1. 关系代词 that – which; whose; which – as 的用法比较； 2. 关系代词和关系副词的用法比较； 3. 介词加关系代词引导的定语从句； 4. 定语从句与并列句的区别。
定义：在复合句中， 修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。 如： 1) Do you know t
he man who/that is standing over there? 2) The girl that/who/whom we were talking about is Joan. 3) Did you see the pen that/which I lost yesterday? 4) He told me the date when/on which he joined the League. 5) The place where/in which he lives is far away from here.
先行词：定语从句所修饰的名词或代词，例1)中的man 就是先行 词。 1) Do you know the man who/that is standing over there? 2) The girl that/who/whom we were talking about is Joan. 3) Did you see the pen that/which I lost yesterday?
关系代词 关系词：引导定语从句的关联词称为关系词。分为 关系副词
1.引导定语从句。 关系词的3个作用： 2.代替先行词。
引 导 定 语 从 句 的 词
关系代词和关系副词放在先行词 与定语从句中间起联系的作用， 同时作定语从句的一个成分。
when, where, why
分析关系词在定语从句中的作用 1) Do you know the man who/that is standing over there?
指人 作主语 注意谓语动词
2) The girl (that/who/whom) we were talking about is Joan.
指人 作宾语 可省略
3) Did you see the pen (that/which) I lost yesterday?
指物 作宾语 可省略
4) He told me the date when/on which he joined the League.
5) The place where/in which he lives is far away from here.
6) Can you tell me the reason why/for which you are late?
7) Who is the person whose handwriting is the best of you?
8) The book that/which is about the USA has been lost.
指物 作主语 注意谓语动词
关 系 代 词 的 用 法 小 结
指 人 的 关 系 代 词
主语 宾语 定语
主谓 一致 that/which
指 物 的 关 系 代 词
表示时间，在 从句中作时间 状语
介词加关系代词引导定语从句的用法 关系代词which和whom 除了在定语从句中作及物动词的宾语外， 还可以作介词的宾语。在作介词的宾语时，可以跟介词一起放在 整个定语从句的前面（此时关系代词不能省略),为了使关系代词
介词的定语从句。如: 1) That is the room in which I live. (or: That is the room which /that I live in.) 2) I met the man to whom you talked yesterday.
(or: I met the man whom /that/ who you talked to yesterday.)
1)This is the school that /which I visited last year.
2) We didn’t accept the reason that/which he gave . 宾语 3) I shall never forget the days that /which we spent in the countryside. 宾语
4) He told me the date that /which was the most important to him
in his life. 主语
注1： 当 介 词 放 在 相 关 动 词 后 面 时 ， which 可 用 that 来 替 换 ； whom可用that 或 who 来替换。此时关系代词可以省略。如： 1) That is the room (that ) I live in. 2) I met the man (that) you talked to yesterday.
注2： 如果关系代词作含有介词的动词短语的宾语，此时动词短语 不拆开，介词仍放在动词的后面。如： Wrong: This is the pen for which I am looking.
This is the pen which I am looking for.
注3： 当先行词是way（方式、方法）时，根据英语的习惯常用 that来代替in which 来引导定语从句， 而且也常常省略；另外当 先行词是time（次，其前面用序数词修饰）时，根据英语的习惯
常用that来代替for which 来引导定语从句。如：
1) The way (that) we did it was very simple.
2) This is the first time (that) we shall see an English film.
关系代词指物时，多数情况下既可以用that 又可以用which。 如： 1) This is the book that (which) I bought yesterday. 2) Don’t read in light that (which) is too bright.
?先行词为all, little, nothing, anything, something , everything,
much, a few 等不定代词时。 ?当先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much, a few等不定代 词修饰时。 ?当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时。 ?当先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last 修饰时。 ?当定语从句修饰用两个或两个以上分别表示人和物的先行词的 时候。 ?当主句是以 which 开头的特殊疑问句时，为了避免重复，一般 用that 来引导定语从句。
在下列情况下，一般习惯用that 而不用which。 ?当一个句子有两个定语从句，其中一个已用which，另一个则 用that。如：We bought a present which they made themselves that had never been seen before. ?在 here be 或 there be 结 构 开 头 的 句 子 中 ， 多 用 that 。 如 ： Here’s the book that you want.
c.当先行词和定语从句相隔离时宜用who。如：I met a foreigner in the street yesterday who could asked me questions in Chinese. d.当一个句子带有两个定语从句时，其中一个用that，另一个宜用 who。如： The man that you met in the street yesterday is the one who stole your wallet.
只能用which的情况： 1.介词提到关系代词前 The city in which she lives is far away.
The city which/that she lives in is far away.
I am reading Harry Porter, which is an interesting book.
He failed in the exam, which made his parents angry.
as引导的限制性定语从句 as 在定语从句中作主语、宾语或表语。as 常用于the same...as, such... as , as... as和so...as 结构中。as 引导的定语从句常采用 省略形式。如： 1）I have never seen such a lazy man as you (are ). 我从来没有见过像你这样懒的人。（作表语）
2) Let children read such books as will make them better and wiser.让孩子们读使他们变得更好、更聪明的书。（作主语）
3) Take as many as you want.你想要多少就拿多少。（作宾语）
4) Here is so big a stone as no man can lift.这儿有一块没人能搬
注：the same...后既可以用that 也可以用 as 来引导定语从句，
1) This is the same pen that I lost yesterday. ( This sentence means: This pen is mine. I lost it yesterday.) 2) This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. ( This sentence means: This pen is very much like the one that I lost yesterday. In fact, it isn’t mine.)
1.限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语， 如果去掉， 主句的意思就不完整或失去意义。这种从句和主句关系十分密切， 写时不用逗号分开。
加说明， 如果去掉，主句的意思仍然清楚。这种从句和主句，写 时往往用逗号分开。译法上译成先行词的定语“??的”，通常 译成主句的并列句。
1）I was the only person in my office who was invited. 我是我们办公室惟一被邀请的人。（如果把从句部分去掉，整个 句子的含义就变了） 2）Football, which is a very interesting game, is played all over the world. 足球是一项非常有趣的运动，全世界都踢足球。（如果把从句部 分去掉，句子意思仍然清楚）
2. 非限制性定语从句中的一些问题： 指物时，用which而不用that； 指人时主格用who，宾格用whom，物主格用whose（也可指物）；
1. as和which都可以表示主句在意义上的连贯，在从句中作主语， 或用作及物动词的宾语，如： He married her， which／as was natural． I was very useful to him， which／as he realized．
2. as指前面提到过的事实或情况，可以放在句首、句末，也可以 插入主句中，而which指前面提到的事实或情况，一般放在主句 之后（有时也可用as），如： As our teacher points out， that book is of benefit to everyone． Heat is a form of energy， as is known to all of us． This machine， as might be expected， has stopped operating．
3.as含有正如、按照、正像之意，一般用在肯定句中，而which 则可以用于含否定意义的句子中，如： He failed in the exam again， as was expected．? He failed in the exam again， which was unexpected．
4.当关系代词代表主句引起的结果，又作主谓宾补（svoc）结构 中的主语时，多用which，如： He saw the girl, which delighted him． He didn’t pass the exam, which made his mother angry．
as has been said before 如前所述
as often happens 正像经常发生的那样
as is well known 众所周知 as will be shown in Fig 3 将如图3所示 as we know 正如我们知道的那样 as may be imagined 这可以想像得出来 as we all can see 正如我们大家看到的那样 as follows 如下
1. Here are such sentences as are often used by the students. ( as指 代sentences,谓语动词用are)。 2. I, who am a Party member, should work hard for our country.( who指代I, 谓语用am)。
3. He was one of the students who were praised for it. ( who指代the
students) 他是被表扬的学生之一。 4. He was the only one of the students who was praised for it. ( who 指代the only one) 他是惟一被表扬的学生。
定语从句的缩略 1. 缩略为分词短语 有些定语从句可直接略去作主语的关系代词who, which,例如： 1) I know the men (who are )sitting in that car. 2) The boys helped the people (that were )hurt in the accident.
3) The problem (which is) bothering everybody is the lack of
4) The book (that has been) given to him is an English novel. 有些定语从句不能按上述方法直接缩略，而需变动词为现在分词， 这类定语从句一般缩略为现在分词短语，且在缩略时要考虑现在 分词的时态和词态特征。 例如： 5) The man who owns that car will be fined for illegal parking. →The man owning that car will be fined for illegal parking.
6) Bill, who had taken chemistry in the high school, offered to help him. → Bill, having taken chemistry in the high school , offered to help
7) Now, however, the furniture which they are carrying down to the
truck feels very heavy.
→Now, however, the furniture being carried down to the truck feels very heavy.
2. 缩略为形容词短语 若定语从句为主系表结构，且表语由形容词短语充当，可直接
1) The men (who were ) responsible for the administration of the school refused to consider the matter .
2) We said goodbye to Mrs. Long, (who was) still busy at her chores. 3) The puppy, (which was) too excited to be calmed, barked furiously.
3．缩略为名词短语 由名词短语作表语的非限制性定语从句略去作主语的关系代词 和连系动词便成为名词短语作同位语。例如：
1 ） The company commander, (who was) Captain Madison,
assembled his men and announced their mission.连队指挥官，墨迪 逊上尉，把战士们集合起来宣布他们的战斗任务。 2）You should have a talk with Mr. Worth, (who is ) the adviser to students.你应该和沃斯先生——学生顾问谈一谈。
3) We finally reached Rio, (which was) the end of our journey.
4．缩略为介词短语 若定语从句为主系表句型，且表语为介词短语，可略去主语关系 代词和连系动词，使之缩略为介词短语作后置定语。例如:
He spoke to the girl (who was) from New York.
此外，若定语从句中含“有”动词（has, have, had），用介词
with / without 替代定语从句中主语关系代词和“有”动词，使定
语从句缩略为介词 with / without 短语作后置定语。with 适用于肯
1)The company wants men who have experience. →The company wants men with experience. 2）My father went up to the woman who had a book under her arm. → My father went up to the woman with a book under her arm.
5. 缩略为动词不定式短语 某些含情态动词或助动词的定语从句可缩略为动词不定式 短语作后置定语。
1)误：The watch which my sister gave it to me as a present was
made in Swiss.
正：The watch which my sister gave to me as a present was
made in Swiss.
2)误：That’s the hotel where we spent three days there. 正：That’s the hotel where we spent three days .
1)误：Those who breaks the rule should be punished.
正：Those who break the rule should be punished.
2)误：She is the only one of the students who are able to play
正：She is the only one of the students who is able to play the
3.介词误用。 1)误：This is the very ruler for which I’m looking. 正：This is the very ruler which I’m looking for.
2) 误：The stories about the Long March, for which this is an
example , are well written.
正：The stories about the Long March, of which this is an
example , are well written.
4.关系词省略错误 1） 误：Anyone breaks the law must be punished. 正：Anyone who breaks the law must be punished. 2）误：Is this the factory you worked five years ago? 正：Is this the factory where/at which you worked five years ago?
定语从句与强调句型的区别: 1) 误: It was yesterday when he came here. 正: It was yesterday that he came here.(强调时间) 2) 误:Was it because he was ill why he didn’t come to work? 正: Was it because he was ill that he didn’t come to work?(强 调原因)
3)误：It was the war which made the children orphans. 正：It was the war that made the children orphans.(强调事物) 4)It was I that (who) went to the Great Wall with him on Sunday. (强调人) 5）It was me that (who, whom) he cheated.他欺骗的是我。 (强调 人)
定语从句的关系词较多,如关系代词:that, which, who(m), whose, as,关系副词where, when, why等。
定语从句记忆口诀 that which 可互换， 下列情况要照办，that 用法比较多 不妨对你说一说：不定代词这路货 要用that 准没错；先行词前有限制 千万不要用which;要用which 别着急； 介词提前逗隔离。