当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >>

高中情态动词详解


情态动词
高三十四 十五班第一轮复习材料

Can

could

PART. 01
表示能力

1. 表示能力
could为can的过去式,表示过去的能力。
要表示将来具备的能力通常 be able to 的将来时态。
Some of us c

an use the computer, but we couldn’t 10 years ago.

其中要注意的是,could 表示过去的能力,通常只用于表示过去一般性能力, 而不表示过去具体某次特定情形下能够做某事的能力。 如:他学习很努力,所以考试能及格。
误:He studied hard and could pass the exam. 正:He studied hard and was able to pass the exam.

1. 表示能力
注:若在否定句中没有以上限制,即couldn’t可表示 过去特定情况下的能力, 如可说: He studied hard but still couldn’t pass the exam.

PART. 02
表示允许和许可。

2. 表示允许和许可
Could和can没有时间上的差别,用could比用can 语气上委婉,could一般用于疑问句中,肯定回答时 要改用can。
You can park your car here. —— Can I use your pen? ——Yes, you can. ——No, you can’t. ——Could I come here again tomorrow ? ——Yes, you can. (No, I’m afraid not.)

2. 表示允许和许可
若是自己允许别人做某事,一般只用 can,而不用 could。
表示过去的允许时,若表示过去一般性允许(即表示某人随 时都可以做某事),用could;若表示在过去某一特定情况下 允许进行某一特定的活动,则不用 could。
如: When I lived at home, I could watch TV whenever I wanted to.
I was allowed to see the film yesterday evening. 昨天晚上允许我去看了电影。(特定的允许,不能用 could)

PART. 03
can 表示客观的逻辑上的可能性

can 表示客观的逻辑上的可能性,
意为“可能会”,多用于肯定句。 Anyone can make mistakes. Taking a plane can be dangerous. Children can be noisy sometimes. It can be very hot in our city.

PART. 04
构成的短语和特殊句式

⑴cannot/ can’t/…… too/enough
表示“无论怎样……都不过分,越…越好”,有时 cannot, can’t可用can never代替。
We can’t thank you too much for what you’ve done for us.

You cannot be too careful to cross the road. You cannot be careful enough to cross the road.

You can never do the work too well.

⑵ can’t help doing sth.
can’t help doing sth.禁不住, can’t help (to) do 不能帮忙做某事
When I try to speak, I can’t help making mistakes. I can’t help (to) carry the box.

⑶can’t help
can’t help but do cannot /could not but do can’t choose but do can do nothing but do

不得不

如: I can’t help but admire your courage. I could not but admire her.

⑷ can’t help it
无计可施,忍不住。
I always end up having an argument with her. I don’t know why, but I can’t help it. I couldn’t help it if the bus was late.

⑸as…as + 主语 + can/could
尽可能 = as…as possible
Please come here as early as you can.

⑹cannot, could not与比较级连用
表示最高级的意思。
It couldn’t be better.

She couldn’t choose a better gift for me.

⑺表示惊异、怀疑、不相信的态度。
(主要用在否定句、疑问句或惊叹句中)
Can this be true? 这可能是真的吗? How can you be so careless! 你怎么能这么粗心!

PART. 05
表示推测:

表示推测:
即具体的事情实际发生的可能性
can 和 could 一般用于否定句和疑问句(could有时会在 肯定句中出现),could只表示可能性比can小,不表示时 态。
He can’t/ couldn’t have finished so much work in so short a time. You can’t be serious. Could he have finished the task? 他可能把任务完成了吗? Can he be at home now? 他现在能在家吗?

表示推测:
对过去的推测,应在 can, could 之后接动词的完 成式,且此时can仍只用于否定句或疑问句,不用 于肯定句;而could 则可用于各种句型。
如: Can [Could] this be true? 这能是真的吗 Where can [could] he have gone? 他能到哪里去了呢 She can’t [couldn’t] have left so soon. 她不可能走得这么早。 He could have gone home. 他可能已回家了。

PART. 06
与完成时态连用

与完成时态连用
could后接动词的完成式,除表示对过去的推测外, 还可表示过去没有实现的可能性,或委婉地责备某 人过去应该做某事而没有去做(虚拟语气)。 could have done表示“过去有能力做某事,但没 有做”;couldn’t have done表示“过去本不可能 做某事,但却做了”。

与完成时态连用
如: You could have started a little earlier. 你本可早点动身的。 You needn’t have cooked it. We could have eaten it raw. 你其实可以不煮熟(它),我们(本来)可以生吃。

may

might

PART. 01
表示请求和许可。

1. 表示请求和许可
请求用might语气更委婉。否定回答时(口语中常用) no, you can't . /yes, please 用mustn't表示“不可以”、“禁 止”、“阻止”之意(具有强烈禁止的意思) 允许时用may,表示“可以”(表示允许时不用might)。 类似与can和could的用法。
如:You may drive the car. 你可以开这辆车。

— Might I use your pen? — No, you mustn't. —我可以用你的钢笔吗?—不,绝对不行。

1. 表示请求和许可
用May I ... 征询对方许可在文体上比较正式,在口气上比较 客气。在日常口语中,用Can I ... 征询对方意见在现代口语 中更为常见。

PART. 02
用于祈使句中表示祝愿

2 . 用于祈使句中 表示祝愿
(倒装句式).

My all your dreams come true. May you be happy everyday!

PART. 03
用于目的状语从句中

3. 用于目的状语 从句中
(倒装句式).

My all your dreams come true. May you be happy everyday!

PART. 04
用于让步状语从句中

4. 用于让步状语 从句中
(倒装句式).

My all your dreams come true. May you be happy everyday!

PART. 05
may might 的其它应用

5. 其它用法:
⑴ may well 意为:“很可能…”(相当于:be very likely to do).
You may well get confused. Her appearance has changed so much that you may well not recognize her.

5. 其它用法:
⑵ may/might(just) as well do 意为:还是……的 好,最好……
We may as well stay where we are.

PART. 06
表示推测:

表示推测
可能(用于肯定句,否定句;疑问句不能用于此意, 一般表推测时疑问句中用can)might不表时态, 只表可能性比may小。 He may not have finished the work. He may know my phone number. He might come tomorrow, but I am not quite sure. He mightn’t have heard you when you greeted her.

PART. 07
与完成时态连用

与完成时态连用
“may(might) + have + 过去分词”表示对过去发 生的行为的推测。 May have done/ may not have done或许已经做 过了某事/没做过某事 (仍然一般不用于疑问句。)
Might have done/ might not have done 1.过去也许做了,过去也许没做,比may not have done 语气更加不确定,表推测; 2. Might have done 过去本可能做,表虚拟。

与完成时态连用
It’s too late. I think he may have gone to bed. 推测 He may not have finished the work. He might have missed the train. 推测。 But I think you might have told us half an hour ago.
但是我认为,你本来可能在半小时前告诉我们。虚拟

They might not have regarded me as their friend. 推测. might的否定与完成时搭配也不表虚拟。

m ust

have to 的用法

PART. 01
表示必须、必要

1 . 表示必须、必要
must表示主观多一些,多指现在或将来的情况,指说话人 的主观语气;而have to则表示客观多一些
mustn't意思为“不许、不准”,表示禁止。(含有绝对禁 止的含义)。
You must finish the project by Friday. You must come in time. Children must not play with fire. You mustn‘t play football in the street. You must not park here! It’s an emergency exit.

1 . 表示必须、必要
I have to give up smoking. (可能是由于身体或其它原因等不得不戒烟)

I must give up smoking. (自己觉得有必要戒烟)

1 . 表示必须、必要
回答must引出的问句时,如果是否定的回答,不能用 mustn't,而要用needn't或don't have to。 — Must we hand in our exercise books today? — Yes, you must. (No, you don’t have to./no, you needn’t.)

PART. 02
表示“偏偏,非得要”

2. 表示“偏偏,非得要”
( 表示一种与说话人 愿望相反、不耐烦的感情色彩).

Must you waste so much time? 你非得浪费这么多时间么? Why must it rain on Sunday?
If you must smoke, please go outside the room.

PART. 03
表示强调

3. 表示强调
此时常用语口语中,表示说话者坚定的态度。注意与1.的区 别。

I must say, you are looking extremely well. I must admit, I have been looking forward to it.

PART. 04
表示推测:

表示推测、可能
(疑问句不能用于此意)。表示推测,此时意为“一定是, 准是”,常指有根据的,比较有把握的推测。这种用法只 能用于肯定句。在否定句/疑问句中用can/could.

The light is on, so he must be at home. Look at the new car, he must earn a lot of money. Since nobody gave him any help, he must have done the research on his own.

表示推测、可能
“must be + 表语”的结构表示推测,它的否定或疑问式用 can代替must。

This must be your pen. 这一定是你的钢笔。
You must be Carol, you haven’t change a bit after all these years.

PART. 05
与完成时态连用

与完成时态连用
“must + have + 过去分词”的结构常用在肯定句 中,它的否定或疑问式用can代替must。表示对过 去发生的行为的推测,意为:过去想必/一定/准是 做了某事(一般不表示虚拟)。
He must have been to Shanghai. 他一定去过上海。 It must have rained last night, for the road is quite muddy.

与完成时态连用
“must + have + 过去分词”的结构常用在肯定句 中,它的否定或疑问式用can代替must。表示对过 去发生的行为的推测,意为:过去想必/一定/准是 做了某事(一般不表示虚拟)。
He must have been to Shanghai. 他一定去过上海。 It must have rained last night, for the road is quite muddy.

PART. 06
Must 与 have to

6 . must 与 have to 几点不同
have to的含义与must相似,两者往往可以互换使 用,但have to有各种形式,随have的变化而定。 must与have to有下列几点不同:

6 . must 与 have to 几点不同
(1)must表示的是说话人的主观看法,而have to则 往往强调客观需要。英国英语中常用have got to
如: The play is not interesting. I really must go now. 这部剧没意思。我真的必须现在就走。 I had to work when I was your age. 当我像你这么大时,我不得不工作。 I have (got) to be off now. My mom is waiting for me. The little boy has to do lots of housework, for his parents have been suffering from illness.

6 . must 与 have to 几点不同
must一般只有一种形式。have则有更多的人称、 数和时态变化形式(如has to, had to, will have to)。Must的否定形式为mustn’t, 而 have to 的 否定形式要借助助动词do的某种形式(如:don’t have to, doesn’t have to, didn’t have to)。
My cousin has to practice violin every night. I shall have to go there next week. 我下星期必须去那儿。

s hall 和 should

(一)shall的用法

shall
&
should

?

shall(shan’t)的用法:

PART. 01
表征求意见

1. 表征求意见
(“好不好?”)用在第一、三人称。Shall用于第一人称, 表示征求对方的意愿(主动帮助对方,或提出建议。)或 向对方请示。
Shall I turn on the TV for you? Yes, thanks a lot. You are so considerate.)。
Shall we begin our lesson? When shall he be able to leave the hospital? Henry is waiting outside. Shall he come in, sir?

Shall the reporters wait outside or what?

PART. 02
命令、警告、允诺 或威胁

2. 命令、警告、允诺或威胁
Shall用于第二、第三人称,表示说话人给对方命令、警告、 允诺或威胁。
You shall fail if you don't work harder. (警告) He shall have the book when I finish reading. (允诺) He shall be punished. (威胁) Passengers shall not talk with the driver while the bus is moving. You shall come at once.(命令)。 Tell Jerry that he shall get a gift if he is nice.

PART. 03
表示义务或规定

3. 表示义务或规定
shall 用于第三人称(另一说为用于所有人称),在条约、法 令、规定等文件中表示义务或规定,意为:应,必须。
The school rules state that no child shall be allowed out of the school during the day, unless accompanied by an adult. Those members to our club shall wear uniforms.

Every competitor shall wear a number.

PART. 04
表示推测:

shall

不 表示推测、可能

PART. 05
与完成时态连用

shall

不 与完成时态连用

(二)should的用法

shall

?

Should ought to 的用法:

&

should

PART. 01
表征求意见

1. 表征求意见
作为shall的过去式,用于一、三人称,多用于间接引语中, 以征求对方意见。参(一).1 shall的用法。
I asked the manager if I should have a few days off. You should go to class right away.

PART. 02
义务、责任、劝告、 建议

2. 义务、责任、劝告、建议
Should表示义务、责任、劝告、建议,其同义词是ought to;在疑问句中,通常用should代替ought to。
You ought to /should pay more attention to what your lawyer says. I think today’s children should really learn to respect their elders.

PART. 03
竟然

3.

竟然

表示惊讶、难以置信或不应该发生某事,意为“竟然”,也 常用语许多表示感情的形容词后的that从句。
The man should be so rude to a lady.
Such a gentle man should do that. It is astonishing that she should have failed the exam. It was sad to me that they, so poor themselves, should bring me food.

3.

竟然

Why(or How) + should结构表示说话人对某事不能理解, 感到意外、惊异等意思。意为“竟会”。
Why should you be so late today? 你几天怎么来得这么晚?
Why should he tell a lie? — Where is Betty living? — 贝蒂住在哪里? — How should I know? — 我怎么会知道呢?

I don‘t know why you should think that I did it. 我真不知道你凭什么认为这件事是我干的。

PART. 03
其它用法:

4. 其它用法:
⑴情态动词should用于第一人称时可以表示说话人的一种 谦逊、客气、委婉的语气。
I should think it would be better to try it again. 我倒是认为最好再试一试。
You are mistaken, I should say. 依我看,你是搞错了。

I should advise you not to do that.

我倒是劝你别这样做。

This is something I should have liked to ask you. 这是我本来想问你的。

4. 其它用法:
⑵Should还可以用在if引导的条件从句,表示一件事听起来 可能性很小,但也不是完全没有可能。相当于“万一”的 意思。从句谓语由should加动词原形构成,主句谓语却不 一定用虚拟语气。
Ask her to ring me up if you should see her. 你万一见到她,请让她给我打个电话。 If you should change your minds, please let us know. 万一你改变主意,请通知我们。 Should I (If I should) be free tomorrow I will come. 万一我明天有时间,我就来。

PART. 04
表示推测:

Should 表示推测
(按常理经验进行的)推测和可能性,是“ (按理说)应该”之 意,肯定的语气没有must用于推测时强。

This pen ought to /should be yours.
We have got everything ready. There should be no problem. Try phoning him. He should be home by now.

PART. 05
与完成时态连用

与完成时态连用
表示“过去本该做某事却没做”,否定表示“过去 本不该做某事却做了”,并包含一种埋怨、责备的 口气。
She should have finished it. I should have helped her, but I never could. You should have started earlier.
You should have invited me to the party yesterday. I had expected you to.
Jim shouldn’t have done all the work within one day. There was still time. (还有时间)

PART. 06
Ought to 用法:

Ought to 用法:
ought to的用法 (基本与should没区别) Ought to 意为“应当,应该”,语气比should强,其否定形 式为 ought not to或oughtn’t to,一般疑问句形式是将ought 置于主语前。
—Ought I to return all the books tomorrow? — yes, you ought to./ no, you oughtn’t to. She ought to pass her exam. You ought to have arrived earlier and the film had been on for ten minutes. ---- Sorry, Professor Smith. I didn’t finish the assignment yesterday. ---- Oh, you should/ought to have done it as yesterday was the deadline.

w ill 和 would

PART. 01
表意愿 , 决心等

1. 表意愿 , 决心等
Would此时为will过去式(意愿,自愿做或主动提出做什么, 如意愿、愿望或决心等。可用于各种人称。
I will help you if you meet with trouble. Please come over the weekend if you will. I will never do that again.

They asked if we would do that again.
Days later, my brother called to say he was all right, but wouldn’t say where he is.

PART. 02
表示征询对方意见

2. 表示征询对方意见
用在疑问句中与第二人称you连用。用won’t you加强邀请 的语气。would比will委婉客气.
Will you join us for a drink? Won’t you have a coffee with us? Would you pass me the book?

Will you give me a piece of paper?
Would you open the window, please? I feel it a little stuff here.

PART. 03
经常性、习惯性、 倾向性等

3. 经常性、习惯性、倾向性等
意为“经常,惯于,总是”,would表示过去的习惯,后接 动词原形,意为“总是,总会。”[ Would表过去反复的动 作/某种倾向(相对于used to无“现已无此习惯”之义。)]
Oil will float on water. This old man is strange. He will sit there for hours without saying anything.

The door won’t open. 门就是打不开(表示倾向性)。
Every evening, she would sit by the window, deep in thought. The door won’t open, no matter how hard she pushed.

PART. 04
其它用法

4. 其它用法
⑴will可用于祈使句的附加疑问句中。

Come here early tomorrow, will you? Don’t go now, will you? 现在别去,好么?

Marry, feed the bird, will you?

4. 其它用法
⑵回答请求、命令的句子,肯定用will,否定用won’t
-----Please remember me to your parents. -----Thank you. I will. ----Never touch my computer while I am away. ---- I won’t.

4. 其它用法
⑶would like(同would love). 常用结构: would like sth. Would like to do sth. Would like sb to do sth.
I would like a cup of tea. I would like to have a cup of tea. I would like you to go there with me.

4. 其它用法
⑷would rather 表示“但愿,宁愿”。常用于下列结构:
Would rather (not) do. 宁愿(不)做
would rather do A than do B.= would do A rather than do B. Would rather + that从句(从句中用虚拟语气)。 Would rather not have done 宁愿当时没做过某事。 I would rather you came tomorrow. I would rather he had left last week.

PART. 05
表示推测:

表示有规律的“注定会”
You will fail if you don’t work hard.
Man will die without air. You will regret if you waste your time.

PART. 06
与完成时态连用

与完成时态连用
Would have done (一般只用在if虚拟条件状语从 句的主句中)
Would rather have done/ would rather not have done. 宁愿 当时做了/没做(表虚拟)(有后悔之意) I raised objections at the meeting, but now I would rather not have done that. Would like/ love to have done过去愿意(但没做成)(表虚拟) I would love to have gone to the party last night, but I had to work extra hours to finish a report.

h ad better 的
用法

Had better 的用法
⑴ Had better 后跟动词原形,意为“最好”。You had better get there before it gets dark.
⑵ had better 的否定形式为had better not. You had better not quarrel with your neighbors whatever happened.

n eed 的用法

need 的用法
need表示“需要”或“必须”,作情态动词时,常用于否定句或疑问 句中,和含条件状语从句的复合句中。在肯定句中一般用must, have to, ought to,或should代替。否定形式needn’t 相当于 don’t have to.
You needn’t come if you are busy. We needn’t hurry, for there is plenty of time.

----Need I come tomorrow? ----No, you needn’t./ don’t have to. ----Yes, you must
I have ordered some pizza, so we needn’t worry about cooking when we get home tired.

与完成时态连用
needn't +完成式“表示本来不必做某事而实际上 做了某事”。
You needn't have waited for me. We had plenty of bread, so I needn’t have bought a loaf. You needn’t have taken a taxi home, for it was near my home. We needn’t have bought so much food now that Suzie won’t be with us for dinner.

知识扩展
⑴need也可做实意动词,有人称和数的变化,可 以用于肯定句、否定句或疑问句中,构成否定句或 疑问句时要用助动词 do does 和 did.
He needn’t do it 情态动词。 He doesn’t need to do it. 实意动词 都指他不必做这件事。

知识扩展
⑵need 作实意动词时还可表示“需要”,后接动 名词的主动形式或者不定式的被动形式表示被动含 义。 The floor needs sweeping/ to be swept.

知识扩展
⑶didn’t need to do sth. 过去没必要做某事,实际也没做。
You needn’t have gone to school yesterday. 实际去了。 You didn’t need got to school yesterday. 实际也没去。

d are 的用法

dare 的用法
Dare作情态动词时,主要用于疑问句、否定句和条件从句中,一般不 用在肯定句中。它没有人称和数的变化,但有过去式dared。Dare作实 意动词时,和其它实意动词用法基本一致。
How dare you say I'm unfair. He daren't speak English before such a crowd,dare he? 对比: She dare not go out alone.

She doesn’t to go to out alone. Does she dare to go out alone?

Dare she go out alone?

She daren’t go out alone, dare she? She doesn’t dare to go out alone, does she?

dare 的用法
补充:

⑴. Dare say 为固定短语,表示“我认为,我相信”。
I dare say he is right.

⑵dare在做实义动词时,疑问句和否定句中可以省掉to
Does he dare (to ) tell you what he has done? He didn’t dare (to) do it.

THANKS
欢迎关注 colourppt,愿与 你一起成长

关注微信公众号colourppt
简单、专注、略带随性,这是一个PPT原创设计经验分享的公众号,愿你的每一次打 开,都有收获。

colourppt
欢迎关注colourppt, 给你更多精彩

colourppt
欢迎关注colourppt, 给你更多精彩

colourppt
欢迎关注colourppt, 给你更多精彩


相关文章:
高考情态动词讲解
高考情态动词讲解_英语_高中教育_教育专区。语法专题(三) 情态动词考 点归纳 考点一: 情态动词表示能力 1〃表现在的或一般的能力: 表示现在的或一般的能力用 can...
高中英语情态动词精讲与解析
高中英语情态动词精讲与解析概 说助动词 (auxiliary) 主要有两类:基本助动词 (primary auxiliary) 和情态助动词 (modal auxiliary)。 基本助动词有三个: have ...
高中情态动词用法详解
高中情态动词用法详解_其它_高等教育_教育专区。2008 年高考英语第二轮复习经典语法讲解及试题集 (09) ) 情态动词 情态动词的特点: 一、情态动词的特点 1.没有人...
高中英语情态动词讲解与练习(含答案)
高中英语情态动词讲解与练习(含答案)_高三英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区。高中英语语法 情态动词 讲解与练习 高中英语语法之情态动词(一)情态动词的定义 :情态动词...
高一英语必修三 情态动词(含习题及解析)
高一英语必修三 情态动词(含习题及解析)_高一英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区。包含英语必修三,全面的情态动词讲解,(含习题及解析)边学边练 ...
高中情态动词讲解及练习
高中情态动词讲解及练习_高三英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区。高中情态动词专项讲解练习情态动词情态动词表示说话人对某一动作或状态的态度,可以表示“可能”“可以”“...
高中情态动词讲解
高中情态动词讲解_英语_高中教育_教育专区。该文档主要用于高中学习,讲解情态动词的用法 情态动词专项讲解 1. China is developing its high-speed train technology ...
高中英语情态动词详细讲解及例句
高中英语情态动词详细讲解及例句_英语_高中教育_教育专区 暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载|举报文档 高中英语情态动词详细讲解及例句_英语_高中教育_教育专区。一、情态...
高中情态动词和虚拟语气详解
高中情态动词和虚拟语气详解_英语_高中教育_教育专区 暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载|举报文档高中情态动词和虚拟语气详解_英语_高中教育_教育专区。戴氏教育 精品堂学校...
高中情态动词用法详解
2008 年高考英语第二轮复习经典语法讲解及试题集 (09) 情态动词 一、情态动词的特点: 1.没有人称和数的变化。 2. 有些情态动词有过去式的变化: e.g. will...
更多相关标签:
高中英语情态动词 | 高中情态动词 | 高中英语情态动词课件 | 高中情态动词讲解 | 高中英语情态动词讲解 | 高中情态动词练习 | 高中情态动词练习题 | 高中英语情态动词练习 |