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动词的ing形式讲解


一、动词的 ing 形式可以充当的成分 判断练习:

Seeing is believing. I suggested asking his brother for some money. China is a developing country. I’m sorry to have kept you waiting. Having made full pr

eparations, we are ready for the examination. Being ill, he didn't go to school yesterday. His father died, leaving him a lot of money. Working hard at your lessons, you will succeed. Knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage. He lay on the grass, staring at the sky for a long time.

二、动词 ing 形式成分 1.动词的-ing 形式可直接置于句首作主语。 Seeing is believing. Collecting stamps is interesting. 注意: 为了保持句子平衡,通常用先行词 it 作形式主语,而把真正的主语放在句末。注 意动词-ing 形式作主语的几个常用句型。 It is no use crying over spilt milk. It's a waste of time arguing about it. 2.动词的-ing 形式作表语 动词的-ing 形式作表语的有两种不同的含义: 1.表示主语的内容是什么。 Her job is keeping the lecture hall as clean as possible. 2.表示主语具有的特征。 The problem is quite puzzling. The food at the dinner party did not seem very inviting. 比较: 一般说来,动词的-ing 形式表示一般性、习惯性或抽象性的动作,时间

概念不强。 而动词不定式表示的动作往往是具体的或一次性的动作,特别是将来 的动作。 They prefer staying indoors when the weather is cold. (泛指) Would you prefer to stay at home this evening.(具体) [考例]1. The speech was very ______, and we were ______ to tears. A. moved; moved B. moving; moving C. moving; moved D. moved; moving [考例]2. Her job is _____ all the children . A. look after B. looking after C. to look after D. having look after

3. 动词的-ing 形式作宾语: 动词的-ing 形式既可作及物动词的宾语,也可作介词的宾语。 1.作动词的宾语 ① 只能用-ing 形式作宾语的动词 这类动词只能用-ing 形式作宾语,不能用不定式作宾语。 eg:I suggest doing it in a different way. 注意:只接动词的-ing 形式而不接不定式作宾语的动词有: admit 承认 appreciate 感激 avoid 避免 consider 考虑 delay 耽搁 enjoy 喜欢 escape 避免 excuse 原谅 feel like 意欲 finish 完成 forgive 原谅 give up 放弃 cannot help 情不自禁 imagine 设想 keep 保持 mention 提及 mind 介意 miss 逃 过 put off 推迟 practice 练习 risk 冒险 ② 既可用动词-ing 形式作宾语,也可用不定式作宾语 这类动词虽然既能用-ing 形式作宾语,也能用不定式作宾语,但用法并不相同, 主要有以下几种情况: a. 有些动词,如 continue, hate, intend, like, love, prefer 等,后面接动词的-ing 形 式或不定式区别不是很大。 They prefer spending /to spend their summer vacation in Dalian. I intend to buy /buying an English-Chinese dictionary. b、跟不定式和动词的-ing 形式皆可,但意义相差很大的动词 这类动词常用的有:

① try:try to do sth. 尽力做难做的事; try doing sth. 试着做某一件可能会出现某一结果的事。 He tried to stand up but failed. Let’s try telling him about the sad news. ② regret:regret to do sth. 对马上要做的事表示遗憾; regret doing sth.对已发生的事表示遗憾或后悔。 I really regret missing/having missed his lecture. I regret to tell you that I cannot come. ③ can’t help:can’t help doing sth.禁不住; can’t help (to) do sth. 不能帮忙干… I couldn’t help shaking with so few clothes on. I can’t help to clean the place up. ④ mean:mean to do sth. 想做; mean doing sth. 意味着。如: Wasting time means killing life. Revolution means liberating the productive forces. ⑤ forget:forget doing sth. 忘了已做过的事; forget to do sth. 忘记将要做的事。如: I forgot telling him about the news. Don’t forget to wake me up at 6 tomorrow morning. ⑥ go on:go on doing sth. 继续干未干完的事(强调动作的持续) ; go on to do sth. 继续干另一件事(强调事情的转接) The old man went on doing his work after a short rest. The old man went on to play another song. ⑦ remember:remember doing sth. 指记着做过的事; remember to do sth.记着要做事。如: Please remember to come on time. I still remember being taken to the Science Museum for the first time. ⑧ stop:stop to do sth. 停下正在做的动作去做另一动作;

stop doing sth. 停止做动名词所表示的动作。如: We stopped (in order /so as) to have a rest. Don’t stop trying once again. c. need, require, want 作“需要”解时,后面接-ing 形式的主动形式或不定式的被动 形式,意义上并无差别,但用-ing 形式比较普通。 Your composition needs correcting /to be corrected. His coat wants cleaning /to be cleaned. The old woman requires looking after carefully / to be looked after carefully. [考例]1. The man insisted _____ a taxi for me even though I told him I lived nearby. A. find B. to find C. on finding D. in finding [考例]2 . ---- You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting. ----- Well, now I regret _____ that . . to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having done

4. 动词的-ing 形式作宾语补足语 1. 动词的-ing 形式可以在 see, hear, notice, watch, feel, smell, look at, listen to, observe, find 等表示感官和心理状态的动词后面作宾语补足语. We heard the children shouting upstairs. 2.动词的-ing 形式和不定式作宾语补语的区别 在 see, hear, feel, watch, notice 等感官动词后,既可用动词的-ing 形式构成复合 宾语,也可用不定式构成复合宾语,两者之间有一定的区别。用动词的-ing 形式 时, 表示动作正在进行; 用不定式时, 表示动作发生了, 即动作的全过程结束了。 He saw a girl getting on the car. (She was getting on the car.) He saw a girl get on the car and drive off. (She got on the car and drove off.) 3. 动词的-ing 形式也可用在 have, get, leave, keep, set, catch 等表示“致使”的动词 后作宾语补足语。 They should not leave us wondering what they will do next. [考例]1. He looked around and caught a man ______ his hand into the pocket of a passenger. A. put B. to be putting C. to put D. putting

[考例]2. Don’t leave the water ______ while you brush your teeth. A. run B. running C. being run D. to run

5. 动词的-ing 形式作定语 1.单个的动词的-ing 形式可以作前置定语,一般有两种含义。 ① 说明被修饰名词的用途和性能。 a sewing machine 缝纫机 a swimming pool 游泳池 a dining car 餐车 a walking stick 手杖 a waiting room 候车室 ② 表示所修饰的人或物的动作或状态,在意思上接近一个定语从句,可以表示正 在进行的动作,也可表示经常性动作或当时的状态。 a disappointing play 令人失望的戏剧 an astonishing adventure 惊人的冒险 boiling water 正在沸腾的水 a sleeping baby 熟睡的婴儿 failing sight 逐渐衰退 的视力 2.作定语的-ing 形式如是一个短语,则应放在被修饰词的后面。 The bottle containing vinegar should be sent to the laboratory. They lived in a house facing south. 3.有些情况下,动词的-ing 形式不能用来作定语,必须使用定语从句。 ① 作定语的-ing 形式表示的动作要与主句谓语的动作同时发生,如两者不能同时 发生的话, 则需使用定语从句。 【误】The professor coming here yesterday will give us a lecture. 【正】The professor who came here yesterday will give us a lecture. ② -ing 形式的完成式一般只用来作状语,不作定语。 【误】The temple having been destroyed by the earthquake will be rebuilt soon. 【正】The temple which has been destroyed by the earthquake will be rebuilt soon. [考例]1. Mr. Smith ,________ of the ______ speech, started to read a novel. A. tired; boring B. tiring; bored C. tired; bored D. tiring; boring [考例]2 . When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door ______ “Sorry to miss you ; I will call later.” A. read B. reads C. to read D. reading

6. 动词的-ing 形式作状语 动词的-ing 形式可以作状语,修饰动词,在句中表示时间、原因、结果、条件、 让步、行为方式或伴随情况等。-ing 形式作时间、原因、条件、让步状语时多位 于句首;作结果、伴随情况状语时常位于句末。 1.表示时间,相当于一个时间状语从句。 Seeing those pictures, she remembered her childhood. (= When she saw those pictures...) [考例] The old man , ______ abroad for twenty years, is on the way back to his motherland. A. to work B. working C. to have worked D. having worked [考例] ______ in the queue for half an hour , Tom suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at home. A. To wait B. Have waited C. Having waited D. To have waited 2.表示原因,相当于一个原因状语从句。 Not knowing his address, I can't send this book to him. (= As I don't know his address...) [考例]_____ a reply, he decided to write again. A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C.Not having received D.Having not received 3.表示结果,相当于一个并列谓语。 His father died, leaving him a lot of money. (= ... and left him a lot of money) [考例] European football is played in 80 countries , ______ it the most popular sport in the world. A. making B. makes C. made D. to made 4.表示条件,相当于一个条件状语从句。 Going straight down the road, you will find the department store. (= If you go straight down the road...) [考例] ____ more attention, the tree could have grown better. A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given

5.表示让步,相当于一个让步状语从句。 Knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage. (= Although they knew all this...) 6.表示行为方式、伴随情况或补充说明,相当于一个并列结构。 She came into the house, carrying a lot of books. (= ...and carried a lot of books) [考例]. “We can’t go out in this weather,” said Bob, ______ out of the window. A. looking B. to look C. looked D. having looked

三、动词-ing 形式的特征和种类 A.动词 -ing 形式 动词-ing 形式的一般式可用来表示和谓语动词同时发生的动作。 They went out of the classroom, talking and laughing. 动词的-ing 形式的完成式表示一个已完成的动作,这个动作发生或完成在谓语 动词表示的动作之前。 Having lived in this city for three years, she knows it very well. B. 动词-ing 形式的被动形式 动词的-ing 形式的逻辑主语是动作的承受者时, 动词 ing 形式一般需用被动形式. 1.一般式的被动形式 I can't stand being kept waiting. 2.完成式的被动形式 I heard of his having been chosen to be the coach of the team. C. 动词-ing 形式的否定形式 动词的-ing 形式的否定形式是由 not 加动词的-ing 形式构成。 His not coming made everyone present very disappointed. I'm sorry for not being present at the meeting in time.

四、动词的-ing 形式的逻辑主语 比较:

He insisted on doing it himself. 他坚持要自己做。 (doing it 的逻辑主语是句子的 主语“他”) He insisted on my doing it. 他坚持要我做。 (doing it 的逻辑主语是“我”) Would you mind opening the window 请你把窗子打开好吗?( opening the window 的逻辑主语是“你”) Would you mind my opening the window 你介意我把窗子打开吗? (opening the window 的逻辑主语是“我”) 如果动词-ing 形式需要自己的逻辑主语时,一般在 ing 形式前加物主代词或名 词所有格(即名词后加's) ,这种“逻辑主语+动名词”的结构称为动名词复合结构。 在口语中,当这种结构用作宾语时,物主代词可以用宾格,名词还可用普通格来 代替所有格。 His father's falling ill worried him greatly. (his father 是 falling ill 的逻辑主语) Your coming to work with us will be a great encouragement to us. (you 是 coming to work with us 的逻辑主语) Would you mind my/me using your telephone? She insisted on Peter’s/ Peter going there first.

五、分词独立主格结构 注意: 动词的-ing 形式作状语时,其逻辑主语一般应与句子的主语保持一致。 【误】Looking out through the window, the garden was beautiful. (looking out through the window 的逻辑主语是 the garden,显然不对) 【正】Looking out through the window, we saw a beautiful garden. 如不能和句子中的主语保持一致,分词必须有自己的逻辑主语,通常有名词或代 词来担任,这种结构成为分词的独立主格结构,分词的独立主格不是句子,因为 没有实际的主语和谓语, 该结构一般放在句首或句尾, 作状语, 表示时间, 原因, 方式等。 高中阶段有一些固定的 -ing 形式短语,如 generally speaking, judging from..., considering..., supposing... ,taking everything into consideration…(全盘考虑)等,

它们的逻辑主语可以和句子的主语不一致。这种-ing 短语已经成为固定的用法 。 Generally speaking, boys are more interested in science than girls. Judging from his accent, he must come from Canada. 例题: 1. When asked by the police, he said that he remembered __________ at the party, but not _______. A. to arrive; leaving C. arriving; leaving B. to arrive; to leave D. arriving; to leave

解析: C. 句意为:当被警察询问时,他说他记得宴会时的情景,却想不起离开时 的情景。remember 后面跟动名词作宾语,表示“对过去做过的事情还记得”;后 接不定式作宾语,表示“记着去做某事”,动作尚未发生。 2. I couldn't do my homework with all that noise ___________. A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on

解析: C. 句意为: 有那么大的吵闹声, 我做不了作业。 with all that noise going on 是一个独立主格形式,go on 与 noise 是主动关系,在句中作原因状语。 3. Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, _______ a record US $57.65 a barrel on April 4. A. have reached B. reaching C. to reach D. to be reaching

解析: B. 句意为: 石油价格自从去年初已增长 32%,在 4 月 4 日已创下每桶 57.65 美元的记录。此处用现在分词表示石油价格增长的结果。having reached 是现在 分词的完成式,表示发生在石油价格增长之前,显然不对;to reach 在句中要么 作目的状语,要么与 only 连用作结果状语,表示出人意料的结果。 4. He glanced over at her, __________ that though she was tiny, she seemed very well put together. A. noticing B. noticed C. to notice D. having noticed

解析: A. 句意为: 他大量了一下她,注意到虽然她长得小,但似乎体型非常好。 注意空格处不是谓语, 所以不要选 B 项, 因为并列谓语要用 glanced over at her and noticed…。此处应该是结果状语,C 项表示目的;D 项是现在分词的完成式,表 示该动作发生在谓语动词之前,所以也不正确。 5. I send you 100 dollars today, the rest ________ in a year.

A. follows

B. followed

C. to follow

D. being followed

解析: C. 句意为:我今天给你送来 100 美元,其余的明年给你。the rest…不是一 个分词,而是独立主格形式作说明性状语。其形式是:名词+不定式。不定式在 此处表示 "将来"的时间概念。

练习: 一、单项选择 1. As I'll be away for at least a year, I'd appreciate ________ now and then telling me how everyone is getting along. A. hearing B. to hear C. to be hearing D. having heard

2. The teacher didn’t feel like ______ hem on the spot. A. correct B. correcting C. to correct D. corrected

3. With the old man ________ the way, we had no trouble in ________ that cave. A. leads, find B. leading, finding C. led, to find D. was leading, found

4. I remember __________ for the job, but I forget the exact amount. A. to pay B. paying C. to have paid D. being paid

5. He was seen ___________ out. A. go B. to go C. went D. goes

6. He hasn’t got used ________ in the countryside. A. live B. to live C. to living D. living

7. We don’t allow ________ in the lecture room. A. to smoke B. smoke C. smoking D. to smoking

8. I’m looking forward to __________ from you soon. A. hear B. heard C. hearing D. being heard

9. She doesn’t mind _________ at home alone though she may feel lonely. A. leave B. being left C. leaving D. to be left

10. People from all the corners came to the city, __________ it very crowded. A. to make B. and making C. made D. making

11. ________ all the time is the key to _________ progress in English. A. Practise, making B. To practise, making

C. Practise, make

D. To practise, make

12. Only one of these books is ____________. A. worth to read reading 13. They knew her very well. They had seen her _______ up from childhood. A. grow B. grew C. was growing D. to grow B. worth being read C. worth of reading D. worth

14. She reached the top of the hill and stopped _________ on a big rock by the side of the path. A. to have rested B. resting C. to rest D. rest

15._________ a reply, he decided to write again. A. Not receiving C. Not having received B. Receiving not D. Having not received

16. European football is played in 80 countries, ________ it the popular sport in the world. A. making B. makes C. made D. to make

17. One learns a language by making mistakes and __________ them. A. correct B. correcting C. corrects D. to correct

18. __________ at the door before entering please. A. Knocked B. To knock C. Knocking D. Knock

19. ________ such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river. A. Having suffered B. Suffering C. To suffer D. Suffered

20. He sent me an-email, __________ to get further information. A. hoped B. hoping C. to hope D. hope

21. Tony was very unhappy for ________ to the party. A. having not been invited C. having not invited B. not having invited D. not having been invited

22. Though ________money, his parents managed to send him to university. A. lacked C. lacking B. lacking of D. lacked in

23. How about the two of us ________a walk down the garden? A. to take C. taking B. take D. to be taking

24. ________is a good form of exercise for both young and old. A. The walk C. To walk B. Walking D. Walk

25. —I must apologize for ________ahead of time. —That’s all right. A. letting you not know C. letting you know not B. not letting you know D. letting not you know

二、说出下列动名词短语在句中的作用 1 Would you mind carrying this suitcases for us? 2 It has been so nice meeting you. 3 The main difficulty was finding enough raw material. 4 The real problem is knowing what to write. 5 It was annoying not being able to remember the new words. 6 Working in the open air has given you a good color. 7 The girls are all fond of dancing. 8 It made him ill drinking so much whisky. 9 Your job will be looking after the cows.

三、 【自我提升】 1. As I'll be away for at least a year, I'd appreciate ________ now and then telling me how everyone is getting along. A. hearing B. to hear C. to be hearing D. having heard

2. The teacher didn’t feel like ______ him on the spot. A. correct B. correcting C. to correct D. corrected

3. With the old man ________ the way, we had no trouble in ________ that cave. A. leads, find B. leading, finding C. led, to find D. was leading, found

4. I remember __________ for the job, but I forget the exact amount.

A. to pay

B. paying

C. to have paid

D. being paid

5. He was seen ___________ out. A. go B. to go C. went D. goes

6. He hasn’t got used ________ in the countryside. A. live B. to live C. to living D. living

7. We don’t allow ________ in the lecture room. A. to smoke B. smoke C. smoking D. to smoking

8. I’m looking forward to __________ from you soon. A. hear B. heard C. hearing D. being heard

9. She doesn’t mind _________ at home alone though she may feel lonely. A. leave B. being left C. leaving D. to be left

10. People from all the corners came to the city, __________ it very crowded. A. to make B. and making C. made D. making

11. ________ all the time is the key to _________ progress in English. A. Practise, making C. Practise, make B. To practise, making D. To practise, make

12. Only one of these books is ____________. A. worth to read B. worth being read C. worth of reading D. worth reading

13. They knew her very well. They had seen her _______ up from childhood. A. grow B. grew C. was growing D. to grow

14. She reached the top of the hill and stopped _________ on a big rock by the side of the path. A. to have rested B. resting C. to rest D. rest

15._________ a reply, he decided to write again. A. Not receiving C. Not having received B. Receiving not D. Having not received

16. European football is played in 80 countries, ________ it the popular sport in the world. A. making B. makes C. made D. to make

17. One learns a language by making mistakes and __________ them.

A. correct

B. correcting

C. corrects

D. to correct

18. __________ at the door before entering please. A. Knocked B. To knock C. Knocking D. Knock

19. ________ such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river. A. Having suffered B. Suffering C. To suffer D. Suffered

20. He sent me an-email, __________ to get further information. A. hoped B. hoping C. to hope D. hope

答案: 一、单项选择 1---5 ABBDB 6---10 C C C C D 21---25 D B C B B 11---15 D D A C C

16---20 A B C A B

二、说出下列动名词短语在句中的作用 1. 宾语 语 2. 主语 6. 主语 3. 表语 7. 介宾 4. 表语 8. 主语 5. 表语; 主 9. 表语


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动词ing形式 | 动词的ing形式 | 动词ing形式的用法 | 动词ing形式变化规则 | 动词ing形式的单词 | 动词后加ing形式 | 动词ing形式作状语 | 非谓语动词ing形式 |