. 我们发现礼堂坐满了。 We found the great hall full of students and teachers. 我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师。

We found the great hall full of students and teachers listening to an important report. 我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师,在听一个重 要报告。 We found the great hall full of students and teachers listening to an important report made by a comrade from the People's Daily on current affairs in East Europe. 我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师,在听人民日 报的一位同志作有关东欧局势的重要报告。

? Whether

sports stars should earn a high salary is still discussed heatedly. ? The advanced medical technology has made it possible for people to live longer than ever possible before.

? Many

studies have shown that people who play violent games regularly are more likely to show high levels of aggression(侵犯). For instance, in 2000, Craig Anderson of Iowa State University in Ames and his colleague Karen Dill found that people who played violent games were more likely to admit to aggressive behaviour, including attacks or robberies.

对过去事情的推测:

Must have done May\ Might have done Can \Could have done Should have done Ought to have done Needn?t have done Shouldn?t have done Can?t \Couldn?t have done

肯定已经做过某事 可能已经做过某事 本来可以做某事但没做 本来应该做某事但没做 本来应该做某事但没做 本来不需要做某事 本来不应该做某事 不可能已经做过某事


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