第一步：如何写好基本句子 1. 六种基本句型 1）主语+谓语(+状语)（主语+不及物动词（+副词、介词短语等） ） I am speaking. He walks very fast. The sun rises in the east. Here comes the bus. (此句主谓倒装了
) There goes the bugle. (此句主谓倒装了) 比较： He often walks his dog after supper. Liu Hu-lan lived a great life and died a glorious death. He often works his wife late into the night. 2）主语+谓语+宾语（主语+及物动词+宾语（名词、代词、数词 等） ） I study English. She loves him. We got three. She likes reading books after class. I don't like to read that book right now. What he had said at the meeting surprised all of us. 3) 主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语
He gave me a book yesterday. He gave a book to me yesterday. She will buy me a new bike. She will buy a new bike for me. She did not tell where she would go the following day. 4) 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语(名词、形容词、介词短语、非谓语 动词短语等) We call him John. They find the task difficult. She regards me as her brother. She noticed him go out a moment ago. We heard her singing an old Russian song just now. What has made China what she is today? What he said set us thinking about our former decision. 5) 主语+系动词+表语（名词、数词、形容词、副词、介词短语等） She is a student. He is twenty. We are strong. Here is your change. (此句主表倒装了) The book is on the table. To master a foreign language is of great importance in China. It is no use crying over the spilt milk.
6）There be +主语（+状语） There is only one desk in the classroom. There are many students on the playground. 2. 句子的四种类型 1）简单句 John loves Mary. John loves Mary and gives her money. Both John and Cliff love Mary. John and Cliff love Mary and her sister (and give them money). 一个简单句可表示： A．a statement (陈述)
Mr. Brown teaches this class. B. a question(问题) Do you understand me? C. a command or a request(命令) Open the door. Please help me with my work. D. an exclamation(感叹) How cold it is! How fast he is running! What a nice day it is! 2) 并列复合句
John loves Mary, but she doesn’t love him. Finally John persuaded Mary to marry him for he is a charming persistent young man. The wind is blowing; the light flashing; the thunder roaring; the rain pouring down; the earth rocking. 并列复合句常用连词有： A． 表示并列关系的连词有： and ; not only…..but also; furthermore;
besides; likewise; moreover; again; I like English and he likes French. Not only the fur coat is soft, but it is also warm. The car was almost new; furthermore it was in excellent condition. B． 表示转折关系的词：but; yet; still; however; nevertheless; in
spite of ; despite; notwithstanding; despite that The coat was thin but it was warm. The car was quite old; yet it was in excellent condition. In spite of its age, the car was in excellent condition. The car was quite old; despite that it was in excellent condition. C. 表示选择关系的连词：or; neither; neither….nor You must work harder, or you will lose the exam. Either your answer or mine is wrong.
Your answer is not right, neither is mine. Neither you nor I am to blame. D. 表示因果关系的词：so; then; therefore; consequently; accordingly The rain began to fall, so we went home. We worked until six; then we went home. He broke the rules of the school; therefore he had to leave. 3）主从复合句 We must do what we must do. (宾语从句) What must be done must be done. (主语从句) This is what we must do.(表语从句) What is done cannot be undone.(主语从句) We can eat what we cannot. (宾语从句) Although John loves Mary, she does not love him. (状语从句) The man whom you met yesterday is a friend of mine.(定语从 句) No matter what happens \ Whatever happens, my heart will go on.(状语从句) 4）并列主从复合句 When heavy rain comes, the streams rise, and farmers know that there will be floods. The neighborhood that Henry grew up in was fairly prosperous,
but it was by no means wealthy. 3. 写句子时常见错误 1）不定式、动名词、分词、形容词短语悬垂 incorrect To learn English well, much practice need much practice. is necessary. Heated, we can make water into steam. be made into steam. After reading the letter, my heart was I found my heart beating fast. beating fast. Afraid to eat any more seafood, the he asked the waiter to remove it… waiter removed it from his table. 2) 修饰语错位 The newsboy walked his bicycle to burdened with newspapers walked to the house of his first customer burdened with newspaper. The U.S. only has a history of 200 history of only 200-odd years.
correct To learn …., we
Heated, water can
After reading ...,
Afraid to eat...,
The U.S. has a
-odd years. Alice could see a lot of cars running window Alice could see … fast outside through her window. He gave the rose to the lovely actress He gave the rose Though her
that he had bought for his wife that he had bought for his wife. to the lovely actress. 3) 代词指代混乱 Before Cathy gave the dog its food, dog before she gave it its food. she washed it Jack was bitten by a dog, but it was was not serious. not serious. In Mary’ s letter she tried to persuade Mary … us to give up the plan. Mike told his father that his car wouldn’t to his father, “Your car won’t start.” start. 4). 混乱转换 Every student is required to bring their books Every
Cathy washed the
…, but the bite
In her letter,
students is … his books… to the classroom. She left the classroom when the test is over. left… when the test was over. First, build a fire and then you should make the then make the coffee. coffee. 5). 不完整句 He had a need and an interest in learning a a need for and an interest in… second foreign language. Suzhou in nearer to Shanghai than Nanjing. nearer to Shanghai than Nanjing is. 4. 写简洁的句子 句子不简洁，应将划线部分删去 In my opinion, I think your plan is feasible. My brother accompanied me to go to the airport. Learning a foreign language is important to us who are students. We find the situation that exists at the moment is urgent. In the course of an hour we arrived at our destination. As far as I am concerned, this plan is perfect. It goes without saying that they certainly deserve the prize.
5. 变换句式 He picked up the ball quickly. picked up the … He was young and short and could not join and to short to join the army. the army. Thomas was tired of studying, so he took studying, Thomas… a rest. Tolstoy, completing Anna Karenina, won Karenina, Tolstoy won… the national recognition in Russia. 6. 破句 He decided to learn Japanese. learn…because it is… Because it is a useful language. The group travelled for a week. travelled… and finally arrived on… Finally arriving on Saturday. One of the century’s great a miracle… Medical invention is penicillin. A miracle
He was too young
He decided to
drug that has saved millions of lives. 7. 溶合句 She wrote him a love letter he answered and he answered her in person. her in person. The belt was too small for him she had so small for him that she had… to change it for another one. Why do you ask how does it concern you? how it concerns you? I didn’t want to talk to my brother I pretended t want…so I pretended to be asleep. to be asleep. 8. 句子成份不平衡 Simon is healthy, wealthy and an athlete. is … and athletic. Paul works not only to compete but he also by but also to win a medal. wants to win a medal. I don’t know which I enjoy more, to play playing tennis or swimming. tennis or swimming.
The belt was
Why do you ask
I didn ’
My mother shows her love by cooking and love by cooking for and serving the family the family. Exercises Exercises 1 Revise the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4.
…. show her
To hear him talk, he was thought to be a millionaire. Reading a novel, the door bell rang. She stared at the people nearby with angry eyes. While walking along the street, the high buildings looked shiny and magnificent.
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.
To win business, many risks must be taken. As an only son, his parents are too indulgent to him. He has only a face that a mother could love. John Smith who is a neighbor of mine will go with us. The students do morning exercises every day to keep fit. The result being that he won the game. My new car is a pleasure to drive there isn ’t the slightest
squeak or rattle. 12. The villagers speak little English the visitors seldom know
any their language.
Selecting Hyde Park Corner as a starting place, our route goes
along Knightsbridge. 14. Stepping carelessly off the pavement, the bus knocked him
down. 15. Climbing to the top of the tower, there is a magnificent view
to be seen. 16. 17. Being Sunday, I shall have a quiet day at home. If you learn how to take notes in class, much extra work will
be avoided. 18. First mix some flour with a little water and then you put in
some sugar. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. I saw more of him than Richard. The policeman’s warning was accepted by her. I woke up at six a.m. this morning. She looked as though she was angry. Although Tom arrived late however he was not criticized by
the teacher because he had a bad headache. 24. 25. 26. Because he asked me to go, so I went. Already worn out by illness, the bad news killed him. Driving a car on frozen roads the brakes should be applied
gently. 27. Learning English, the pronunciation always caused me most
trouble. 28. One of the young men shouted something in German.
waving his hand in the air. 29. 30. He told me a secret. That he had bought her a ring. Tom told his brother that he was in trouble.
Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with appropriate connectives. 1. 2. _____it had stopped raining, we left the railway station. Celia arranged the meeting, and, _____ she considered the terms unfair, she signed the contract. 3. At the age of seventy, the old man returned to his native town _____ he was brought up. 4. 5. I don’t agree with you, _____ does my partner. I am going out for a short time, ______ you can get supper ready. 6. Find out _____ they are going this evening _____ ask _______we may join them. 7. _____i do not like him very much, I can appreciate his qualities. 8. He was very seriously ill; ______ doctors have almost given up hope of his recovery. 9. Those ______ are not prepared to study should _____ change
their ways ______ make room for those ______ will work. 10. 11. They go to concerts of pop music _____ they really like it. She can’t hope to pass the exam in December, _____ she ’
ll have to wait till June. 12. 13. He broke the rules of the school; _____ he had to leave. I don’t know anything against the man; _____ I don ’t trust
him. 14. I’ll buy a new suit when I get the check for the work I did;
_____, I’m afraid this old one will have to do a bit longer. 15. He’ll never be a good violinist; _____, the professor told
him so. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. He doesn’t work hard; _____ he’s incapable of hard work. You’ll recognize him ______ you see him. ______ is your answer wrong ______ mine is ______. The nearest town is 5 or 10 miles from _____ they live. You must work harder; ______ you will be put into another
class. 附注： 主语一般由以下词类担任：名词、数词、代词、动词不定式、动名词、 名词性从句、 the+某些形容词; The farmer works hard.
Three of us went there yesterday. She teaches English. To serve the people is my pleasure. Crying over the spilt milk is no use. What he said at the meeting is important. The poor are living a bitter life. 谓语由动词担任。 动词可分为： 及物动词 （要宾语, 宾语可单也可双） 、 不及物动词（没有宾语） 、短语动词（由动词+其他词构成，可及物， 也可不及物，视后接的词具体情况而定） 、连系动词； He studies English. She gave me two books last week. (此句谓语是双宾语及物动词) The teacher runs fast. The worker looks at the picture carefully. We should pay attention to our environmental protection. The meeting took place yesterday. You may look up the new words in the dictionary. Her face turned red. It is a small house. 宾语的词类与主语相同； They will look after the garden for you. She gave us three. The nurse forgot to give me the medicine.
You should remember meeting her last week. The teacher will tell us what he said at the meeting last week. We should care for the poor. 宾语补足语一般由名词、形容词、介词短语、宾语补足语从句、非谓 语动词（动词不定式、分词）担任； The training school made her a good wife and mother. Doing morning exercise makes me strong. We consider the report of great importance. What has made China what she is today? She wants you to help her. They found the person seriously injured. The nurse found him lying on the ground. 表语一般由名词、形容词、介词短语、非谓语动词、表语从句担任； He is a farmer. Her face turned red. I am at ease. My duty is to look after the patient. Her job is cleaning the classroom. The situation is pressing. We are all excited. That is what he did yesterday. The reason that \ why she came late to class this morning is that
her mother suddenly fell ill and she had to sent her to hospital. 状语一般由副词、介词短语、状语从句、非谓语动词担任； She speaks very fast. We can do the work with ease. When he came, I had finished my homework. To serve the people better, we must study hard. Being an honest person, he told the truth. Exploited by the landlord, the farmers there all hated him. All flights having been called off, they had to go home by train. There being no urgent work to do in the office, we stayed at home and did not go to work yesterday. All the questions solved, the meeting ended. With her husband killed in the battle last year, she has to beg for a living. Without anybody noticing him, he stole into the meeting hall. 定语一般由名词（表用途） 、数词、形容词、介词短语(后置)、副词(后 置)、定语从句、非谓语动词担任； He sat in the waiting room. We bought a color TV last year. The teacher teaches twenty students. Our country is a powerful one. The pen on the desk is mine.
The farmers there suffered a lot before liberation. My brother, who works in Shanghai, is a professor. The exloited classes and the exloiting classes are naturally hostile to each other. One of the measures taken is to organize visits to other factories. I have a few words to say. They lived in a room facing the south. This is the book recommended by our teacher.