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ASTM B 884-2005


Designation: B 884 – 05

Standard Speci?cation for

Niobium-Titanium Alloy Billets, Bar, and Rod for Superconducting Applications1
This standard is issued under the ?

xed designation B 884; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope 1.1 This speci?cation covers niobium-titanium alloy billets, bars, and rods, at 46 to 48 % titanium. This material is used in the manufacture of wire for superconducting applications. 1.2 The values stated in either inch-pound or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore each system must be used independent of the other; SI values cannot be mixed with inch-pound values. SI units are stated in parentheses. 1.3 The following precautionary caveat pertains only to the test methods portion, Section 14, of this speci?cation: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1 ASTM Standards: 2 E 29 Practice for Using Signi?cant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Speci?cations E 92 Test Method for Vickers Hardness of Metallic Materials E 112 Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size E 165 Test Method for Liquid Penetrant Examination E 214 Practice for Immersed Ultrasonic Examination by the Re?ection Method Using Pulsed Longitudinal Waves E 384 Test Method for Microhardness of Materials 2.2 ANSI Standard: ANSI B46-1 Surface Texture3 2.3 ASNT Standard:

ASNT SNT-TC-1A Personnel Quali?cation and Certi?cation in Nondestructive Testing4 3. Terminology 3.1 De?nitions of Terms Speci?c to This Standard: 3.1.1 rod, n—material greater than 0.5 in. (13 mm) and less than 2.5 in (60 mm) in. diameter. 3.1.2 bar, n—material greater than or equal to 2.5 in (60 mm) and less than 6 in. (150 mm) in diameter. 3.1.3 billet, n—material greater than or equal to 6 in. (150 mm) in diameter. 3.1.4 lot, n—a lot shall consist of all material produced from the same ingot at one time, with the same cross section and with the same nominal metallurgical parameters. 4. Ordering Information 4.1 Purchase orders for material under this speci?cation should include: 4.1.1 ASTM designation and year of issue, 4.1.2 Quantity in weight, number of pieces, and dimensions, 4.1.3 Grain size limit for diameters greater than 7.75 in. (see 7.2 and Table 1), 4.1.4 Surface texture, if required (see 10.3), 4.1.5 Annealing condition, if different from 7.1, 4.1.6 Permissible variations in diameter and length (see 9.1 and 9.2), 4.1.7 Sampling and analytical methods, if required (see 11.3), 4.1.8 Inspection requirements (see Section 15), 4.1.9 Certi?cation and report needs (see Section 17), and 4.1.10 Additions to the speci?cation and supplementary requirements, as required. 5. Materials and Manufacture 5.1 Materials covered by this speci?cation shall be made from ingots which are produced by vacuum or plasma-arc melting, electron beam furnace melting, or a combination of these methods. All melting is to be carried out in furnaces usually used for reactive metals.
4 Available from The American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT), P.O. Box 28518, 1711 Arlingate Ln., Columbus, OH 43228-0518.
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This speci?cation is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B10 on Reactive and Refractory Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B10.03 on Niobium and Tantalum. Current edition approved May 1, 2005. Published June 2005. Originally approved in 1997. Last previous edition approved in 2001 as B 884 - 01. 2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on the ASTM website. 3 Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St., 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036.

1

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B 884 – 05
TABLE 1 Grain Size Requirements
Rod, Bar, and Billet Diameter in. (mm) 0.5 to 2 incl (13 to 50 incl) 2 excl to 4.5 incl (50 excl to 115 incl) 4 excl to 6 incl (115 excl to 150 incl) 6 excl to 7.75 incl (150 excl to 200 incl) Greater than 7.75 (200) Grain Size Number (weighted average) 4.5 or ?ner 2.5 or ?ner 1.5 or ?ner 1.0 or ?ner To be set in purchase order

TABLE 3 Permissible Variations in Diameters
Diameter in. (mm) 0.51 to 1.0 (13.1 to 25) 1.1 to 4.0 (25.1 to 100) Over 4.0 (100) Tolerance, plus or minus, in. (mm) 0.010 (0.25) 0.015 (0.4) 0.020 (0.5)

5.2 The products covered by this speci?cation are formed with conventional forging, swaging, rolling, extruding, and drawing equipment normally available in metal working plants. 6. Chemical Composition 6.1 The Nb-Ti alloy ingots, billets, and rods covered by this speci?cation shall conform to the chemical composition limits shown in Table 2. 6.2 The manufacturer’s ingot analysis shall be considered the chemical analysis for the products supplied to this speci?cation, except for the interstitials carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen. When speci?ed in the purchase order, the analysis for these interstitials shall be measured on product. 7. Physical Properties 7.1 Unless otherwise speci?ed in the purchase order, the material will be supplied in the annealed state. 7.2 The grain size of ?nished billets or rods shall meet the limits in Table 1 (see 14.3). 7.3 The product shall be free of cracks, laminations, inclusions, voids, and other ruptures with size larger than 3 % of the product diameter or 0.096 in. (2.5 mm) equivalent diameter, whichever is smaller. This characteristic shall be measured by ultrasonic testing (see 14.5). 8. Mechanical Properties 8.1 Hardness testing will be performed on each lot of ?nished product and the average of three readings shall be less than 170 DPH (see 14.2). 9. Permissible Variations in Dimensions 9.1 Permissible variations in diameters for ?nished product shall be as speci?ed in Table 3, unless otherwise agreed to between manufacturer and purchaser.
TABLE 2 Chemical Requirements
Ingot Maximum Limit (ppm) 100 200 100 100 45 200 100 150 1000 100 2500 46 to 48 %

9.2 Permissible variations in length for ?nished product shall be as speci?ed in the purchase order. 10. Workmanship, Finish and Appearance 10.1 Surface Condition—The ?nished material shall be free of visually detectable cracks, seams, slivers, blisters, laps, gouges, and other injurious imperfections. 10.2 Liquid Penetrant Examination—The surfaces of billet and bar shall be examined using liquid penetrant inspection methods (see 14.4). The following indications are unacceptable: 10.2.1 Cracks, 10.2.2 Linear indications, 10.2.3 Rounded indications with dimensions exceeding 0.03 in. (0.8 mm), and 10.2.4 For sidewall surfaces only, rounded indications that are separated by less than 0.03 in. (0.8 mm) edge to edge. 10.3 Surface Finish—Surface ?nish shall be as speci?ed in the purchase order (see 14.6). 10.4 Surface Preparation—The ?nished surface shall be pickled and rinsed in water. Removal of liquid penetrant test materials after pickling shall be by rinsing or additional pickling. 10.5 Cleanliness—Materials shall be clean to the extent that no contamination is visible to the unaided eye, corrected for 20/20 vision, when viewed under an illumination of at least 100 foot candles (1100 lux) on the surface being tested. 11. Sampling 11.1 Ingots—Samples for ingot chemical analyses shall be taken on the ingot sidewall at least at three positions along the ingot including the middle and to within 5 in. (125 mm) of each end. 11.2 Product—Samples for chemical and mechanical testing shall be taken from the ?nished material after all metallurgical processing to determine conformity to this speci?cation. The samples may be taken prior to ?nal inspection and minor surface conditioning by abrasion and pickling, and shall be representative of the ?nished product. 11.3 Care shall be exercised to ensure that the sample selected for testing is representative of the material and that it is not contaminated by the sampling procedure. If there is any questions relating to the sampling technique or the analysis thereof, the methods of sampling and analysis shall be as agreed upon between the purchaser and the manufacturer. 12. Number of Tests and Retests 12.1 Initial Tests—Each product sample shall be tested once for each product test requirement. 12.2 Invalid Tests—If any sample or test is found to be contaminated or improperly done, the result may be invalidated and a new test done to replace the original.
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Element Aluminum Carbon Chromium Copper Hydrogen Iron Nickel Nitrogen Oxygen Silicon Tantalum Titanium

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B 884 – 05
12.3 Retests—If a test result does not meet the speci?cation or is questionable, retests may be performed on twice the number of samples originally tested. Both retest values must conform to the speci?cation. All three values will be reported on the certi?cation. The retest values shall be marked with an “R”. Alternatively, each piece in the lot may be tested and deviant pieces rejected or reworked. 12.4 Rework—Product not meeting this speci?cation may be reworked to meet this speci?cation. 13. Signi?cance of Numerical Limits 13.1 For the purpose of determining compliance with the speci?ed limits for requirements of the properties listed in this speci?cation, an observed value or a claculated value shall be rounded as indicated in accordance with the rounding method of Practice E 29. 14. Test Methods 14.1 Analytical methods for chemical composition shall be in accordance with industry or manufacturer’s standards. 14.2 Hardness testing of product shall be according to Test Methods E 92 or E 384. 14.3 Measure grain size according to Test Methods E 112. 14.4 Perform liquid penetrant examination in accordance with Test Method E 165. 14.5 Perform ultrasonic testing in accordance with Annex A1 for material greater than 2.0 in. (50 mm) in diameter and Practice E 214 for material equal to or less than 2.0 in. (50 mm) in diameter. 14.6 Measure the surface ?nish when required by purchase order, in accordance with ANSI B46-1. 15. Inspection 15.1 In addition to the above speci?ed inspections, the manufacturer shall inspect ?nal product for dimensions and identi?cation. Other inspections shall be as agreed upon between purchaser and the manufacturer and included in the purchase order. 15.2 If so speci?ed on the purchase order, the purchaser or his representative may witness the testing and inspection of the material at the place of manufacture. In such cases, the purchases shall state in the purchase order which tests are to be witness. The manufacturer shall give ample notice to the purchaser as to the time and place of the designated test. If the purchaser’s representative is not present at the agreed upon time for the testing, and if no new date is agreed upon, the manufacturer shall consider the requirement for purchaser’s inspection at the place of manufacture to be waived. When the inspector representing the purchaser does appear at the appointed place and time, the manufacturer shall afford all
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reasonable facilities to see that the material is being furnished in accordance with this speci?cation. This inspection shall be conducted so as not to interfere unnecessarily with production operations. 16. Rejection and Rehearing 16.1 Material that does not conform to this speci?cation or the purchase order may be rejected. The manufacturer may elect to repair the material or request a waiver from the customer. 16.2 In the event of a disagreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser concerning material compliance with the purchase order, a mutually acceptable referee may perform the tests in question. The referee’s results shall be used in determining compliance. 17. Certi?cation 17.1 When speci?ed in the purchase order, the manufacturer will furnish a certi?cate of compliance. This certi?cate will certify that tests required by this speci?cation or speci?ed in the purchase order have been completed as speci?ed and the results are in compliance with the speci?cation and purchase order. 18. Product Marking 18.1 Each billet, rod, bundle, or box shall be marked or tagged legibly and conspicuously with the number of this speci?cation, type, temper, lot number, manufacturer’s identi?cation, nominal size, and the gross, net, and tar weights. If marking ?uids are used, they shall be of such a nature as to be easily removed with cleaning solutions. The markings or their removal shall have no deleterious effect upon the material or its performance. The characters shall be sufficiently stable to withstand ordinary handling. 19. Packaging and Package Marking 19.1 All material shall be packed in such a manner as to ensure safe delivery to its destination. 19.2 The box identi?cation shall include the following: 19.2.1 ASTM designation and alloy (NbTi), 19.2.2 Purchase order number, 19.2.3 Lot number, 19.2.4 Number of pieces, 19.2.5 Manufacturer’s name, 19.2.6 Gross, tare, and net weights, and 19.2.7 Size. 20. Keywords 20.1 niobium; niobium alloy; niobium-titanium alloy; superconductor; titanium; titanium alloy

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B 884 – 05
ANNEX
(Mandatory Information)

A1. ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION OF NB-TI SUPERCONDUCTOR QUALITY MATERIAL – ROD, BAR, AND BILLET

A1.1 Scope A1.1.1 Application: A1.1.1.1 This annex establishes the minimum requirements for the ultrasonic inspection of cylindrical Nb-Ti alloy rod, bar, and billet intended for superconductor applications. A1.1.1.2 Intermediate sizes of material are inspected using the longitudinal wave mode only. Smaller diameters (generally those under 1.5 in. (38 mm) are inspected using both shear and longitudinal wave modes. A1.1.2 Methodology: A1.1.2.1 Ultrasonic waves are transmitted into the material under test. Waveforms re?ected from surface and internal discontinuities are displayed on a CRT in the form of an A-Scan. The amplitude of the re?ection from the area of the waveform of interest is recorded on a strip chart or equivalent device. A1.1.2.2 Indications detected are evaluated on the CRT screen and/or recording. After comparison with the amplitudes of calibration re?ectors, acceptability of the material is determined according to the appropriate accept/reject criteria. Rejectable areas are noted on each piece, and the inspection results for each piece tabulated on the inspection report. A1.2 Requirements A1.2.1 Equipment: A1.2.1.1 Electronic Apparatus—The ultrasonic instrument shall be capable of generating, receiving, and amplifying high-frequency electrical pulses at frequencies and energy levels required to resolve the applicable calibration re?ectors and perform a meaningful inspection. A1.2.1.2 Immersion Search Units—Focused, immersion transducers shall be used for shear and longitudinal wave modes of inspection. The minimum (nominal) transducer frequency should be 2.25 MHz, although lower frequencies may be used if required. A1.2.1.3 Mechanical Apparatus—The material to be inspected and the search unit assembly shall have automatic rotation and translation relative to each other, so that a helical scan of the material will be performed. Water shall be used as the couplant and may be treated with rust inhibitors, softeners, and wetting agents or heated to a sufficient temperature, or both, to reduce the formation of air bubbles. A1.2.2 Personnel—Personnel performing ultrasonic inspections using this procedure shall be quali?ed and certi?ed in accordance with the latest revision of ASNT SNT-TC-1A. A1.3 Standardization A1.3.1 Surface Condition of Test Material—The sound beam entry surface of the material under test shall be free of scale, dirt, or other foreign materials which could prevent the material from being tested at the required sensitivity. A1.3.2 Reference Standards:
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A1.3.2.1 Fabrication—A reference standard containing reference re?ectors shall be fabricated from material of the same nominal diameter, surface ?nish, heat treatment, and alloy (or acoustically similar material) as the material to be inspected. Standards of different diameter may be used provided the required thickness of material is covered by this speci?cation. The attenuation of the standard back re?ection should be within 25 % of the material to be inspected, or an appropriate attenuation correction should be utilized (this correction can include the use of a zoned, or stepped, test where successive depth regions are inspected in successive scans). The material used for the ultrasonic reference standard shall be free of internal re?ectors that may interfere with or be confused with the reference re?ectors. A1.3.2.2 Reference Re?ectors—The reference standard shall contain reference re?ectors as described below. A1.3.2.3 Longitudinal Wave Examination—For material 1.5 in. (38 mm) in diameter or less, the standard shall contain four radially drilled ?at-bottomed holes (FBH) at depths given in Table A1.1. For material greater than 1.5 in. (38 mm) in diameter, the reference standard shall contain a minimum of two holes drilled at depths as given in Table A1.1. Dimensions of the FBHs are given in Table A1.1. A1.3.2.4 Circumferential Shear Wave—For standardization of the circumferential shear wave examination, the standard shall contain a notch parallel to the longitudinal axis. Notch dimensions are given in Table A1.1. A1.3.2.5 Axial Shear Wave—For standardization of the axial shear wave examination, the standard shall contain a notch transverse to the longitudinal axis. As an alternate method, standardization of the axial shear wave examination may use a hole drilled from the end, located a distance of 25 % of the diameter (6 0.005 in. (.13 mm)) from the center of the bar. Hole and notch dimensions are given in Table A1.1. A1.3.2.6 Other Con?gurations—Other standard con?gurations may be used as required by the individual contract. All standards shall be permanently identi?ed and shall have an accompanying drawing. A1.3.3 Standardization of Apparatus: A1.3.3.1 Reference Amplitudes—The equipment shall be standardized using the appropriate reference standard. There shall be a separate transducer and instrument channel used for each of the longitudinal, axial shear, and circumferential shear wave examinations. The sensitivity of the system must be set to obtain a pulse height on the instrument screen and chart recording of greater than 50 % of full scale for each reference re?ector. A1.3.3.2 Coverage—Sufficient transducer overlap must be maintained to ensure 100 % coverage of the material under test. A1.3.3.3 Standardization—Standardization shall be accomplished as follows:

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B 884 – 05
TABLE A1.1 Recommended Reference Re?ector Speci?cations

NOTE 1—All dimensions given in inches.
Material Diameter 0.5 # D # 0.65 FBH Diameter, max 0.014 FBH Depths End Hole Depth and Diameter 0.50 0.013 diameter Notch Dimensions

0.15 0.30 0.50 0.60 0.15 0.30 0.50 0.60

D D D D D D D D

(6 (6 (6 (6 (6 (6 (6 (6

0.010) 0.010) 0.010) 0.010) 0.010) 0.010) 0.010) 0.010)

0.03D deep 0.03D wide 0.125 long (maximums) 0.03D or 0.032 deep 0.03D or 0.032 wide 0.125 long (maximums) N/A

0.65 < D # 1.5

0.03D or 0.032

0.50 0.03D or 0.032 N/A

1.5 < D # 4.0

0.03D or 0.064

0.90 D or (D-0.125) and < 0.50D or > 0.50 D and 0.10 D (6 0.010) 0.90 D or (D-0.125) and < 0.50 D or > 0.50 D and 0.10 D (6 0.010) 0.90 D or (D-0.125) and < 0.50D or > 0.50 D and 0.10 D (6 0.010)

4.0 < D # 8.0

0.096

N/A

N/A

D > 8.0

0.127

N/A

N/A

A1.3.3.4 The longitudinal wave transducer shall be positioned normal to the surface of the reference standard, and oriented to obtain maximum signal response from the ?atbottomed holes. Defect alarm gates shall be positioned between the front and back surface re?ections so that the signal from each FBH is within the gate. A1.3.3.5 The circumferential shear wave transducer shall be positioned to maximize the signal response from the longitudinal notch or the end-drilled hole. A defect alarm gate shall be positioned to include this signal. A1.3.3.6 The axial shear wave transducer shall be set up to maximize the shear wave signal response from the transverse notch. A defect alarm gate shall be positioned to include this signal. A1.3.3.7 The sensitivity of the system must be set to obtain a pulse height on the instrument screen and chart recording of greater than 50 % of full scale for each calibration standard defect. A1.3.3.8 Veri?cation—The reference standard must be scanned and the reference re?ectors detected at the beginning and end of each lot, at intervals not exceeding one hour, and at the beginning and end of each separate chart recording when more than one chart recording is used to describe a lot. If the standard is not reproduced with responses from the arti?cial defects within 80 percent of the initial amplitude, all product inspected since the last acceptable reproduction of the reference standard must be reinspected. A1.4 Product Inspection A1.4.1 Material with diameters from 0.5 to 1.5 in. (13 to 38 mm) (inclusive) shall be inspected using both longitudinal and

shear wave modes. Material with diameter greater than 1.5 in. (38 mm) requires use of the longitudinal mode only. All product inspection shall be under the same conditions as those used at calibration (feed rate, system rotational speed, gain settings, etc.). A1.4.1.1 Water Path—The water path during testing shall be within 610 % of the water path used at standardization. A1.4.2 Scanning and Index—The product shall be inspected by a continuous and overlapping scan indexed in a direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the piece. The scanning speed and index of the search unit must be the same as that at which standardization is performed. A1.4.3 System Adjustment—When production material has a different diameter than the calibration standard, adjustment of the gate length and transducer vertical position are permitted. No adjustments affecting test sensitivity or resolution are permitted during the sequence of calibration, test of production material, and subsequent rerun of the reference standard. A1.4.4 Multiple Scans of Attenuative Materials—Larger diameter material with high attenuation properties may require a multiple-step, or “zoned” inspection if the longer metal path reference re?ectors can only be detected at a gain setting which causes saturation of those re?ectors at a shorter metal path. In this event, the material shall be scanned in zones corresponding to the depths where acceptable signals are obtained. This requires the use of additional ?at-bottomed holes in the standard to ensure adequate depth coverage. The zones shall be contiguous so that complete coverage is achieved, with the reference re?ector in the linking the zones being displayed on

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B 884 – 05
both scans. The use of and description of the zones shall be noted on the test report. A1.5 Interpretation of Results A1.5.1 Acceptance—Material inspected in accordance with this test procedure shall be acceptable if no indications are present that exceed the following: A1.5.1.1 Shear Wave Mode—Material inspected in the shear wave mode shall be rejected if defect indications are found to exceed 80 % of the amplitude established at calibration. A1.5.1.2 Longitudinal Wave Mode—Material inspected in the longitudinal mode shall be rejected if defect indications are found to exceed the smallest amplitude established at calibration. A1.5.2 Surface Indications—Material rejected above where defect indications are clearly associated with surface defects may be accepted after repair and retesting for acceptability per this procedure. A1.5.3 Defect Removal After Inspection—Material rejected above may be accepted if defective areas are clearly and permanently marked on the material, and removed in subsequent trimming operations. A1.6 Test Report A1.6.1 At minimum, record the following data on the test report. Maintain test reports in accordance with contract requirements: A1.6.1.1 Material Identi?cation—Heat number, size, lot number, etc., A1.6.2 Speci?c written test procedure, A1.6.3 Type of test, that is, longitudinal wave, circumferential shear, etc., A1.6.4 Reference standard identi?cation, and A1.6.5 Number of acceptable and rejectable pieces.

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